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themselves upon this attack, he slew two of their men of the greatest courage. One of them he struck in his mouth, as he was coming to him : the other was slain by him by that very dart which he drew out of the body of the other ; with which he ran this man through his side, as he was running away. And when he had done this, he first of all ran out of the midst of his enemies to his own side. So this man signalized himself for his valour; and many there were who were ambitious of gaining the like reputation. And now the Jews were unconcerned at what they suffered themselves from the Romans; and were only solicitous about what mischief they could do them. And death itself seemed a small matter to them, if at the same time they could but kill any one of their enemies. But Titus took care to secure his own soldiers from harm, as well as to have them overcome their enemies. He also said, that inconsiderate violence was madness; and that this alone was true courage, that was joined with good conduct : he, therefore, commanded his men to take care, when they fought their enemies, that they received no harm from them at the same time; and thereby show themselves to be truly valiant men.

Now Titus brought one of his engines to the middle tower of the north part of the wall. Here a certain crafty Jew, whose name was Castor, lay in ambush, with ten others like himself, the rest being fled away by reason of the archers. These men lay still for a while, as in great fear, under their breast-plates. But when the tower was shaken, they arose, and Castor did then stretch out his hand, as a petitioner, and called for Cæsar, and by his voice moved his compassion, and begged of him to bave mercy upon them. Titus, in the innocency of his heart, believing him to be in earnest, and hoping that the Jews did now repent, stopped the working of the battering ram, and forbade them to shoot at the petitioners; and bade Castor say what he wished. He said, that he would come dowa, if he would give him his right hand for his security Titus replied, that he was pleased with such agreeable conduct; and would be well pleased if all the Jews would be of his mind, and that he was ready to give the like security to the city. Now fire of the ten disembled with him, and pretended to beg for mercy; while the Nx cried out aloud, that they would never be slaves to the Romans while it was in their power to die in a state of freedom. Now while these men were quarrelling for a long while, the attack was delayed. Castor also sent to Simon, and told him that they might take some time for consultation about what was to be done, because he would delude the power of the Romans for a considerable time. And at the same time that he sent thus to him, he appeared openly to exhort those that were obstinate to accept of Titus's hand for their security. But they seemed very angry, and brandished their naked swords upon the breast-works. and struck themselves upon their breasts, and fell down, as if they had been slain. Hereupon Titus, and those with him, were amazed at the courage of the men. And as they were not able to see exactly what was done, they admired at their great fortitude, and pitied their calamity. During this interval a certain person shot a dart at Castor, and wounded him in his nose ; whereupon he presently pulled out the dart, and showed it to Titus, and complained that this was unfair treatinent. So Cæsar reproved him that shot the dart, and desired Josephus, who then stood by bim, to give his right hand to Castor. But Josephus said, that he would not go to him, because these pretended petitioners meant nothing that was good : be also restrained those friends of his who were zealous to go to him. But still there was one Eneas, a deserter, who said he would go to him. Castor also called to them, that somebody should come, and receive the money which he had with him. This made Eneas the more earnestly to run to him, with his bosom open. Theu did Castor take up a great stone, and threw it at him ; which missed him, because he guarded himself against it. But still it wounded another soldier that was coming to him. When Cæsar understood that this was a delusion, he perceived that merey in war is a pernicious thing; because such cunning tricks have less place under the exercise of greater severity. So he caused the engine to work more strongly than before, on account of his anger at the deceit put upon him. But Castor, and his companions, set the tower on fire, when it began to give way, and leaped through the flame into a bidden vault that was under it: which made the Romans farther suppose that they were men of great courage, as having cast themselves into the fire. VOL. IV.

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CHAP. VIII.

THE ROMANS TAKE THE SECOND WALL TWICE; AND GET ALL REA

DY FOR TAKING THE THIRD WALL.

NOW Cæsar took this wall on the fifth day after he had taken the first. And when the Jews had fled from him, he entered into it, with a thousand armed men of his choice troops; and this at a place where were the merchants of wool, the braziers, and the market for cloth; and where the narrow streets led obliquely to ths wall. Wherefore if Titus had either demolished a larger part of the wall immediately, or had come in, and, according to the law of war, had laid waste what was left, this victory would not, I suppose, have been mixed with any loss to himself. But now, out of the hope he had that he should make the Jews ashamed of their obstinacy, by not being willing, when he was able to afflict them more than he needed to do; he did not widen the breach of the wall, in order to make a safer retreat upon occasion. For he did not think they would lay spares for him that did them such a kindness. When, therefore, he came in, he did not permit his soldiers to kill any of those they caught, nor to set fire to their houses. Nay, he gave leave to the seditious, if they had a mind, to fight without any harm to the people : and promised to restore the people's effects to them. For he was very desirous to preserve the city for his own sake ; and the temple for the sake of the city. As to the people he had them of a long time ready to comply with his proposals. But as to the fighting men, this humanity of his seemed a mark of his weakness; and they imagined that he made these proposals because he was not able to take the rest of the city. They also threatened death to the people, if they should any one of them say a word about a surrender. They moreover cut the throats of such as talked of a peace: and then attacked those Romans that were come within the wall. Some of them they met in the narrow streets, and some they fought against from their houses : while they inade a sudden sally out at the upper gate, and assaulted such Romans as were beyond the wall; till those that guarded the wall were so affrighted, that they leaped down from their towers, and retired to their several camps. Upon which a great noise was made by the Romans that were within, because they were encompassed round on every side by their enemies : as also by them that were without, because they were in fear for those that were left in the city. Thus did the Jews grow more numerous perpetually, and had great advantages over the Romans by their full knowledge of those narrow lanes; and they wounded a great many of them, and fell upon them, and drove them out of the city. Now these Romans were at present forced to make the best resistance they could ; for they were not able, in great numbers, to get out at the breach in the wall, it was so narrow. It is also probable that all those that were gotten within had been cut to pieces, if Titus had not sent them succours. For he ordered the archers to stand at the upper ends of these narrow lanes, and he stood himself where was the greatest multitude of his enemies : and with bis darts he put a stop to them. As with him did Domitius Sabinus also, a valiant man, and one that in this battle appeared so to be. Thus did Cæsar continue to shoot darts at the Jews continually, and to hinder them from coming on his men: and this until all his soldiers had retreated out of the city.

Thus were the Ronans driven out, after they had possessed themselves of the second wall. Whereupon the fighting men that were in the city were elevated in their minds, upon this good success; and began to think that the Romans would never venture to come into the city any more : and that, if they kept within it themselves, they should not be any more conquered. For God bad blinded their minds for the transgressions they had been guilty of: por could they see how much greater forces the Romans had than those that were now expelled; no more than they could discern how a famine was creeping upon them. For hitherto they had fed themselves out of the public miseries, and drank the blood of the city. But now poverty had for a long time seized upon the better part; and a great many had died already for want of necessaries. Although the seditious, indeed, supposed the destruction of the people to be an easement to themselves. For they desired that uone others might be preserved, but such as were against a peace with the Romans, and were resolved to live in opposition to them : and they were pleased when the multitude of those of a contrary opinion were consumed, as being then freed from a heavy burden. And this was their disposition of mind with regard to those that were within the city: while they covered themselves with their armour, and prevented the Romans, when they were trying to get into the city again, and made a wall of their own bodies over against that part of the wall that was cast down. Thus did they valiantly defend themselves for three days. But on the fourth day, they could not support themselves against the vehement assaults of Titus, but were compelled by force to flee whither they had fled before : so he quietly possesed himself again of that wall, and demolished it entirely. And when he had put a garrison into the towers that were on the south parts of the city, he contrived how he might assault the third wall,

CHAP. IX.

OF THE INTERMISSION AND RENEWAL OF THE SIEGE.ALSO OE . THE DISCOURSE OF JOSEPHUS WITH HIS COUNTRYMEN CONCERN

ING A PEACE.

A RESOLUTION was now taken by Titus to relax the siege for a little while, and to afford the seditious an interval for consideration; and to see whether the demolishing of their second wall would not make them a little more compliant; or whether they were not somewhat afraid of a famine : because the spoils they had gotten by rapine would not be sufficient for them long. So he made use of this relaxation in order to effect bis own designs. Accordingly, as the usual appointed time, when he must distribute subsistence money to the soldiers, was now come, he gave orders that the commanders should put the army into batile array, in the face of the enemy, and then give every one his pay. So the soldiers, according to custom, opened the cases wherein their arms lay covered, and marched with their breast-plates on : as did the horsemen lead their horses in their fine trappings. Then did the places that were before the city shine very splendidly for a great vay. Nor was there any thing either so grateful to Titus's own

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