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threatenings of their enemies, which would come to nothing Because the conclusion of the whole depended upon God only.” These words were mixed with reproaches : and with them they made a mighty clamour.

In the mean time *Antiochus Epiphanes came to the city, having with him a considerable number of other armed men, and a band called the Macedonian band about him, all of the same age, tall, and just past their childhood; armed, and instructed after the Macedonian manner, whence it was that they took that name. Yet were many of them unworthy of so famous a nation. For it had so happened, that the king of Commagene had fourished more than any other kings that were under the Romans, till a change happened in his condition; and when he was an old man he declared plainly, that we ought not to call any man happy before he be dead. But this son of his, who was then come thither before his father was decaying, said, that he could not but wonder what made the Romans so tardy in making their attacks upon the wall. Now he was a warlike man, and naturally bold in exposing himself to dangers. He was also so strong a man, that his boldness seldom failed of having success. Upon this Titus smiled, and said he would share the pains of an attack with him.However, Antiochus went, as he then was, and with his Macedonians made a sudden assault upon the wall. And, indeed, for his owa part, his strength and his skill were so great, that he guarded himself from the Jewish darts, and yet shot his darts at them. While yet the young men with him were almost all sorely galled. For they had so great a regard to the promises that had been made of their courage, that they would needs persevere iu their fighting; and at length many of them retired, but not till they were wounded. And then they perceived that true Macedonians, if they were to be conquerors, must have Alexander's good fortune also.

Now as the Romans began to raise their banks on the twelfth

* Hegesippus, the old epitomizer of Josephus, informs us, Book V. that this later Antiochus Epiphanes was the son of Antiochus, king of Commagene. He had been mentioned before, II. 13, as bringing royal auxiliary troops to the assistance of Vespasian, against the Jews. The same names continuing in that family long after that first Antiochus Epiphanes. Antiq. XIX. 5, and 9.

day of the month Artemisius, or Jyar,* so had they much ado to finish them by the twenty-ninth day of the same month, after they had laboured hard for seventeen days continually. For there were now four great banks raised: one of which was at the tower Antonia. This was raised by the fifth legion, over against that pool which was called Struthius. Another was cast up by the twelfth legion, at a distance of about twenty cubits from the other. But the labours of the tenth legion, which lay a great way off these, was on the north quarter, and at the pool called Amygdalon : as was that of the fifteenth legion about thirty cubits from it, and at the high-priest's monument. And now, when the engines were brought, John had from within undermined the space that was over against the tower of Antonia, as far as the banks themselves : and had supported the ground over the mine with beams laid across one another, whereby the Roman works stood upon an uncertain foundation. Then did he order such materials to be brought in, as were daubed over with pitch and bitumen, and set them on fire. And as the cross beams that supported the banks were burning, the ditch yielded on the sudden, and the banks were shaken down, and fell into the ditch, with a prodigious poise. Now at the first bank there arose a very thick smoke and dust, as the fire was choked with the fall of the bank. But as the suffocated materials were now gradually consumed, a plain flame brake out. On which sudden appearance of the flame a consternation fell upon the Roinans, and the shrewdness of the contrivance discouraged them. And, indeed, this accident coming upon them at a time when they thought they had already gained their point, cooled their hopes for the time to come.They also thought it would be to no purpose to take the pains to extinguish the fire, since, if it were extinguished, the banks were swallowed up already, and become utterly useless.

Two days after this, Simon and his party made an attempt to destroy the other banks: for the Romans had brought their engines to bear there, and began already to make the wall slake. And here one Tephtheus, of Garsis, a city of Galilee, and Megassarus, one who was derived from some of queen Mariamne's

* A. D. 70

servants, and with them one from Adiabene, (he was the son of Nabateus, and called by the name of Chagiras, from the ill fortune he had : the word signifying a lame man :) snatched some torches, and ran suddenly upon the engines. Nor were there during this war any men that ever sallied out of the city who were their superiors, either in their own boldness, or in the terror they struck into their enemies : for they ran out upon the Romans, not as if they were enemies, but friends, without fear or delay. Nor did they leave their enemies till they had rushed violently through the midst of them, and set their machines on fire. And though they had darts thrown at them on every side, and were on every side assaulted with their enemies' swords, yet did they not withdraw themselves out of the dangers they were in, till the fire had caught hold of the instruments. But when the flame went up, the Romans came running from their camp to save their engines. Then did the Jews hinder their succours from the wall, and fought with those that endeavoured to quench the fire, without any regard to the danger their bodies were in. So the Romans pulled the engines out of the fire, while the hurdles that covered them were on fire. But the Jews caught hold of the battering rams through the flame itself, and held them fast, although the iron upon them was become red hot. And now the fire spread itself from the engines to the banks, and prevented those that came to defend them. And all this while the Romans were encompassed round about with the flame; and, despairing of saving their works from it, they retired to their camp. Then did the Jews become still more numerous, by the coming of those that were within the city to their assistance. And as they were very bold upon the good success they had bad, their assaults were almost irresistible. Nay, they proceeded as far as the fortifications of the enemies' camp, and fought with their guards. Now there stood a body of soldiers in array before that camp, which succeeded one another by turns in their armour: and as to those, the law of the Romans was terrible ; that he who left his post there, let the occasion be whatsoever it might, was to die for it. So that body of soldiers preferring rather to die in fighting courageously, than as a punishment for their cowardice, stood firm. And at the necessity these men were in of standing to it, many of the others, that had run away, out of shame turned back again. And when they had set the engines against the wall, they kept the multitude from coming more of them out of the city; which they could the more easily do, because they had made no provision for preserving or guarding their bodies at this time. For the Jews now fought hand to hand with all that came in their way: and without any caution fell against the points of their enemies' spears : and attacked them bodies against bodies. For they were now too hard for the Romans ; not so much by their other warlike actions, as by these courageous assaults they made upon them. And the Romans gave way more to their boldness, than they did to the sense of the harm they had received from them.

Now Titus was come from the tower of Antonia, whither he was gone to look out for a place for raising other banks, and reproached the soldiers greatly for permitting their own walls to be in danger, when they had taken the walls of their enemies : and sustained the fortune of men besieged, while the Jews were allowed to sally out against them, though they were already in a sort of prison. He then went round about the enemy with some chosen troops, and fell upon their flank himself. So the Jews, who had been before assaulted in their faces, wheeled about to Titus, and continued the fight. The armies also were now mixed one among another : and the dust that was raised so far bindered them from seeing one another, and the noise that was made so far bindered them from hearing one another, that neither side could discern an enemy from a friend. However, the Jews did not finch, though not so much from their real strength, as from their despair of deliverance. The Romans also would not yield, by reason of the regard they had to glory, and to their reputation in war; and because Cæsar himself went into the danger before them. Insomuch that I cannot but think the Romans would in the conclusion have now taken even the whole multitude of the Jews; so very angry were they at them; had these not prevented the result of the battle, and retired into the city. However, seeing the banks of the Romans were demolished, these Romans were very much cast down upon the loss of what had cost them so long pains; and this in one hour's time. And many, indeed, despaired of tak, ing the city with their usual engines of war only,

CHAP. XII.

TITUS CAUSES THE CITY TO BE ENCOMPASSED WITH A WALL ; AF

TER WHICH THE FAMINE CONSUMES THE PEOPLE BY WHOLE HOUSES AND FAMILIES TOGETHER.

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NOW did Titus consult with his commanders what was to be done. Those that were of the warmest tempers thought he should bring the whole army against the city, and storm the wall. For that hitherto no more than a part of their army had fought with the Jews : but that in case the entire army were to come at once, they would not be able to sustain their attacks, but would be overwhelmed by their darts. But of those that were for the more cautious management, some were for raising their banks again, and others advised to let the banks alone, but to lie still before the city, to guard against the coming out of the Jews, and against their carrying provisions into the city, and so to leave the enemy to the famine : and this without direct fighting with them. For that despair was not to be conquered : especially as to those who are desirous to die by the sword; while a more terrible misery than that is reserved for them. However, Titus did not think fit for so great an army to lie entirely idle : and that yet it was in vain to fight with those that would be destroyed one by another, He also showed them how impracticable it was to cast up any more banks, for want of materials ; and to guard against the Jews' coming out still more impracticable. As also that to encompass the whole city round with his army, was not very easy, by reason of its magnitude, and the difficulty of the situation : and on other accounts dangerous, upon the sallies the Jews might make out of the city. For although they might guard the known pas, sages out of the place, yet would they, when they found themselves under the greatest distress, contrive secret passages, as being well acquainted with all such places. And if any provisions were carried in by stealth, the siege would thereby be longer delayed. He also owned that he was afraid the length of time thus to be spent would diminish the glory of his success. For though it be true, that length of time will perfect every thing; yet to do

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