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that no more than twelve fell on the Roman side, with a few that were wounded. But not one of the Jews escaped out of this battle, but they were all killed; being in the whole not fewer in number than three thousand : together with Judas, the son of Jairus, their general; who had been a captain of a certain band at the siege of Jerusalem ; and, by going down into a certain vault under ground, bad privately made his escape.

About the same time Cæsar sent a letter to Bassus, and to Liberius Maximus, who was the procurator of Judea, and gave order that all Judea should be *exposed to sale. For he did not found any city there, but reserved the country for himself. However, he assigned a place for eight hundred men, whom he had dismissed from his arıny, which he gave them for their habitation. It is called +Emmaus, and is distant from Jerusalem (threescore furlongs : he also laid a tribute upon the Jews wheresoever they were, and enjoined every one of them to bring two drachmæ every year into the capitol, as they used to pay the same to the temple at Jerusalem. Aud this was the state of the Jewish affairs at this time.

* It is very remarkable that Titus did not people this now desolate country of Judea, but ordered it to be all sold. Nor indeed is it properly peopled at this day : but lies ready for its old inhabitants, the Jews, at their future restoration.

+ That the city Emmaus, or Ammaus, in Josephus and others, which was the place of the government of Julias Africanus, in the beginning of the third century, aad which he then procured to be rebuilt; and after which rebuilding it was called Nicopolis, is entirely different from that Emmaus which is mentioned by St. Luke, xxiv. 17. See Reland's Palestina, Lib. II. page 429, and under the name Ammaus also. But he justly thinks that that in St. Luke may well be the same with this Ammaus before us. Especially since the Greek copies here usually make it 60 [urlongs distant from Jerusalem ; as does St. Luke: though the Latin copies say 30. The place also allotted for these 800 soldiers, as for a Roman garrison, in this place, would most naturally be not so remote from Jerusalem, as was the other Emmaus or Nicopolis.

† Or thirty.

'CHAP. VII.

CONCERNING THE CALAMITY THAT BEFELL ANTIOCHUS, KING OF

COMMAGENE.—ALSO CONCERNING THE ALANS; AND THE INJURY THEY DID TO THE MEDES AND ARMENIANS.

NOW, in the fourth year of the reign of Vespasian, it came to pass, that Antiochus, king of Commagene, with all his family, fell into very great calamities, on the following occasion. Cesennius Petus, who was president of Syria at this time, either out of regard to truth, or out of hatred to Antiochus; (for which was the real motive, was vever thoroughly discovered ;) sent an epistle to Cæsar, and therein told him, that Antiochus, with his son Epiphanes, had resolved to rebel against the Romans : and had made a league with the king of Parthia to that purpose. That it was therefore fit to prevent them; lest they should begin such a war as might cause a general disturbance in the Ronan empire. Now Cæsar was disposed to take some care about the matter, since this discovery was made. For the neighbourhood of the kingdoms made this affair worthy of a greater regard. For *Samosata, the capital of Commagene, lies upon Euphrates : and upon any such designs could afford an easy passage over to the Parthians : and could also afford them a secure reception. Petus was accordingly believed ; and bad authority given him of doing what he should think proper in the case. So he set about it without delay : and fell upon Commagene, before Antiochus and his people had the least expectation of his coming. He bad with him the tenth legion; as also some cohorts, and troops of horsemen. These kings also came to his assistance: Aristobulus, king of the country called Chalcidene ; and Sohemus, who was called king of Emesa. Nor was there any opposition made to his forces when they entered the kingdom. For no one of that country would so much as lift up his hand against them. When Antiochus heard

* There are coins of this city Samosata, the capital of Commagene, still in being ; 29 Spanheim informs us.

this unexpected news, he could not think of making war with the Romans; bnt determined to leave his kingdom in the state wherein it now was, and to retire privately, with his wife and children ; as thinking thereby to demonstrate himself to the Romans to be innocent as to the accusation laid against him. So he went away from that city, as far as a hundred and twenty furlongs, into a plain; and there pitched his tents.

Petus then sent some of his men to seize upon Samosata ; and by their means took possession of that city : while he went himself to attack Antiochus, with the rest of his army. However, the king was not prevailed upon by the distress he was in to do any thing in the way of war ag-inst the Romans : but bemoaned his own hard fate : and endured with patience what he was not able to prevent. But his sons, who were young, and unexperienced in war, but of strong bodies, were not easily induced to bear this calamity without fighting. Epiphanes, therefore, and Callinicus, betook themselves to military force. And as the battle was an obstinate one, and lasted all the day, they showed their own valour in a remarkable manner : and nothing but the approach of night put a period thereto; and tliat without any diminution of their forces. Yet would not Antiochus, upon this conclusion of the fight, continue there by any means ; but took his wife, and his daughters, and fled away with them to Cilicia, and by so doing quite discouraged the minds of his own soldiers. Accordingly they revolted, and went over to the Romans, out of the despair they were in of his keeping the kingdom : and his case was looked upon by all, as quite desperate. It was therefore necessary that Epiphanes and his soldiers should get clear of their enemies, before they became entirely destitute of any confederates. Nor were there any more than ten horsemen with him who passed with bim over Euphrates. Whence they went undisturbed to Vologeses, the king of Parthia ; where they were not disregarded as fugitives; but had the same respect paid them, as if they had retained their ancient prosperity.

Now when Antiochus was come to Tarsus, in Cilicia, Petus ordered a centurion to go to him, and send him in bonds to Roine. However, Vespasian could not endure to have a king brought to him in that manner : but thought it fit rather to have a regard to the ancient friendship that had been between them, than to preserve an inexorable anger upon pretence of this war. Accordingly he gave orders that they should take off his bonds, while he was still upon the road; and that he should not come to Rome, but should now go and live at Lacedæmon. He also gave him large revenues; that he might live not only in plenty, but like a king also. When Epiphanes, who before was in great fear for his father, was informed of this, their minds were freed from that great and almost incurable concern they had been under. He also hoped that Cæsar would be reconciled to them, upon the intercession of Vologeses. For although he lived in plenty, he knew not how to bear living out of the Roman empire.* So Cæsar gave him leave, after an obliging manner; and he came to Rome; and as his father came quickly to him from Lacedæmon, he had all sorts of respects paid him there, and there he remained.

Now there was a nation of the Alans, which were Scythians, and resided near the lake Meotis. This nation, about this time, laid a design of falling upon Media, and the parts beyond it; in order to plunder them. With which intention they treated with the king of Hyreania. For he was master of that passage, which Alexander the Great shut up with iron gates. This king gave them leave to come through them. So they came in great multitudes, and fell upon the Medes unexpectedly, and plundered their country, which they found full of people, and replenished with abundance of cattle. While nobody durst make any resistance against them. For Pacorus, the king of the country, had fled away for fear, into places where they could not easily come at him; and had yielded up every thing he had to them ; and had only saved his wife, and his concubines, from them, and that with great difficulty also, after they had been made captives, by giving them a hundred talents for their ransom. These Alans, therefore, plundered the country, without opposition, and with great ease : and proceeded as far as Armenia : laying all waste before them.

Lucal attachments operate powerfully. The great Creator has wisely innplanted them in the human breast, to induce men to attach themselves to places which in general appear to have but little that is desirable. B. VOL. 18.

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Now Tiridates was king of that country; who met them, and fought them ; but had like to have been taken alive in the battle. For a certain man threw a net over him, from a great distance ; and had soon drawn him to him, unless he had immediately cut the cord with his sword, and ran away, and prevented it. So the Alans, being still more provoked by this fight, laid waste the country, and drove a great multitude of the men, and a great quantity of the other prey they had gotten out of both kingdoms, along with them, and then retired to their own country.

CHAP. VIII.

CONCERNING MASADA, AND THOSE SICARII WHO KEPT IT.-THE

SIEGE OF THAT CITADEL BY SILVA ; AND ELEAZAR'S SPEECHES TO THE BESIEGED.

WHEN Bassus was dead in Judea, Flavius Silva succeeded him,* as procurator there. Who, when he saw that all the rest of the country was subdued in this war, and that there was but one strong hold that was still in rebellion, he got all his army together that lay in different places, and made an expedition against it. This fortress was called Masada. It was one Eleazar, a potent man, and the commander of these Sicarii, that had seized upon it. He was a descendant of that Judas, who had persuaded abundance of the Jews, as we have fformerly related, not to submit to the taxation, when Cyrenius was sent into Judea to make one. For then it was that the Sicarii got together against those that were willing to submit to the Romans; and treated them, in all respects, as if they had been their enemies : both by plundering them of what they had; by driving away their cattle ; and by setting fire to their houses. For they said, that they differed not at all from foreigners, by betraying, in so cowardly a manner, that freedom which Jews thought worthy to be contended for to the utmost : and by owning that they preferred slavery under the Romans, before such a contention. Now this was, in reality, no better than a pretence,

* About A. D. 73. i See Book II. chap. 8, Antiq. XVIII. 1.

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