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was proposed; and ran with great violence upon the Sicarii, and seized upon six hundred of them immediately : but as for all those that fled into *Egypt, and to the Egyptian Thebes, it was not long ere they were caught also, and brought back. Now the courage of these men, or whether we ought to call it madness, or hardiness in their opinions, excited universal amazement. For when all sorts of torments and vexations of their bodies that could be devised were made use of to them, they could not get any one of them to comply so far as to confess, or seem to confess that Cæsar was their lord: but they preserved their own opinion, in spite of all the distress they were brought to : as if they received those torments, and the fire itself, with bodies insensible of pain, and with a soul that in a manner rejoiced under them. But what was most of all astonishing to the beholders, was the obstinacy of the children. For not one of these was so far overcome by these torments, as to name Cæsar for their lord. So far does the strength of the courage of the soul prevail over the weakness of the body.

Now Lupus, the governor of Alexandria, sent an account of this commotion to Cæsar; who having in suspicion the restless temper of the Jews for innovation, and being afraid lest they should get together again, and persuade some others to join with them, gave orders to Lupus to demolish tuhat Jewish temple which was in the region called Onion, and was in Egypt, which was built, and had its denomination from the following occasion. Onias, the son of Simon, one of the Jewish high-priests, fed from Antiochus, king of Syria, when he made war with the Jews, and came to Alexandria. And as Ptolemy received him very kindly, on account of his hatred to Antiochus, he assured him, that if he would comply with his proposal, he would bring all the Jews to his assistance. And when the king agreed to do it, so far as he was able ; he desired permission to build a temple somewhere in Egypt, and to worship God according to the customs of his own country. For that the Jews would then be so much readier to fight against Antiochus, who had laid waste the temple at Jerusalem; and that they would then come to him with greater good will : and that by granting them liberty of conscience, very many of them would come over to him.

* Since Josephus here informs us, that some of these Sicarii, or ruffians, went from Alexandria, (which was itself in Egypt, in a large sense,) into Egypt, and Thebes, there situate; Reland well observes, from Vossius, that Egypt sometimes denotes proper or upper Egypt, as distinct from Delta, and the lower parts near Palestine. Accordingly, as he adds, those that say it never rains in Egypt must mean the proper or upper Egypt; because it does sometimes rain in the other parts.See the notes on Antiq. II. 7, and III. 1.

+ Of this temple of Onias's building in Egypt, see the potes on Antiq. XIII. 3. But whereas is is elsewhere, both of the War, I. 1, and in the Antiquities as now quoted, said that this temple was like to that at Jerusalem ; and here that it was not like it, but like a tower; there is some reason to suspect the reading here ; and that either the negative particle is here to be blotted out, or the word entirely added.

So Ptolemy complied with his proposals; and gave him a *place one hundred and eighty furlongs distant from Memphis. That nomos was called the nomos of Heliopolis : where Onias built a fortress, and a temple, not like to that at Jerusalem, but such as resembled a tower. He built it of large stones to the height of tsixty cubits. He made the structure of the altar in imitation of that in our own country; and in like manner adorned with gifts : excepting the candlestick. · For he did not make a candlestick : but had a single lamp hammered out of a piece of gold: which illuminated the place with its rays, and which he hung by a chain of gold. But the entire temple was encompassed with a wall of burnt brick, though it had gates of stone. The king also gave him a large country for a revenue in money ; that both the priests might have a plentiful provision made for them, and that God might have great abundance of what things were necessary for his worship. Yet did not Onias do this out of a sober disposition. But he had a mind to contend with the Jews at Jerusalem; and could not forget the indignation he had for be

* We must observe, that Josephus here speaks of Antiochus, who profaned the temple, as now alive, when Onias had leave given him by Philometor to build his temple. Whereas it seems not to have been actually built till about fifteen years afterward. Yet because it is said in the Antiquities, that Onias went to Philometor, XII. 9. during the lifetime of that Antiochus, it is probable he petitioned, and perhaps obtained his leave then : though it were not actually built or finished till fifteen years afterward.

+ This was the height of Zorobabel's temple.

ing banished thence. Accordingly he thought, that by building this temple be should draw away a great number from them to himself. There had been also a certain ancient prediction made by a prophet, whose name was Isaiah, about six hundred years before, that this temple should be built by a man that was a Jew in Egypt. And this is the history of the building of that temple.

Now Lupus, the governor of Alexandria, upon the receipt of Cæsar's *letter, came to the temple, and carried out of it some of the donations dedicated thereto, and shut up the temple itself. And as Lupus died a little afterward, Paulinus succeeded bim. This man left none of these donations there : and threatened the priests severely, if they did not bring them all out. Nor did he permit any who were desirous of worshipping God there, so much as to come near the place. But when he had shut up the gates, he made it entirely inaccessible: insomuch that there remained no longer the least vestiges of any divine worship that had been in that place. Now the duration of the time from the building of this temple, till it was shut up again, was fthree hundred and forty-three years.




NOW did the madness of the Sicarii, like a disease, reach as far as the cities of Cyrene. For oné Jonathan, a vile person, and by trade a weaver, came thither; and prevailed with no small number of the poorer sort to hearken to him. He also led them into the desert; upon promising them, that he would show them signs, and apparitions. And as for the other Jews of Cyrene, he concealed his knavery from them, and put tricks upon them. But those of the greatest dignity among them informed Catullus, the governor of the Libyan Pentapolis, of his march into the desert, and of the preparations he had made for it. So he sent out after hiin both horsemen and footmen, and easily overcame them: because they were unarmed men. Of these many were slain in the fight; but some were taken alive, and brought to Catullus. As for Jonathan, the head of this plot, he fled away at that time : but upon a diligent search which was made all over the country for him, he was at last taken. And when he was brought to Catullus, be devised a way whereby he both escaped punishment himself, and afforded an occasion to Catullus of doing much mischief. For he falsely accused the richest men among the Jews; and said, that they had excited him to what he did.

* Aboat A. D. 75.

Rather 223,

Now Catullus easily admitted of these calumnies, and aggravated matters greatly, and made tragical exclamations; that he might also be supposed to have bad a hand in the finishing of the Jewish war. But what was still harder, he did not only give a too easy belief to his stories; but be taught the Sicarii to accuse men falsely. He told this Jonathan, therefore, to name one Alexander, a Jew, with whom he had formerly had a quarrel, and openly professed that he hated him. He also got him to name his wife Bernice, as concerned with him. These two Catullus ordered to be slain in the first place. Nay, after them he caused all the rich and wealthy Jews to be slain : being no fewer in all than three thousand. This he thought he might do safely; because he confiscated their effects, and added them to Cæsar's revenues.

Nay, indeed, lest any Jews that lived elsewhere should convict him of this villany, he extended his false accusations farther; and persuaded Jonathan, and certain others that were caught with him, to bring an accusation of attempts for innovation against the Jews that were of the best character, both at Alexandria, and at Rome. One of these, against whom this treacherous accusation was laid, was Josephus, the writer of these books. However, this plot, thus contrived by Catullus, did not succeed according to his hopes. For though he came himself to Rome, and brought Jonathan and his companions along with him in bonds; and thought he should have had no farther inquisition made as to those lies that were forged under his government, or by his means; yet did Vespasian suspect the matter, and make an inquiry how far it was true. And when he understood that the accusation laid against the Jews was an unjust one, he cleared them of the crimes

charged upon them; and this on account of Titus's concern about the matter : and brought a deserved punishment upon Jonathan. For he was first tormented, and then burut alive. · But as to Catullus, the emperors were so gentle to him, that he underwent no severer condemnation at this time. Yet was it not long before he fell into a complicated and almost incurable distemper, and died miserably. He was not only afflicted in body; but the distemper in his mind was more heavy upon him than the other. For he was terribly disturbed ; and continually cried out, that he saw the ghosts of those whom he had slain standing before him. Whereupon he was not able to contain himself; but leaped out of his bed, as if both torments and fire were brought to him. This distemper grew worse and worse continually; and his very entrails were so corroded, that they fell out of his body: and in that condition he died. Thus he became an awful instance of divine providence; and demonstrated that God severely punishes wicked men.

Here I shall put an end to this history : which I formerly promised to deliver with all accuracy, to such as should be desirous of understanding after what manner this war of the Romans with the Jews was managed. The merits of the work must be left to the determination of the reader. But as for its agreement with the facts, I shall not scruple to say, and that boldly, that I have alone aimed at truth through its entire composition.


Vol. iv.

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