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coa, in order to know whether it were a place fit for a camp; as I came back I saw many captives crucified : and remembered three of them, as my former acquaintance. I was very sorry at this in iny mind; and went with tears in my eyes to Titus, and told him of them. So he immediately commanded them to be taken down, and to have the greatest care taken of them in order to their recovery. Yet two of them died under the physician's hands; while the third recovered.

But when Titus had composed the troubles in Judea, and conjectured that the lands which I had in Judea, would bring me in no profit, because a garrison to guard the country was afterward to pitch there, he gave me another country in the plain. And when he was going away to Rome, he made choice of me to sail along with him; and paid me great respect. And when we were come to Rome, I had great care taken of me by Vespasian. For he gave me an apartment in his own house, which he lived in before he came to the empire. He also honoured me with the privilege of a Roman citizen; and gave me an annual pension : and continued to repect me to the end of his life, without any abatement of his kindness. This circumstance made me envied, and brought me into danger. For a certain Jew, named Jonathan, who had raised a tumult in Cyrene, and had persuaded two thousand men of that country to join with him, was the occasion of their ruin. But when he was bound by the governor of that country, and sent to the emperor, he told him, that I had sent him both weapons and money. However he could not conceal his being a liar from Vespasian ; who condemned him to die. According to which sentence he was put to death. Nay, after that, when those that envied my good fortune, did frequently bring accusations against me, by God's providence l escaped them all. I also received from Vespasian no small quantity of land, as a free gift in Judea. About which time I divorced my wife also, as not pleased with her behaviour; though not till she had been the mother of three children; two of which are dead, and one, whom I named Hyrcanus, is alive. After this I married a wife who had lived at Crete, but a Jew by birth: a woman she was of eminent parents, and such as were the most illustrious in all the country: and whose character was beyond that of most other wornen: as her future life did demonstrate. By her I had two soņs: the name of the elder was Justus, and the next, Simonides, who was also named Agrippa. And these were the circumstances of my domestic affairs. However, the kindness of the emperor to me continued still the same. For when Vespasian was dead, Titus, who succeeded him in the government, kept up the same respect for me which I had from his father : and when I had frequent accusations laid against me, he would not believe them. And Domitian, who succeeded, still augmented his respects to me: for he punished those Jews that were my accusers; and gave command that a servant of mine who was an eunuch, and my accuser, should be punished. He also made that country I had in Judea taxfree : which is a nark of the greatest honour to him who hath it. Nay, Domitia, the wife of Cæsar, continued to do me kindness, And this is the account of the actions of my whole life. And let others judge of my character by them as they please.

END OF THE LIFE OF FLAVIUS JOSEPHUS.

OF THE

JEWISH

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES,

PARTICULARLY OF THOSE MENTIONED IN

JOSEPHUS'S WORKS.

BEFORE I can authentically state these Jewish weights and measures I must first set down all the pages I have met with in Josephus's writings that can give any light to these matters.

Antiq. III. 1. Josephus makes Assaron the same measure which we render a tenth deal: i. e. the tenth part of a Bath, or Epha. It is otherwise styled an Omer.

6. He says that this Assaron, or Omer, was equal to 7 Attic Cotulæ.

He also says, that the Talent was called Cinchares by the Hebrews, and was equal to 100 Manehs, Mnas, or Pounds.

8. He affirms that the Siclus or Shekel was equal to 4 Attic Drachmä: and in the same chapter mentions the coins called Darics.

9. He informs us, that the Hin was equal to 2 Attic Chouses; or 2 Roman Congii. 15. He reckons 70 Cori or Chomers equal to 31 Sicilian, and to 41 Attic Medimni. VIII. 2. He says, that the Badus, or Bath, was equal to 72 Xestæ or Sextaries. IX. 4. He says Seah and Saton was equal to an Italian Modius, and an half.

XIV. 7. He affirms, Maneh or Mna to be equal to 24 Litræ: (Libræ, or Pounds, cach of 12 avoirdupois ounces.]

XV. 9. He affirms, the Corus or Chomer to be equal to 10 Attic Medimni.

Of the War, II. 21. He mentions a Tyrian Coin: and says it was equal to 4 Attic Drachmæ; which is the same weight that he gives to the Jewish Siclus, or Shekel.

N. B. Antonius Augustinus weighed two Carthaginian Coins; which proved to be full 4 Drachmæ apiece; or equal to Josephus's shekel. Now it is well known, that the Carthaginians were a colony of the Tyrians. See Cumberland's Weights and Measures, page 106.

OF THE JEWISH MEASURES OF LENGTH. Since I have always determined, both in my Description of the Temples, Chap. VIII, and in my Authentic Records, Part II. page 875–877, that the Jewish Cubit was nearly 21 inches, English measure; nor see any cause to believe the Jews ever had any other, or larger Cubit among them; the Jewish measures of length derived from it will be easily determined. Nor is there any thing, that I know of, in Josephus's writings, that contradicts these determinations. But as to the origin of Cubits, and other like measures of length, and their differences; and how they were Vol. IV.

67

taken from the members of human bodies, of different statures, in different ages; see Lamy, De Tabernac. and Templ. L. I. c. 1. $ 3, and c. 8, 9. with the forecited place of the Authentic Records.

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cubits. inches. feel. inch. Cubit: the Standard,

21
Zereth, or large span,

10,5 =
Small span,
Palm, or hand's breadth,

0 0
Inch, or thumb's breadth,

1,16 Digit, or finger's breadth,

8,75 = Fathom,

84 = Ezekiel's Cannah, or reed,

126 = 10 6 Arabian Cannah, or pole,

8 = 168 = 14 0 Schønus, line, or chain,

1680

149 0 Sab. day's journey,

2000 42000

35000 Jewish mile,

4000 = 84000 = 7000 0 Stadium, or furlong, ia

400 = 8400 = 700 0 Parasang,

12000 = 252000 = 21000 0 See Cumberland's Weights and Measures, pages 57, 58, 135, 136.

OF THE JEWISH MEASURES OF CAPACITY. Before I can authentically state the Jewish measures of capacity, I must set down such English, Attic, and Roman measures, as the Jewish are usually compared with; together with the best determinations of their quantity, in cubica) inches; as also in such pints or pounds, as contain 29 cubical inches : which is very near our wine pint. Whence they may be reduced into any other measures, at every one's pleasure.

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cub. inches. Wine gallon contains

231 Corn gallon contains

272 Culous Romanus

33129,6 Medimnus Atticus

2484,72 Amphora Romana

1656,48
Modius Italicus = 16 Sextaries

522
Attic Chons, or Roman Congius, )
equal to 120 ounces of water

207,06
avoirdupois
Chønix = 30 ounces of water

51,66
Cotyla Attica = 10 ounces of water =

17,25 • Xestes or Roman Sextary = 21 Cotylæ= 20 ounces of water

34,5

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N. B. Josephus, from his own knowledge, and the Old Testament, assures us, ia all his copies, both Greek and Latin, seen by Dr. Hudson, that the brazen sea in the temple was an hemisphere: and contained 3000 Baths: that it was ten cubits in diameter; and consequently about 30 cubits, by a gross estimation, in circumference. Our Hebrew and Greek copies, 1 Kings vii. 23-26, also agree to the same diameter, circumference, and depth; and that it was round all about, or a real hemisphere. Only they say that it contained but 2000 Baths. While the same Hebrew and Greek copies in 2 Chron. iv. 2-5, agree in all things with the Book of Kings; excepting the number of Baths this sea contained : which is there constantly 3000, as in Josephus's copies. It is true, the Geneva edition of Josephus has but 2000. But then Dr. Hudson thinks the editors took that number not from any MS. but from the Bible, in the place already mentioned of the Kings. However, because Josephus himself gives us the contents of Assaron or Omer, the known,'. of Bath os Epha, Exod. xvi. 36, to be seven Attic Cotylæ, or 1207,5 cubical inches, this only agrees to the number 2000 as in the book of Kings. Now I confess I see no other foundation for doubt in this matter, but only about the number of the Baths contained in this sea; whether they were 2000 or 3000. In which the direct evidences appear to me so equally balanced, that I am not able to determine between them. `I shall therefore wave the more uncertain authority of the modern Rabbins, and modern writers depending on them; and state the Jewish Bath, or Epha, by geometrical calculation from these surer premises : and thence deduce the rest of the Jewish measures of capacity, which bear a known proportion to it: and this upon both the hypotheses, that the brazen sea held only 2000, or that it held 3000 Baths. The cube of 10 cubits, or of 210 inches = 9261,000 solid or cubical inches. Now Geometricians know, that as 1 to ,552 decimals: ur as 1000 to 532 integers; so is that Cube, to a sphere of the same diameter: =4843503 folid or cubical inches. Its half, or the hemisphere, is therefore 2421751 such inches. Divide that sum by 2000, and by 3000 : the numbers of the Baths contained in that hemisphere, upon the two hypotheses beforementioned, the quotients will be equal to one Bath or Epha : i. e. either to 1210,811 or to 807,274, i. e, such incbes : they will, in the former case, be equal to , or above $, and in the second case to , or exactly to the mean, between the,', and of the cube of the cubit; i. e. in English measure, either 41, 74, or 27,83 English pints or pounds. Accordingly my Table is double; and contains the Jewish measures of capacity, according to both these estimations : and that as well in cubical inches, as in pints, or pounds.

N. B. Josephus's present copies, Antiq. VIII. 2, affirm, that the Badus, or Bath, the tenth part of Corus or Chomer, was equal to 72 Xestæ, or Sextaries : i, e, to about 2484,72 cubical inches : which is the content of the Medimnus Atticus. As also XV. 9, they affirm, that the Corus or Chomer, which is 10 Baths, contained 10 Medimui: 'both which estimations agree; although they be wide from all our computations in excess. Yet do the same copies say elsewhere, III. 15, that 70 Cori, or Chomers, are equal to no more than 31 Sicilian, and to 41 Attic Medimni; which is but 1454 solid or cubical inches, for a single Corus or Chomer. As if the same measure were equal to 24847,2 and to no more than 1454 cubical inches; or were above 17 times as large as itself. This pumber is very wide from all our computations in defect. These quantities are therefore so entirely contradictory to one another, that I must be forced to drop them on both sides in my present determinations : and to proceed upon the foregoing principles only.

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N. B. Josephus's Seah, or Saton, is so far from being only 1 of the Bath'or Epha, as the Rabbins esteem it; that it is larger than the Bath or Epha itself, upon the hypothesis of the brazen sea's containing 3000 Baths or Ephas. And even upon the hypothesis of its containing but 2000, it contains above of it. So we are still greatly at a loss in this matter.

N. B. Since Josephus's larger quantity of the Hin best agree with the 1500 shekels, or 750 ounces, or 47 pounds weight of dry spices, to be moistened for a holy oil or ointment, by a Hin of olive : Exod. xxx. 22, 23. And since the Rabbins' small ler quantity best agrees with the of a Hin of beaten oil, commanded to be mingled with a tenth deal, or Omer of flour, for a cake at the daily meat offering, Exod. xxix, 40. I cannot by those calculations determine between these different mea

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