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sures, either of the Hin, or of the 3000 and 2000 Baths in the brazen sea. So I suifer those computations to balance one another, without preponderating one above another. Yet shall I venture to propose another argument, which has nothing, that I know of, to counterbalance it; and which is directly on the side of the 3000 Baths, and its first series of measures : which argument I have elsewhere insisted on for the same purpose. This is taken from the quantity of the manna which was allotted by God himself to be every man's daily portion in the wilderness; an Omer apiece : this is full as large, on that hypothesis, as every man required :, and much too large on the other hypothesis. Of which see Authent. Records, Part II. p. 880, 881, and Cumberland, p. 87, 88. And thus upon the whole, I am still obliged to prefer the number 3000, and its first series of measures; before the number 2000, and its second series: as I did formerly also.
OF THE JEWISH WEIGHTS AND COINS. Now before I can authentically determine the weight and value of the Jewish shekel, and other weights and coins derived therefrom, I must set down such other weights and coins as the shekle hath been esteemed very nearly equal to : which are as follows:
3. d. Four Attic Drachmæ, according to Breerwood, .
- , according to Bernard, . ..
- - Shekel itself, as weighed by Bernard, about
- by Cumberland
-- by Villalpandus
- by Abp. Usher
and as many Avoirdupois ; of a Tyrian coin; of 4 Denarii; and of the
several shekels themselves, very nearly Hence I state the Jewish Coins and weights as follows:
Stater, Siclus, or Shekel of the Sanctuary, the Standard, . .
01 Maneh or Mna, equal 100 Shekels in weight, 21900 grains Troy.
L. s. d. Maneh, or Mna, Mina, as a coin, equal 60 Shekels,
7 10 Talent of silver, equal 3000 Shekels
375 00 Drachma of gold, not more than
0 11 Shekel of gold, not more than
044 Daric of gold,
1 04 Talent of gold, not more than
- 648 00 N. B. The Roman coins mentioned in the New Testament, are to be thus valued. See Cumberland, pages 117, 118, 139. The Denarius Ass, or Assis,
3/farthings. - Assarium
. 14 farthings. Quadrans
of a farthing. Mite
- of a farthing.
N. B. Since our ancient testimonies, and the weights of our present Shekels conspire to assure us, that a Hebrew Shekel was nearly equal to 4 Attic and 2 Alex. andrian Drachmæ to 4 Drachmæ Troy, and to as many Avoirdupois; to a Tyrian coin ; and to 4 Denarii; I thence deduce its mean quantity to have been 28. 6d. Allowing somewhat for the wearing of such shekels as are now extant, while they passed as coin and laying aside that unexampled quantity in Dr. Bernard, as some way mistaken : on which single example yet, so far as appears to me, the Shekel is supposed, bothby himself and by Dean Prideaux, to have been no less than 3s. in value. See Prid. Connection, Pref. pages 20, 21.
Some of the learned Jews pretend, that their later Shekels were } larger than their ancient ones: which later Shekels might be then at least 23. 10d. But since no much larger shekels have been yet seen, (unless that weighed by Dr. Bernard were of that sort,) I cannot depend upon such a Rabbinical assertion, without farther evidence.
And though there should have been any such coined in later times, the estimate of the Shekel under the Old and New Testament, in the days of Josephus, will hardly be affected by it. See the note on Joseph. Antiq. III. 8.
As for the Drachma, Shekel, and Talent of Gold among the Jews, I state them no higher than as 19 to 11, (the specific gravity of Gold, to that of Silver) larger than those of silver. Which yet have been hitherto most unhappily and extravagantly esteemed 14, or 15, or even 16 times as high in value as silver : and this without due consideration of the several instances wherein such pieces of gold have been mentioned in the old Testament.
As to those golden Darics mentioned by Josephus when he supplies them in Numb. vii. instead of Shekels, which we supply; I follow Bishop Cumberland in their estimation. See his Book, page 115.
N. B. It being so evident, and known by all that a Hebrew Talent of silver was just 3000 Shekels; when Josephus's present copies say, that such Talent was equal to 100 Manehs, Mnas, or Minæ, which we should render pounds; of 30 ounces, or 60 shekels apiece; this Talent will still be as large again as it ought to be. Though I cannot easily suppose, that Josephus could himself be guilty of so great a mistake. But whence it has arisen I cannot tell. Nor do I find, that the correctors or corruptors, of Josephus's numbers have been less busy, or less successful in those belong. ing to his Weights and Measures, than they have been in those relating to his Chronology
A TABLE OF THE JEWISH MONTHS IR JOSEPHUS AND OTHERS: WITH THE
N. B. The years I make use of in this version of Josephus under the bare character of An. are those before the Christian era : as those under the character of A. D. are those since. And if the reader desires to know the Annus Muodi, or the Year of the World corresponding to any such year, according to my notes on Josephus, he must deduct the year given from 4485 (about the latter end of the next year, to which A. M. 1. I suppose Adam to have been created) and the remainder will be the Annus Mundi, or year of the world: but in strictness, the year from that in Which Adam was created inclusive. Thus, in order to find the A. M. wherein Moses died, and Joshua entered Canaan; which is there An. 1492. Deduct that pumber out of 4485, the remainder 2998, is the A. M. in their note 1. But if any desire the A. M. by the shorter Samaritan chronology, which I suppose to be the most exact, deduct 249 years from the former A. M. and the remainder will give the remainder by that chronology. Thus from 2993, just now found, deduct 249, the remainder is 2744, is the A. M. sought. And if any desire theJulian Period corresponding to any year before the Christian era, they are to deduct the last year out of 4714, which is the first year of the Christian era. The remainder will be the current year of the Julian Period. Thus deduct 1492, the year wherein Moses died, and Joshua entered the land of Canaan, from 4714, the remainder is 3292 the year of the Julian Period required.
JUDGES, KINGS, GOVERNORS, &c.
This nation in their beginning was goo John Ben Rhesa Nahum
verned by the following Judges. Judas Hircanus Amos Moses Jair
The Maccabees, who were both Princes bora
and Priests. Gideon Samson
Jonathan John Hyrcanus.
The following were both Kings and Prin-
ces. Saul Amasai
Aristobulus 1. Hyrcanus David · Ozias
John Alexander Aristob. son of Aristob. Solomon Jonathan
Alexander Aristobulus 3. Rehoboam Ahaz
Aristobulus 2. Hircanus.
The Race of Herod.
Antipater Archelaus the Great Jehoshaphat Amon
Herod the Great Agrippa son of Agrippa. Jehoram Josias Manasses Joahaz
The names of the High-priests, from the Ochozias Joachim
departure out of Egypi till the building Athalia Zedechias
of the Temple of Solomon. Joas
Abiathar venty years. The Governors after the
Abishua Sadoc Captivity were
Busqui Achimaas Zorobabel Nagge
536 AN ACCOUNT OF THE JEWISH KINGS, GOVERNORS, &c.
From the building of the Temple till the Salmanaser Evil-Merodach
merodach Sudeas Sellum
Kings of Prussia. Jonathan Helcias.
Smerdus Ma- ) Darius the Bastard
Darius son of
Xerxes son of Eliasib
Simon Eleazar Jason
Artaxerxes with Darius son of ArsaSimon Alcimus.
a long hand $mes. Onias
Kings of Syria, after the death of AlexHigh-priests from the Maccabees' time, till
ander the Great. the final destruction of Jerusalem. | Seleucus Nicanor Alexander Epiphanes Simon Boethus Joseph 3.
Antiochus Soter Demetrius Nicanor Joseph 1. Ananias
Antiochus Antiochus Sedetes 1 Joseph 2. Ismael
Seleucus Callini- Demetrius Nicanor Joazar Joseph
cus Eleazar Annas
in- Alexander Zebina Joshua son of Eleazar
Antiochus the Joazar
Antiochus Gryphus Simon
Great Auto Ananus Joseph Caiaphas
Seleucus Philo-) Antiochus CyzicenIsmael Jonathan
phanes Mattathias Mattathias
Antiochus Eupator Antiochus Pius.
Demetrius Soter Kings of Israel, otherwise called Kings Sovereigns of Egypt after the death of of the ten Tribes, or of Samaria.
Alexander the Great. Jeroboam 1. Jehoahaz
Ptolemy Soter Euergetes Phiscon Nadab Joash
Pekahiah son of Mena- | Philometor.
Kings of the Tyrians.
Pigmalion. Phulasser Nebuchodonosor the Great Astarimus.