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own people for their revolt from them. So they commanded them, that in case they would confirm their agreement, and demonstrate their fidelity to them, who were of a different nation, they should go out of the city, with their families, into a neighbouring grove. And when they had done as they were commanded, without suspecting any thing, the people of Scythopolis lay still for the interval of two days, to tempt them to be secure. But on the third night they watched their opportunity and cut all their throats : some, as they lay unguarded, and some as they lay asleep, The number that was slain was above thirteen thousand : and then they plundered them all of what they had.

It will now deserve our relation what befell Simon. He was the son of one Saul, a man of reputation among the Jews. This man was distinguished from the rest by the strength of his body, and the boldness of his conduct; although he abused them both to the injury of his countrymen. For he came every day, and slew a great many of the Jews of Scythopolis : and he frequently put them to flight, and became himself alone the cause of his army's conquering. But a just punishment overtook him for the murders he had committed upon those of the same nation with him. For when the people of Scythopolis threw darts at them in the grove, he drew his sword, but did not attack any of the enemy. For he saw that he could do nothing against such a multitude. But he cried out after a very moving manner, and said, “O ye people of Scythopolis, I deservedly suffer for what I have done with relation to you, when I gave you such security of my fidelity, by slaying so many of those that were related to me. Wherefore we very justly experience the perfidiousness of foreigners, while we acted after a most wicked manner against our own nation. I will therefore die, polluted wretch as I am, by mive own hands. For it is not fit I should die by the hand of our enemies. And let the same action be to me both a punishment for my great crimes, and a testimony of my courage to my condemnation ; that so no one of our enemies may have it to boast of, that he slew me; and no one may insult upon me as I fall.” Now wben he had said this, he looked round upon his family with eyes of commiseration and of rage. That family consisted of a wife and children, and his aged parents. So in the first place he caught his father by his

gray hairs, and ran his sword through him: and after that he did the like to his wife and children: every one almost offering themselves to his sword; as desirous to prevent being slain by their enemies. So when he had gone over all his family, he stood upon their bodies to be seen by all; and stretching out his right hand to be observed by all, he sheathed his entire sword in his own bowels. This young man was to be pitied on account of the strength of his body, and the courage of his soul. But since he had assured foreigners of his fidelity against his own countrymen, he suffered deservedly.

Besides this murder at Scythopolis, the other cities rose against the Jews that were among them. Those of Ascalon slew two thousand five hundred; and those of Ptolemais two thousand; and put not a few into bonds. Those of Tyre also put a great number to death; but kept a great number in prison. Moreover, those of Hippos, and those of Gadara, did the like: while they put to death the boldest of the Jews; but kept those of whom they were afraid in custody. As did the rest of the cities of Syria : according as they every one either hated them, or were afraid of them. Only the Antiochians, the Sidonians, and Apamians, spared those that dwelt with them: and would not endure either to kill any of the Jews, or put them in bonds. And perhaps they spared them, because their own number was so great, that they despised their attempts. But I think the greatest part of this favour was owing to their commiseration of those whom they saw to make no innovations. As for the Gerasens, they did no harm to those that abode with them; and for those who had a mind to go away, they conducted them as far as their borders reached.

There was also a plot laid against the Jews in Agrippa's king. dom. For he was himsell gone to Cestius Gallus, to Antioch ; but had left the care of the public affairs to one of his companions, named Noarus : who was of kin to king *Sohemus. Now there came seventy men, out of Batanea; who were the most considerable, for their families and prudence, of the rest of the people. These desired to have an army put into their hands : that if any tumult should happen they might have about them a guard sufficient to restrain such as might rise up against them. But Noarus sent out some of the king's armed men by night, and slew all those men. Which bold action he ventured upon without the consent of Agrippa : and was such a lover of money, that he chose to be so wicked to his own countrymen, though he brought ruin upon the the kingdom thereby. And thus cruelly did he treat that nation, and this contrary to the laws also, until Agrippa was informed of it. Who did not indeed dare to put him to death, out of regard to Sobemus; but still he put an end to his procuratorship immediately. But as to the seditious, they took the citadel which was called Cypros, and was above Jericho : and cut the throats of the garrison; and utterly demolished the fortifications. This was about the same time that the multitude of the Jews that were at Macherus persuaded the Romans, who were in garrison, to leave the place, and deliver it up to them. These Romans being in great fear, lest the place should be taken by force, made an agreement with them to depart, upon certain conditions. And when they had obtained the security they desired, they delivered up the citadel. Into which the people of Macherus put a garrison for their own security, and held it in their own power.

* Of this Sohemus we have mention made by Tacitus. We also learn from Dio, that his father was king of the Arabians of Iturea : (which Iturea is mentioned by St. Luke, iii. 1.] both whose testimonies are quoted here by Dr. Hudson. See Noldius, No. 371.

But for Alexandria, the sedition of the people of the place against the Jews was perpetual, and this from that very time when Alexander the Great, upon finding the readiness of the Jews in assisting him against the Egyptians, and as a reward for their assistance, gave them equal privileges in this city with the Grecians themselves. This honorary reward continued among them under his successors : who also set apart for them a particular place, that they might live without being polluted by the Gentiles; and were thereby not so much intermixed with foreigners as before. They also gave them this farther privilege, that they should be called Macedonians. Nay, when the Romans got possession of Egypt, neither the first Cæsar, nor any one that came after him, thought of diminishing the honours which Alexander had bestowed on the Jews. But still conflicts perpetually arose with the Grecians : and although the governors did every day punish many of them, yet did the sedition grow worse. But at this time especially, when there were tumults in other places also, the disorders among them were put into a greater flame. For when the Alexandrians bad once a public assembly, to deliberate about an ambassage they were sending to Nero, a great number of the Jews came flocking to the theatre. But when their adversaries saw them, they immediately cried out, and called them their enemies, and said they came as spies. Upon which they rushed out, and laid violent hands upon them. And as for the rest, they were slain as they ran away. But there were three men whom they caught, and hauled along, in order to have them burnt alive. But all the Jews came in a body to defend them : who at first threw stones at the Grecians; but after that they took lamps, and rushed with violence into the theatre, and threatened that they would burn the people to a man. And this they had soon done, unless Tiberius Alexander, the governor of the city, had restrained their passion. However, this man did not begin to teach them wisdom by arms; but sent among them privately some of the principal men, and thereby entreated them to be quiet, and not provoke the Roman army against them. But the seditious made a jest of the entreaties of Tiberius, and reproached him for so doing.

Now when he perceived that those that were for innovations would not be pacified, till some great calamity should overtake them, he sent out upon them those two Roman legions, that were in the city; and together with them five thousand other soldiers, who, by chance, were come thither out of Libya, to the ruin of the Jews. They were also permitted not only to kill them, but to plunder them of what they had, and to set fire to their houses. These soldiers rushed violently into that part of the city that was called Delta, where the Jewish people lived together; and did as they were bidden; though not without bloodshed on their own side also. For the Jews got together, and set those that were the best armed among them in the forefront, and made resistance for a great while. But when once they gave back, they were destroyed unmercifully: and their, destruction was complete : some being caught in the open fields, and others forced into their houses : which houses were first plundered of what was in them, and then set on fire by the Romans. Wherein no mercy was showed to the infants, and no regard had to the aged: but they went on in the slaughter of persons of every age, till all the place was overflowed with blood; and fifty thousand of them lay dead upon heaps. Nor had the remainder been preserved, had they not betaken themselves to supplication. So Alexander commiserated their condition, and gave orders to the Romans to retire. Accordingly, these being accustomed to obey orders, left off killing at the first intimation. But the populace of Alexar.dria bare so very great hatred to the Jews, that it was dificult to recall them; and it was a hard thing to make them leave their dead bodies.

And this was the miserable calamity which at this time befell the Jews at Alexandria. Hereupon Cestius thought fit no longer to lie still, while the Jews were every where up in arms. So he took out of Antioch the twelfth legion; and out of each of the rest he selected two thousand; with six cohorts of footmen, and four troops of horsemen ; besides those auxiliaries which were sent by the kings. Of which * Antiochus sent two thousand horsemen, and three thousand footmen : with as many archers : and Agrippa sent the same nunber of footmen, and one thousand horsemen. Sohemus also followed with four thousand : a third part whereof were horsemen, but most part were archers. And thus did be march to Ptolemais. There were also great numbers of auxiliaries gathered together from the free cities; who had not indeed the same skill in martial affairs, but made up in their alacrity, and in their batred to the Jews, what they wanted in skill. There came also along with Cestius, Agrippa bimself; both as a guide in bis march over the country, and a director of what was fit to be done. So Cestius took part of his forces, and marched hastily to Zabulon; a strong city of Galilee, which was called the city of men, and divides the country of Ptolemais from our nation. Tbis be found deserted by its inhabitants, the multitude having fled to the mountains; but full of all sorts of good things. Those he gave leave to the soldiers to plunder, and set fire to the city ; although it were of admirable beauty, and had its houses built like those in Tyre, and Sidon, and Berytus. After this he overran all

* Spanheim notes on the place, that this later Antiochus, who was called Epipbanes, i, mentioned by Dio, LIX. page 645, and that he is mentioned by Josephus elsewhere twice also, V. 11. and Antiq. XIX. 8.

VOL. III.

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