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Dictation.-Linen is made from the fibers of flax.


of the linen used in the United States comes from Europe. Velvet made from cotton is called velveteen. Alpaca is made from the wool of an animal that lives in the Andes Mountains. Calico was named from Calicut, a town in India.

Copy, learn, and recite:


The year's at the Spring;
The day's at the morn ;
Morning's at seven ;

The hill-side's dew-pearled;
The lark's on the wing;

The snail's on the thorn;

God's in his heaven ;—

All's right with the world.-Robert Browning.


Dictation.-Rain sinks into the soil and dissolves the salt it finds there. Through springs, brooks, and rivers the

salt is carried to the ocean.

clouds, the salt is left behind.

When the vapor rises to form

So the sea gets its salt.


Dictation. Most of the surface of South America is a vast plain. Three long rivers and their tributaries drain this plain.

The most northern river is the Orinoco. The plains along its banks are known as Llanos. They resemble our prairies. During the wet season they are clothed with rich grass. Cattle feed on the grass. In the dry season the Llanos are dry and parched,

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Dictation.—The middle river is the Amazon. Its plains are called Selvas. They are covered with thick forests. Among the trees are the India-rubber, the breadfruit, the cow tree, and a great variety of palms. The La Plata is the most southern river. Its plains are called Pampas. They are like the Llanos.

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Pronunciation.—1 kē'tō; 2 fak'land; 3 koo'chook.

159-Singular and Plural

Rule.-Some words form their plurals by changing for fe into ves.

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Write the singular of each word, and its plural form beside it.


Rewrite the following sentences, changing each plural to its singular form:

Elves are fairies. Twelve knives lay on the shelves. Calves have hoofs. Wolves attacked the serfs. Thieves hid

under the wharves.

Rewrite the following sentences, changing each singular to its plural form:

Half of A sheaf of

Try for yourself. A coral reef was in the gulf. a leaf was torn. The house had a red roof. wheat stood in the field.

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Rule.-A comma separates the words of a series.

Dictation.—A large, sweet, juicy orange was given to the little girl. Lead is soft, heavy, and flexible. Recite your lessons promptly, distinctly, and slowly. The wheel has a hub, felly, tire, and spokes. The children hopped, skipped, and jumped. The heel, sole, upper-leather, lining, and tongue are parts of a shoe.


Make five sentences, using in each the words across the page.

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Rule.-Words ending in y after a consonant change y to i, and add es to

form the plural.

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Rule.—Words ending in y after a vowel add s to form the plural.

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Copy each word and write its plural form opposite.

Pronunciation.—1 sēm'stres or sem'stres; 2ăt tûr'ny.


The Queen of Sheba brought two wreaths to King Solo mon to test his wisdom. One was made of natural flowers, the other of artificial. The king was to select the natural wreath. They were so skilfully made that none of the courtiers, and not even the king himself, could see any difference. Suddenly a bee flew into the room. It alighted eagerly on one of the wreaths. It staid there some time, and then flew out of the window. "The wreath the bee alighted upon has

the real flowers," said the king.

Write the story in your own words. Topics: two people; two wreaths; the question; the doubt; the bee; the decision.

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Copy the words, and mark the long sound of e.
Select a word from each column, and write a sentence containing it.

Dictation.—If you want knowledge you must toil for it; if food, you must toil for it; and if pleasure, you must toil for it. Toil is the law. Pleasure comes through toil, and not by self-indulgence and indolence. When one gets to love work his life is a happy one.-Ruskin.

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