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Avoirdupois Weight-Continued. 4371 grains (grs.) are 1 ounce,

oz. 7,000

1 pound,

16. 2,240 pounds

“ 1 long or old ton. 20 hundredweight (cwt.)

T.

66

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Miscellaneous Table Continued.

12 dozen

are 1 gross. 144 things

1

gross. 20 quires of paper

1 ream.

Square Measure.
Used in measuring surfaces and areas, as land, flooring, etc.

144 square inches (sq. in.) are 1 square foot, sq. ft.
9 square feet

1

square yard, sq. yd.

66

Cubic Measure.

Used in measuring solid substances, such as timber, stone, the capacity of rooms, etc.

1728 cubic inches (cu. in.) are 1 cubic foot, cu. ft.
27 cubic feet

“ 1 cubic yard, cu. yd.

SEVENTH GRADE (GRAMMAR).

Long Measure-Continued. 3 feet

are 1 pace, 4 inches “ 1 hand, for measuring the height of horses. 6 feet

• 1 fathom, for measuring depths at sea. 13 statute miles “ 1 geographic, nautical mile, or knot.

Avoirdupois Weight_Continued. 60 pounds

are 1 bushel of wheat. 196

« 1 barrel of flour. 200

• 1 barrel of beef or pork. 100

“ 1 quintal of fish (dry). 621 or 1000 ounces • 1 cubic foot of water.

Troy Weight.
Used in weighing gold, silver, and jewels.

24 grains (grs.) are 1 pennyweight, pwt.
20 pwt. or

66 1 ounce,

02.

480 grs.

12 oz. or 5,760 grs.

}

- 1 pound,

16.

Apothecaries' Weight.
Used by physicians in prescribing, and by apothecaries in mixing,
dry medicines.

20 grains (grs.) are 1 scruple, sc.
3 scruples 1 dram, dr.

8 drams or
480 grains

12 ounces or 5,760 grains

“ 1 pound, lb. The pound, ounce, and grain of this table are identical with those of Troy Weight. The grain of Avoirdupois Weight is the same, but the pound is larger and the ounce smaller.

“ 1 ounce,

02.

Apothecaries' Fluid Measure.
Used by physicians in prescribing, and by apothecaries in mixing,
liquid medicines.

60 minims (m.) or drops are 1 fluid drachm, f. 3.
8 fluid drachms

1 fluid ounce,

66

f. 3.

Angular Measure.
Used in measuring angles, land, latitude and longitude, etc.

60 seconds (") are 1 minute,
60 minutes
“ 1 degree,


90 degrees

“ 1 quadrant, quad.
4 quad., or

• 1 circumference, cir.
360 degrees
Circumference about 34 times the diameter.

}

SIXTH GRADE (GRAMMAR).

Long Measure-Continued.
54 yards or 161 feet are 1 rod, perch, or pole, r. or p.
320 rods

• 1 mile,

m.

Square Measure--Continued.

304 square yards are 1 square rod, perch, or pole, sq. r. or sq. p.

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Surveyors' Measure of Length.
Used in laying out railroads and roads and in marking out boundaries

100 links
66 feet are 1 chain, ch.

4 rods
80 chains 1 mile.

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Surveyors' Measure of Surface.

Used in measuring land.

16 square rods (sq. r.) are 1 square chain.

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chains

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1 acre,

"1 square mile or section.
"1 township.

sq. ch.

APPENDIX.

English Money.

The national currency of Great Britain; it is often called Sterling

Money.

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The intrinsic value in U. S. money of 1 pound Sterling is $4.8665.

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3 miles

3 feet

4 inches

6 feet

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"1 league,

66

1

pace.

“ 1 hand, for measuring the height of horses.
"1 fathom, for measuring depths at sea.
"1 geographic, nautical mile, or knot.

"1 degree on the equator.

Square Measure.

Used in measuring surfaces and areas, as land, flooring, etc.

144 square inches (sq. in.) are 1 square foot,

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160 square rods

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640 acres

"1 square mile,

sq. m.

Cubic Measure.

Used in measuring solid ubstances, such as timber, stone, the capacity of rooms, etc.

1728 cubic inches (cu. in.) are 1 cubic foot, cu. ft.

27 cubic feet

128 cubic feet

"1 cubic yard, cu. yd.
"1 cord,

Liquid Measure.

C.

Used in measuring liquids, such as milk, wine, vinegar, molasses.

4 gills (gi.) are 1 pint,

2 pints

4 quarts or

66

1 quart,

pt.
qt.

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314 gallons

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63 gallons

231 cu. in.

"1 hogshead, hhd.

Dry Measure.

Used in measuring grain, fruit, vegetables, salt, etc.

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Dry quart about one-sixth greater than liquid quart.

Avoirdupois Weight.

Used in weighing all coarse articles, as hay, meat, groceries, and all metals except gold and silver.

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yd.

English Prefixes.

a-at, to, in, on: аground, abed.
be-to make: bedaub.
fore-before: foresee, forewarn.
mis—wrong: miscall.
out –beyond, more than: outlive, outdo.
over-above, beyond: overhang, overlook.
un—to reverse, not: unroll, unwise.
under-beneath: underground.
up-motion upward: upheaval.
with-from, against: withdraw, withstand.

Latin Prefixes.

The last letter of the prefixes marked * is often changed to the first syllable of the root for euphony. a, ab, abs—from, away : avert, abduct. *ad-at, to: adhere. am, amb--around: amputate, ambulance. ante-before: antecedent. bi—two: biped. circum--around: circumnavigate. *con-with, together: condole, concur. contra, contro, counter-against: contradict. de-down, from: depend, degrade. *dis-apart, not: distend, dishonor. du-two: duplicate. *e, ex-out: eject, expose. en, em-in, into, on, to make: enclose, enlarge. extra-beyond : extraordinary. *in—in, on, not: invade, indirect. inter—between, among: interrupt, intermingle. intra, intro-into, within: introduce. juxta--near: juxtaposition. mal, male--bad: malefactor. multi-many: multiform. non-not: nonsense. *ob-before, against, out: object, oppress. per-through: pervade.

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