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post-after: postscript. pre-before: prefix.

preter-beyond: preternatural.

pro-for, forth, forward: pronoun, promote. re-back, again: regain, refresh.

retro--backwards: retrograde.

se-apart, without: seclude, secure.

semi-half: semi-annual.

sine-without sinecure.

*sub-under: submerge. subter-under: subterfuge..

super-over, beyond: supervise, superhuman. trans-across: transport.

ultra-beyond: ultramontane.

vice one in place of: vice-president.

Greek Prefixes.

amphi-on both sides, round about: amphitheater. a, an-not: atheist.

ana-again, up: anagram, anachronism.

ant, anti-opposite to: Antarctic.

ap, apo-away from: aphelion.

arch, arche-first, chief: archangel.

auto-self: autograph.

cata-down: cataract.

dia-through, across: diameter.

di, dis-twice, double: dilemma, dissyllable.

en-in, within: endogen.

epi-upon epigram.

eu-good, well: euphony.

ec, ex-out of: eccentric. hemi-half: hemisphere.

hyper-over, beyond: hyperbole.

hypo-under: hypocrite.

met, meta-after, changed: metamorphose.

mono-single: monogram.

pan-all: panorama.

par, para-beside, against: parallel, parachute.

peri-around, near: perimeter, perihelion.

poly-many: polynomial.

pro-before: prophet.

syn-together: synonym.


The part of speech formed by the aid of the suffix is indicated by the letter placed after it: (n) = noun, (v) tive, (ad) = adverb.


verb, (a)



English Suffixes.

ar, er, ier, or, yer—(n)—one who: painter, cashier. ard, art-(n)-one who: drunkard, braggart. dom-(n)-dominion of, state of being: kingdom. en- -(a)-made of: wooden.

en-(v)-to make: blacken.

er-(a)-more: stronger.

est-(a)--most: strongest.

fare-(n)—way, course: thoroughfare.

fold—(a)—the same quantity repeated: twofold.

ful-(a)-full of: hateful.

hood-(n)-state of being: manhood.

ish—(a)—like, somewhat: childish, bluish. kin-(n)-little: lambkin.

less--(a) without: fearless.

like (a) resembling: warlike.

ling-(n)-little: duckling.

ly-(a)-like, somewhat: manly, sickly.

ly—(ad)--in a manner: sharply.

ness—(n)—state of being, quality of: goodness.

red-(n)-act of: hatred.

ship-(n)-state of being: friendship.

some-(a)—-causing: troublesome.

ster-(n)—one who: spinster.

ward-(a)-in the

rection of: northward.

ward, wards-(ad)-in the direction of: backwards.

wise--(ad)—in the direction of: crosswise.

y—(n)—place where, quality of: treasury, modesty. y-(a)-like, full of: icy, cloudy.

Latin Suffixes.

able, ible (a) that can be, causing: movable, respectable. aceous, acious—(a)—made of, having the quality of: farinaceous. acy--(n)—condition of being, office of: piracy, curacy.

age—(n)—act of, condition of, collection of, allowance for: passage, bondage, foliage, postage.

al-(n)—act of, that which: removal, capital.
al-(a)-belonging to, relating to personal, official.

ance, ancy, ence, ency-(n)---state of being, act of: abundance, indulgence.

an, ian-(n)-belonging to, relating to, one who: Indian, republican, historian.

an, ane-(a)-pertaining to: human, mundane.

ant, ent—(n)—one who: assistant, president.

ant, ent-(a)-being, performing the act of: pleasant.

ar-(a)--belonging to, like: muscular, circular.

ary—(n)—one who, place where, notary, granary.
ary-(a)-relating to, belonging to: military, planetary.
ate-(n)-one who: graduate.

ate-(a) having: fortunate.

ate-(v)—to perform the act of, to cause: vacate, abbreviate.
cle, cule-(n)—little: animalcule.
ee-(n)-one to whom: referee.

eer, ier—(n)—one who: charioteer.

escence-(n)--state of growing or becoming: convalescence.

escent (a) becoming: quiescent.

esque (a)—partaking of the quality of: picturesque. fy, ify-(v)—to make: falsify.

ferous-(a)-producing: coniferous.

ic-(n)-one who: critic.

ice-(n)—that which is: justice.

id-(a)—having the quality of: humid.

il, ile, eel—(a)—like, pertaining to, capable of being: hostile,


ine-(a)—having the quality of: divine.

ion-(n)—act of, state of being: confession, election.

ise, ize—(v)—to render, to perform the act of: fertilize, criticise. ish—(v)—to make: publish.

ism-(n)-doctrine of: socialism.

ist-(n)-one who copyist.

ive-(a)—having the power or quality of: attractive, productive. let-(n)-little: islet.

ment—(n)—state of being, that which: excitement, command


mony-(n)-state of, act of, that which: acrimony, testimony. or-(n)-one who: elector.

ory-(n)--that which, place where: directory, armory. ory-(a)-relating to: preparatory.

ose, ous—(a)—full of verbose, joyous. tude-(n)-state of being: lassitude.

ty, ity-(n)-state or quality of cruelty. ule-(n)-small globule.

ure, eur-(n)—state of being, act of, that which: moisture, grandeur.

Greek Suffixes.

ac-(a)-relating to, resembling: cardiac, demoniac.

ic, ics-(n)-science of mathematics.
ic-(a)—belonging to, like: hygienic, heroic.
yte-(n)-one who is: proselyte.

Capitals and Punctuation.

Capitals. A capital should be used to begin the first word of every sentence, of every direct quotation, and of every line of poetry.

Proper names and adjectives derived from proper names should begin with a capital.

Titles of office and honor should begin with a capital.

Write in capitals the pronoun I and the interjection O. Names and titles of the Deity should begin with a capital. The name of a thing personified should begin with a capital. In the titles of books or essays every word except articles, conjunctions, and prepositions should begin with a capital.

If the words, phrases, or clauses of a series are separately numbered, each should begin with a capital.

The Period. Place a period at the end of every sentence that is not a question or an exclamation.

A period should follow an abbreviation.

The Interrogation Point.-Every question should be followed by an interrogation point.

The Exclamation Point.-Every exclamatory word, phrase, clause, or sentence should be followed by an exclamation point.

The Colon. A direct quotation, when long, should be preceded by a colon.

Members of sentences, subdivided by semicolons, should be separated by colons.

A supplementary clause, introduced without a conjunction, should be preceded by a colon.

Place a colon after the expression as follows, or its equivalent, when it precedes a specification of particulars.

The Semicolon. -Members of compound sentences, when subdivided by commas, should be separated by semicolons.

Several connected short sentences, without grammatical dependence, written one after the other, should be separated by semicolons.

A semicolon is placed before as and namely when they precede an example or specification of particulars.

The Comma.—The name of a person or thing addressed should be set off by commas.

A brief quotation should be preceded by a comma.

Words, phrases, and clauses used out of the natural order should be set off by commas.

The members of a compound sentence are usually separated by

a comma.

Words used in apposition should be set off by commas.

Expressions used parenthetically should be set off by commas. Dependent clauses should be set off by commas.

After each word in a series of words alike in grammatical construction, place a comma, unless all the conjunctions are expressed.*

In a series composed of pairs of words, place a comma after each pair.

In a series of phrases or clauses alike in grammatical construction, place a comma after each phrase or clause.

*When a conjunction is placed between the last two words, or when but one word follows the series, omit the comma after the last word of the series.

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