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PART I.

EXERCISES ON THE CLASSIFICATION OF WORDS.

I. EXERCISES ON THE Noun.

1. Give four names of persons, eight names of places, and twelve names of things.

(The teacher should explain and illustrate the difference between the names of things and the things themselves.)

2. Name any of the qualities which the persons or things around you possess ; thus,

The greenness of the grass. The learning of the teacher, &c. (Give twenty examples of this.)

3. Select the nouns from the following sentences, and say whether they are proper, common, or abstract; and why ?

Linen is white. Water is transparent. Reading is useful. London and Paris are cities. Switzerland is a mountainous country. England was conquered by the Normans. Copper is a mineral. Time passes quickly. Snow đazzles by its whiteness. Man is a thinking being. Spring is a pleasant season. Ploughing is a healthy occupation. The swallow flies with great swiftness.

Fountains all bordered with moss,

Where the harebells and violets grow. Henry I. was the son of William the Conqueror. Napoleon was banished to the island of St. Helena. Bees gather honey all the day. Studies serve for ornament and for delight. Hay-making is one of the most pleasant occupations of an English summer. In May, every field with hedgerows and bushes is a bird meadow. The market boat is on the stream. The corn fields are flooded.

I doubt if he who lolls his head,

Where idleness and plenty meet,
Enjoys his pillow or his bread,

As those, who earn the meals they eat.

Birds, joyous birds of the wandering wing,
Whence is it ye come with the flowers of spring ?
“We come from the shores of the green old Nile,
From the land where the roses of Sharon smile,
From the palms that wave through the Indian sky,

From the myrrh-trees of glowing Araby.” (The teacher may extend this exercise by pointing out a page or two from a reading-book, to be treated in the same way as the above exercise.)

[4. Select the common nouns from the following sentences, putting the class names, the collective names, and the names of materials, each in a list by themselves :

The bird is whetting his beak. The flags are waving in the air. Coal is an opaque black mineral. They landed at Liverpool after an agreeable voyage. The coachman has harnessed the horses.

Magnificent blocks of silver have been found in Norway. Some wild aniinals live in caves. Have you watered the plants? Pins are made of brass wire. At Northwich, in Cheshire, are one or two beds of rock-salt. Gutta-percha is the produce of a plant. The lowing herd winds slowly o'er the lea. Paper is chiefly manufactured from linen and cotton rags. It was a brave army. The dolphin is one of the sea mammalia.

Leaves have their time to fall,

And flowers to wither at the north-wind's breath. Cork is the bark of a small tree which grows in Spain, Portugal, the south of France, and north of Africa. Coral is produced by marine animals. The bees hummed busily round the wild thyme, while beetles and butterflies flew cheerfully about. He was surrounded by his soldiers and his staff. A flight of birds perched on the beechtrees. A host of enemies attacked him. A swarm of bees hung from a bough. He was surrounded by troops of friends.]

[5. Select the abstract nouns from the following sentences, putting the names of qualities, of actions, and of states or conditions, each in a list by themselves :

The whiteness of the snow dazzles the eyes. The brilliancy of the lights half blinded me. Naples is in great commotion. I have always preferred cheerfulness to mirth. The peace of the valley is fled. Innocence is the best, wisdom and honesty the greatest advantage. The noblest of victories is forgiveness. Honour, justice, reason, and equity go a great way in procuring prosperity to those who use them. At the battle of Poictiers, John exhibited more courage than ability, more of the soldier than the general. He received his visitors with great condescension. His popularity was speedily shaken. His equanimity was only temporarily ruffled. Hunting and dancing occupied almost all his time. His thoughts were with the past. The health of the king was now rapidly giving way. His impatience and his obstinacy were terrible. He had no master but nature and solitude. The English are capable of a sublime resolution. The Normans were all fond of hunting. The tools of our time are steam, ships, printing, money, and education. She looked full of life, health, and energy. Printing was invented in the reign of Henry VII. Leaping is a very healthy exercise. Reading maketh a full man, conversation a ready man, and writing an exact

man.] (The two preceding exercises may be extended by the teacher pointing out suitable portions from a reading-book, from which the nouns may be selected and classified as above.)

6. In the following sentences, change the common nouns into corresponding abstract ones ; thus, The tyrant is hateful. Tyranny is hateful.

The artist imitates nature.
The musician has power to soothe the savage breast.
The poet beautifies all nature.
The learned are highly esteemed.
The poor are always amongst us.
The physician cured the child.
The child is confiding.
Man is the noblest work of God.
The judge condemned him.
The coward is despised.
The idle are generally mischievous.
The rich can purchase the good things of this world.
The hero is admired.
The boaster is universally doubted.
The young are seldom patient.
Repentants merit forgiveness.
The weak and the tender are useless in war.
The warrior destroys human life.

(The pupil may find a dozen cases similar to the above for himself, giving both the common and the abstract form of the noun.)

[7. Point out when the nouns in the following examples are used as proper names, as class names, as names of materials, and as abstract nouns :

The host of the inn was very attentive.
A host of Indian warriors rushed across the plain.
The handles of knives are sometimes made of horn.
The horn of the stag is branched.
Cape Horn is at the south of South America.
A cold bath is very bracing.
Bath is a fine city,
Will you walk with me in Dunsinane wood ?
There is a great deal of wood in the forest.
Tables and chairs are made of wood.

Each particular hair did stand on end,

Like quills upon the fretful porcupine.
The German women have very fine hair.
Charles James Fox was an English statesman.
The fox is a cunning animal.
His office is in New Street.
He held that office twenty years.
His office is to examine into the state of education in England.

The duty of a child is to obey its parents.
The duty on tobacco is very high.
That house is unoccupied.
The House will assemble on the 1st of February.
Magara is one of the wonders of the world, and the aspect of it fills

the beholder with wonder and admiration.
Will you be so good as to take the will for the deed ?
The miser died, and left no will.]

II. EXERCISES ON THE ADJECTIVE.

8. Select the adjectives from the following sentences :-
Sweet sleep is refreshing.
Silver is white.
Water is transparent.
The beautiful moon is hidden behind the dark clouds.
Silk-worms are curious and industrious little creatures.
Skye terriers are good house dogs.
London is the most populous city in the world.
Green fields are refreshing to the eye.
There are high mountains and deep valleys in Switzerland.
There are some beautiful flowers in our garden.
There are hot-water springs in Iceland.
Red and white roses are growing over our house.
Anger is a short madness.
The long grass of the American prairies sometimes catches fire.
Many poisonous plants grow wild.
The bells are ringing a merry peal.
Few young people dislike dancing.
No good children are disobedient.

By dimpled brooks and fountains' brim,
The wood-nymphs decked with daisies trim
Their merry wakes and pastimes keep.

Meadows trim with daisies pied,

Shallow brooks and rivers wide. (The pupil, to continue the exercise, may select adjectives from a page or two of his reading-book.)

9. Place one or more suitable adjectives of quality beside the following words :

Picture, girl, song, glass, grass, lamb, castle, neighbour, boy, mountain, river, ox, rock, sparrow, sea, dog, prince, forest, nest, garden, water, boat, day, hoop, cloak, peacock, moon, house, stream, tower, tree.

10. Select the adjectives from the following sentences, and say whether they express quality or quantity, or whether they are used simply to distinguish :

I heard this wonderful story, when I was a little child.
The pelican is a large bird, with a long straight bill.

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