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being made of linen; signified the earth ; the that best deserved to obtain that honor, on blue denoted the sky, being like lightning in account of his virtue; and when he had ga.. its pomegranates, and in the noise of its bells thered the multitude together, he gave
them resembling thunder; and the ephod shewed an account of Aaron's virtue, and of his good that God had made the universe of four ele- will to them, and of the dangers he had unments; and as for the gold interwoven, I sup- dergone for their sakes, upon which, when pose it related to the splendor by which all they had given testimony to them in all rethings are enlightened. He also appointed spects, and shewed their readiness to receive the breast-plate to be placed in the middle of him, Moses said to them, “Oye Israelites, this the ephod, to resemble the earth, for that has work is already brought to a conclusion, in a the very middle place in the world; and the manner most acceptable to God, and accordgirdle which encompassed the high-priesting to our abilities : and now, since you see round signified the ocean, which goes round that he is received into this tabernacle, we about, and includes the universe. Each of shall first of all stand in need of one that
may the sardonyxes declares to us the sun and the officiate for us, and may minister to the sacri. moon; those I mean that were in the nature fices, and to the prayers that are to be put up of buttons on the high-priest's shoulders. for us. And, indeed, had the inquiry after And for the twelve stones, whether we un such a person been left to me, I should have derstand by them the months, or the like num-thought myself worthy of this honor, both ber of the signs of that circle which the Greeks because all men are naturally fond of themcall the Zodiac, we shall not be mistaken in selves, and because I am conscious to myself their meaning. The mitre, which was of a that I have taken a great deal of pains for blue color, seems to me to denote heaven ; your deliverance: but now God himself has defor how otherwise could the name of God be termined that Aaron is worthy of this honor, inscribed upon it? It was also illustrated with and has chosen him for his priest, as knowing a crown of gold, because of that splendor him to be the most righteous person among with which God is pleased. Let this explica- you : so that he is to put on the vestments tion* suffice at present, since the course of my which are consecrated to God; he is to have narration will, on many occasions, afford an the care of the altars, and to make provision opportunity of enlarging on the virtue of our for the sacrifices; and he it is that must put legislator.
up prayers for you to God, who will readily
hear them, not only because he is himself soCHAP. VIII.
licitous for your nation, but also because he will receive them as offered by one that he
hath himself chosen to this office. The HeWH
HEN what has been described was brewsť were pleased with what was said, and
brought to a conclusion, gifts not be they gave their approbation to him whom ing yet presented, God appeared to Moses, God had ordained; for Aaron was the most and enjoined him to bestow the high-priest- | deserving of this honor, on account of his hood
upon Aaront bis brother; as upon him own gift of prophecy, and his brother's virtue.
OF THE PRIESTHOOD OF AARON.
* This explication of the mystical meaning of the paratively young, and less used to Gentile books, we find Jewish tabernacle, and its vessels, with the garments of one specimen of such a Jewish interpretation : for there, the high-priest, is taken out of Philo, and adapted to VII. 5. he makes the seven branches of the temple candleGentile philosophical notions. This may possibly be for stick, with their seven lamps, an emblem of the seven given in Jews greatly versed in heathen learning and phi- days of creation and rest, which are here emblems of the losophy, as Philo had ever been, and as Josephus had seven planets; nor ought ancient Jewish emblems to be long been when he wrote these Antiquities. In the mean xplained any otherwise than according to ancient Jewtime it is not to be doubted but in their education they | ish, and not Gentile, notions. See Of the War, I. 33. must have both learned more Jewish interpretations, such + Exod. xxviii. 1. I mean as we meet with in the epistle of Barnabas, in that It is worthy observation, that the two principal quato the Hebrews, and elsewhere among the old Jews. Ac- lifications here required for the constitution of the first. cordingly, when Josepbus wrote his books of the Jewish high-priest, viz. that he should have an excellent characWar, for the use of the Jews, at which time he was com ter for virtuous and good actions, as also that he should VOL. 1.-(9.)
He had at that time four sons, Nadab, Abihu, lied to the tabernacle, and such as were very Eleazar, and Ithamar.
costly, and were brought to the golden altar Now Moses commanded them to make use of incense, whose nature I do not now des of all the utensils which were more than were scribe, lest it should be troublesome to my necessary to the structure of the tabernacle, readers.
But incenset was to be offered for covering the tabernacle itself, the candle- twice a day, both before sun-rising, and sunstick, and altar of incense, and the other ves- setting. They were also to keep vil ready sels, that they might not be at all hurt when purified for the lamps, three of which were they journeyed, either by the rain, or by the to give light all day long upon the sacred can rising of the dust ; and when he had gather- dlestick before God, and the rest were to be ed in the multitude together again, he ordain- lighted at the evening. ed that they should offer half a shekel for When all was finished, Besaleel and Ahoevery man, as an oblation to God, which liab appeared to be the most skilful of the shekel is a Hebrew coin, and is equal to four workmen; for they invented finer works than Athenian drachmæ ;* whereupon they readily what others had done before them, and were obeyed what Moses had commanded, and of great abilities to gain notions of what they the number of offers was six hundred and were formerly ignorant of: and of these Be five thousand, five hundred and fifty. Now saleel was judged to be the best. Now the this money, that was brought by the men that whole time they were about this work was were free, was given by such as were above seven months, and after this ended the first twenty years old, but under fifty ; and what year since their departure out of Egypt. But was collected was spent in the uses of the ta- at the beginning of the second year.|| in the bernacle.
month Xanthicus, as the Macedonians call it; Moses now purified the tabernacle and the but in the month Nisan, as the Hebrews call priests, which purification was performed after it, on the new moon, they consecrated the the following manner. He commanded them tabernacle, and all its vessels, which I have to take five hundred shekels of choice myrrh, already described. an equal quantity of cassia, and half the fore God shewed himself pleased with the work going weight of cinnamon, and a sort of sweet of the Hebrews, and did not permit their spice, called calamus ; to beat them small, | labors to be in vain ; nor did he disdain to and wet them with a hint of olive oil; to mix use what they had made; but he came and them together, and boil them, and prepare sojourned with them, and pitched his tabernathem after the art of the apothecary, and cle in the holy house. And in the following make them into a very sweet ointment; and manner did he come to it: the sky was clear, afterward to take it to anoint and purify the but there was a mist over the tabernacle only, priests themselves, and all the tabernacle, as encompassing it, but not with such a very also the sacrifices. There were also many deep and thick cloud as is seen in the winter and various kinds of sweet spices that belong- season, nor yet in so thin an one as men have the approbation of the people, are here noted by before Josephus published his Antiquities, which never Josephus, even where the nomination belonged to God weighed more than 2s. 44d. and commonly but 2s. 440. himself, which are the very same qualifications which See Reland, De Nummis Samaritanorum, p. 188. the Christian religion requires in the choice of Christian + This hin is a Hebrew measure, and contains two bishops, priests, and deacons, as the Apostolical Constitu- || Athenian choas, or congiuses. tion informs us, II. 3, VIII. Nor is it unworthy of our The incense was here offered, according to Josephus's notice, that Pbilo's peculiar word here cited, agiruvdan opinion, before sun-rising, and at sun-setting; but in the that the governor was to be of a most excellent character days of Pompey, according to the same Josephus, the is also the peculiar word of the Apostolical Constitutions sacrifices were offered in the morning, and at the ninth on this occasion, VIII. 4,
hour, XIV. 4. * This weight and value of the Jewish shekel, in the § Hence we may correct the opinion of the modern days of Josephus, equal to about 2s. 10d. sterling, is by Rabbins, who say that only one of the seven lamps burnthe learned 'Jews owned to be one fifth larger than their ed in the day-time, whereas Josephus, an eye-witness, old shekels, which determination agrees perfectly with says there were three. the remaining shekels that have Samaritan inscriptions, || An. 1531. coined generally by Simon the Maccabee, about 230 years
might be able to discern any thing through it; || crifices which Moses bade them bring, but but from it there dropped a sweet dew, which which they used to offer formerly, and were shewed the presence of God to those that de-burnt to death. Now when the fire rushed sired and believed it.
upon them, and began to burn them, nobody When Moses had bestowed such bonorary could quench it ; accordingly they died in this presents on the workmen as it was fit they manner; and Moses bid their father and their should receive who had wrought so well, he brethren to take up their bodies, to carry them offered sacrifices in the open court of the ta- out of the camp, and to bury them magnifbernacle, as God commanded him: a bull, a cently. Now the multitude lamented them, ram, and a kid of the goats, for a sin offering. and were deeply affected at this death, which Now I shall speak of what we do in our sacred so unexpectedly befel them; but Moses enoffices in my discourse about sacrifices, and treated their brethren and their father not to therein shall inform men in what cases Moses be troubled for them; to prefer the honor of bid us offer whole burnt offerings, and in what God before their grief about them; for Aaron cases the law permits us to partake of them had already put on his sacred garments. as food. And when Moses bad sprinkled Moses refused all that honour which he saw Aaron's vestinents, himself, and his sons, with the multitude ready to bestow upon him, and the blood of the beasts that were slain, and attended to nothing but the service of God. had purified them with spring water and oint. He went no more up to mount Sinai; but he ment, they became God's priests. After this went into the tabernacle, and brought back manner did he consecrate them, and their gar- answers from God to what he prayed for. ments, for seven days together. The same His habit was also that of a private man; and he did to the tabernacle, and the vessels there in all other circumstances he behaved himself to belonging, both with oil first incensed, like one of the common people, and was deas I said, and with the blood of bulls, and of sirous to appear without distinguishing himself rams, slain day by day one, according to its from the multitude, but would have it known kind. But on the eighth day he appointed a that he did nothing but to take care of them. He feast for the people, and commanded them to also set down in writing the form of their gooffer sacrifice according to their ability. Ac-vernment, and those laws, by obedience to cordingly they contended one with another, which they would lead their lives so as to please and were ambitious to exceed each other in God, and so as to have no quarrels one among the sacrifices which they brought, and so ful- another. However, the laws be ordained filled Moses's injunctions. But, as the sacri- were such as God suggested to him ; so I shall fices lay upon the altar, a sudden fire was now discourse concerning that form of governkindled from among them, of its own accord ; ment and those laws. and appeared to the sight like fire from a flash I will now treat of what I before omitted, of lightning, and consumed whatsoever was the garment of the high-priest ; for Moses
left no room for the evil practices of false Hereupon an affliction befel Aaron, consi- | prophets ; but, if some of that sort should atdered as a man and a father ; but he support-tempt to abuse the divine authority, he left ed it with true fortitude, for he had, indeed, ait to God to be present at his sacrifices when firmness of soul in such accidents; and he he pleased, and when he pleased to be absent. thought this calamity came upon him accord- | And he was willing this should be known not ing to God's will; for whereas he had four to the Hebrews only, but to those foreigners sons, as I said before ; the two elder of them, also who were there. For as to those sar: Nadab and Abibu, did not bring those sa- | donyxes* which the high-priest bare on his
upon the altar.
These answers by the 'oracle of Urim and Thummim, of illumination, in revealing the will of God, after a perwhich words signify light and perfection, or, as the fect and true manner, to his people Israel: I say, these LXXII. renders them, Ardasis xias Anybeva, revelation and ánswers were not made by the shining of the precious truth; and denote nothing farther, that I see, but the shin-stones, after an awkward manner, in the high-priest's ing stones themselves, which were used in this method breast-plate, as the modern Rabbins vainly suppose, and
shoulders, the one of them shined out when those twelve stones which the high-priest God was present at their sacrifices: bright bare on his breast, and which were inserted rays darting out thence, and being seen even into his breast-plate, when they should be by those that were most remote; which victorious in battle ; for so great a splendor splendor yet was not before natural to the shone forth from them before the army bestone. This has appeared a wonderful thing gan to march, that all the people were sento such as have not so far indulged them- sible of God's being present for their assistselves in philosophy, as to despise divine revela- ance. Whence it came to pass, that those tion. Yet will I mention what is still more Greeks who had a veneration for our laws, wonderful; for God declared beforehand by because they could not possibly contradict this,
as the learned interpret Philo and Josephus, but without several things that came to pass accordingly; but about any sufficient foundation, so far as I see; for certainly the time of his death, he here implies, that this oracle. the shining of the stones might precede or accompany the quite ceased, and not before, the following high-priests oracle, without itself delivering that oracle; see Antiq. now putting diadems on their heads, and ruling according VI. 6; but rather by an audible voice from the mercy- to their ow! will, and by their own authority, like the seat, between the cherubim. See Prid. Connect. at the other kings of the pagan countries about them; so that, year 534, at large. This oracle had been silent, as Jose- while the God of Israel was allowed to be the supreme phus here informs us, 200 years before he wrote his Anti- King of Israel, and his directions to be their authentic quities, or ever since the days of John Hyrcanus, the last guides, God gave them such directions as their supreme good high-priest of the family of the Maccabees. Now it King and Governor, and they were properly under a thois worth our observation, that the oracle before us was ocracy, by this oracle of Urim, but no longer; see Dr. that by which God appeared to be present with and gave Bernard's notes here; though I confess I cannot but esteem directions to his people Israel, as their King, all the while the high-priest Jaddus's divine dream, Antiq. XI. 8. and they submitted io him in that capacity, and did not set the high-priest Caiaphas's most remarkable prophecy, over them such independent kings as governed according John xi. 47–52. as iwo small remains, or specimens, of to their own wills and political maxims, instead of divine this ancient oracle, wbich properly belonged to the Jew. directions ; accordingly we meet with this oracle, besides ish priests; nor, perhaps, ought we entirely to forget that angelic and prophetic admonitions, all along from the eminent prophetic dream of our Josephus himself (one days of Moses and Joshua to the anointing of Saul, the next to the high-priest, as of the family of the Asmoneans first of the succession of kings. Numb. xxvii. 21. Judg. i. or Maccabees, by his mother's side, and by his father of 1. xviii. 5, 6, 88. 18, 23, 27, 28, 1 Sam. i. 14. iij. the first of the twenty-four classes of the priests), as to the iv. per tot. Nay, till Saul's rejection of the divine com succession of Vespasian and Titus to the Roman empire, mands in the war with Amalek, when he took upon him and that in the days of Nero, and before either Galba, to act as he thought fit himself, 1 Sam. xiv. 18, 19, 36, 37. Otho, or Vitellus, were thought of to succeed him; of Then this oracle left Saul entirely, (which indeed he had the War, III. 8. IV. 10; and this confirmed by Suetonius seldom consulted before; see 1 Sam. xvi. 35. 1 Chron. in Vespas. $ 5. and Dio in Xiphiline, page 317. This, I xiii. 3. Joseph. Antiq. VII. 4.) and accompanied Da-think, may be considered as the very last instance of any vid, who was anointed to succeed him, and who con- thing like the prophetic Urim among the Jewish nation, sulted God by it frequently, and complied with its direc- and just preceded the fatal desolation, But how it tions constantly. See 1 Sam. xxii. 13, 15. xxiii. 9, 10, xxx. could possibly come to pass that such great men as Sir 7, 8. 2 Sam. ï. I. 19, 23. xxi. 1. 1 Chron. xiv. 10, 14. John Marsham and Dr. Spencer should imagine that this Joseph. Antiq. VI. 12. VII. 4. Saul indeed, long after his oracle of Urim and Thummim, with other practices as old, rejection by God, and when God had given him up to or older, than the law of Moses, should have been ordaindestruction for his disobedience, did once afterwards en
ed in imitation of somewhat like them among the Egypdeavor to consult God when it was too late; but God | tians, which we never heard of till the time of Diodorus would not then answer hin, neither by dreams, nor by Siculus, Elian, and Maimonides, or little earlier than the Urim, nor by prophets; 1 Sam. xxvii. 6. Nor did any Christian era at the highest, is almost unaccountable. of David's successors, the kings of Judah, that we know While the main business of the law of Moses was evidentof, consult God by this oracle till the Babylonish capti-ly to preserve the Israelites from the idolatrous and suvity, when those kings were at an end, they taking upon perstitious practice of the neighboring payan nations, them, I suppose, too much of despotic power and royalty, and while it is so undeniable that the evidence for the and too little owning the God of Israel for the supreme great antiquity of Moses's law is incomparably beyond King of Israel, though a few of them consulted the pro- that for the like or greater antiquity of such customs - in phets sometimes, and were answered by them. At the Egypt or other nations, which, indeed, is generally none return of the two tribes, without the return of the kingly at all, it is absurd to derive any of Moses's laws from the government, the restoration of this oracle was expected: imitation of those heathen practices. Such hypotheses Neh. vii. 65. 1 Esd. v. 40. 1 Mac. iv. 46. and indeed it | demonstrate to us how far inclination can prevail over may seem to have been restored for some time after the evidence in even some of the most learned parts of man. Babylonish captivity, at least in the days of that excellent || kind. See Dr. Bernard's very valuable notes upon this high-priest, John Hyrcanus, whom Josephus esteemed as chapter, in opposition to Dr. Spencer, as they stand at a king, a priest, and a prophet, and who, he says, foretold large in Havercamp's edit.
OF THE MANNER OF OFFERING SACRIFICES.
called the breast-plate the Oracle. Now this | year old, and kids of the goats.
been devised by human understanding, and
For the heads of the tribes combined T WILL now, make mention of a few of our together, two by two, and brought a wag
which gon, and a yoke of oxen ; these amounted to the like sacred offices, since I am accidentally six, and these carried the tabernacle, when come to this matter of sacrifices : these sathey journeyed; besides which, every head of crifices are of two sorts, one being offered a tribe brought a bowl, a charger, and a for private persons, and the other for the peospoon, of ten daricks, I full of incense. Now ple in general : and they are done in two difthe charger and the bowl were of silver, and ferent ways. In one case, what is slain is together they weighed two hundred shekels, burnt, as a whole burnt-offering; whence that but the bowl
more than seventy name is given to it: but the other is a thankshekels; and these were full of fine Aour offering, and as designed for feasting those mingled with oil, such as they used on the that sacrifice. I will speak of the former : altar, about the sacrifices. They brought also Suppose a private man offer a burnt-offering, a young bullock, and a ram, with a lamb of a he must slay either a bull, a lamb, or a kid year old, for a whole burnt-offering; as also of the goats, and the two latter of the first a goat, for the forgiveness of sins. Every one year: though of bulls he is permitted to saof the heads of the tribes brought also other crifice those of a greater age; but all burntsacrifices, called peace-offerings; for every | offerings are to be of unales.
When they are day two bulls, and five rams, with lambs of a slain, the priests sprinkle the blood § round
vareminnan * About An, 107, two hundred years before A.D. 93, " The Taurobolium of the ancients was a ceremony in the thirteenth of Domitian, when Josephus published bis which the high-priest of Cybele was consecrated, and Antiquities.
might be called a baptism of blood, which they conceived + Of the Jewish sacrifices, the learned reader may con imparted a spiritual new birth to the liberated spirit. In sult the notes in Havercamp's edition, and Dr. Outram's this dreadful and sanguinary ceremony, according to the excellent Treatise De Sacrificiis.
poet Prudentius, cited at length by Banier on the ancient These old coins called Daricks are, I think, first sacrifices, the high-priest about to be inaugurated was inmentioned by Xenophon in his Kugu Ilard. page 339. edit. troduced into a dark excavated apartment, adorned with Hutch, a few years after the beginning of Cyaxares II. a long silken robe, and a crown of gold. Above this or Darius the Mede, (of whose Median name Darius this apartment was a floor perforated in a thousand places seems the only original remain in Heathen antiquity,) and with holes like a sieve, through which the blood of a ibose by bim mentioned as vastly large seem to have been sacred bull, slaughtered for the purpose, descended in a a kind of coronation medals of the same king's.
copious torrent upon the enclosed priest, who received § It is, says Bp. Patrick, no improbable conjecture of the purifying stream on every part of his dress, rejoicing Fortunatus Scacchus, that from hence the heathens learn to bathe with the bloody shower his hands, his cheeks, ed their Taurobolia and Criobolia, which in process of and even to bedew his lips and his tongue with it: when time they disguised with infernal rites and ceremonies. || all the blood had run from the throat of the immolated VOL. 1.-(9.)