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about the altar : they then cleanse the bodies, || for the law does not permit them to leave of it divide them into parts, salt them, and lay until the morning. But if any one sin, and is them upon the altar'; while the pieces of wood conscious of it himself

, but hath nobody that are piled one upon another, and the fire is can prove it upon him, he offers a ram, the burning. They then cleanse the feet of the flesh of which the priests eat, as before, in sacrifices, and the inwards, in an accurate the holy place, on the same day. And if the manner: and so they lay them to the rest, to rulers offer sacrifices for their sins, they bring be purified by the fire, while the priests receive the same oblations that private men do; exthe hides: this is the way of offering a burnt- cept they so far differ, that they are to bring offering.

for sacrifices a bull, or a kid of the goats, both Those who offer thank-offerings do indeed males. sacrifice the same creatures; but such as are Now the law requires, both in private and unblemished, and above a year old : however, public sacrifices, that the finest flour be also they may take either males or females. They brought: for a lamb, the measure of one also sprinkle the altar with their blood ; but tenth deal ; for a ram, two; and for a bull they Jay upon the altar the kidneys, the caul, three. This they consecrate upon the altar, and all the fat, and the lobe of the liver; with when it is mingled with oil: for oil is also these they bring also the rump of the lamb; brought by those that sacrifice: for a bull, the they give also the breast and the right shoulder half of a hin; for a ram, a third part of the to the priests ; so they feast upon the remain- same measure; and one quarter of it for a der of the flesh for two days; and what re- lamb. They bring the same quantity of oil mains they burn.

which they do of wine, and they pour the The sacrifices for sins are offered in the wine about the altar; but if any one does not same manner as is the thank-offering: but offer a complete sacrifice of animals, but those who are unable to purchase complete brings fine flour only fór a vow, he throws sacrifices offer two pigeons, or turtle doves ; || a handful upon the altar, as its first fruits; one of which is made a burnt-offering to while the priests take the rest for their food; God, and the other is given as food for the either boiled, or mingled with oil, but made priests.

into cakes of bread: but whatsoever it be But we shall treat more accurately about that a priest himself offers, it must of necessity the oblation of these creatures, in our dis- be all burnt. Now the law forbids us to sacricourse concerning sacrifices; but if a person fice any animal at the same time with its dam; fall into sin by ignorance, he offers an ewe and in other cases, not till the eighth day after lamb or female kid of the goats of the same its birth. age; and the priest sprinkles the blood at Other sacrifices are also appointed for esthe altar; not after the former manner, but caping distempers, or for other occasions; in at the corners of it. They also bring the which meat-offerings are consumed, together kidneys, and the rest of the fat, together with with the animals that are sacrificed; of which the lobe of the liver, to the altar: while the it is not lawful to leave any part till the priests bear away the hides, and the flesh, and next day, only the priests are to take their spend it in the holy place,* on the same day; own share.

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bull, the carcass of the victim was removed, and the compared with the law of Moses, Leviticus vii. 15(that priest issued forth from the cavity, a spectacle ghastly || the eating of the sacrifice the same day it was ofa and horrible, his head and vestments being covered with || fered seems to mean only before the morning of the blood, and clotted drops of it adhering to his venerable next, although the latter part, i. e. the night, be in strict beard. As soon as the pontifex appeared before the as ness part of the next day, according 10 the Jewish sembled multitude, the air was rent with congratulatory | reckoning,) is greatly to be observed upon other occashouts; so pure and so sanctified, however, was he now

sions also. The Jewish maxim, in such cases, it seems, is esteemed, that they dared not approach his person, but this : that the day goes before the night, and this appears beheld him at a distance with awe and veneration.”- to me to be the language both of the Old and New Testa Mayrice's Ind, Ant. vol. v, p. 196, B.

ment. See also the note on IV. 4, and Reland's note on * What Reland observes here, out of Josephus, as IV. 8.

CHAP.

CONCERNING THE FESTIVALS, AND HOW EACH DAY OF SUCH

FESTIVAL IS TO BE OBSERVED.

winter, the law enjoins us to pitch tabernaCHAP. X.

cles in every one of our houses, but so that we preserve ourselves from the cold of that time of the year ; as also that, when we should

arrive at our own country, we should come to T THE law requires, that out of the public that city which we should have then for our

expenses a lamb of the first year be metropolis, because of the temple therein to killed every day, at the beginning and ending | be built; and keep a festival for eight days, of the day;* but on the seventh day, which and offer burnt-offerings, and sacrifice. thankis called the Sabbath, they kill two, and sacri- offerings; that we should then carry in our fice them in the same manner. On the new hands a branch of myrtle, and willow, and a moon they both perform the daily sacrifices, bough of the palm-tree, with the addition of and slay two bulls, with seven lainbs of the the pomecitron; that the burnt-offering on first year, and a kid of the goats also, for the the first of those days was to be a sacrifice expiation of sins; that is, if they have sinned of thirteen bulls, fourteen lambs, and fifteen through ignorance.

rams, with the addition of a kid of the goats, On the seventh month, which the Macedo- | as an expiation for sins; that on the follownians call Hyperberetæus, they make an ad-ing days the same number of lambs, and of dition to those already mentioned, and sacri-rams, with the kids of the goats; but abatfice a ball, a ram, seven lamlıs,f and a kid of|ing one of the bulls every day, till they the goats for sins.

amounted to seven only. On the eighth day The tenth I day of the same lunar month all work was laid aside, and then, as we said they fast till the evening; and this day they before, they sacrificed to God a bullock, a sacrifice a bull, two rams, seven lambs, and a ram, seven lambs, and a kid of the goats for kid of the goats for sins; and, besides these, an expiation of sins : and this is the accusthey bring two kids of the goats, one of which tomed solemnity of the Hebrews when they is sent alive out of the limits of the camp into pitch their tabernacles. the wilderness, for the scape-goat, and to be an But in the month of Zanthicus, which is expiation of the sins of the whole multitude ; || by us called Nisan, || and is the beginning of but the other is brought into a place of great our year, on the fourteenth day of the lunar cleanness, within the limits of the camp, and month, when the sun is in Aries (for on this is there burnt, with its skin, without any sort |month it was that we were delivered from of cleansing. With this goat is burot a bull bondage under the Egyptians), the law ornot brought by the people, but by the high-dained that we should every year slay that priest, at his own charge, which, when it is sacrifice, which I before observed we slew slain, he brings of the blood into the holy when we came out of Egypt, and which was place, together with the blood of the kid of called the Passover; and so do we celebrate the goats, and sprinkles the ceiling with his this passover in companies, and leave nothing finger seven times, as also its pavement, and of what we sacrifice till the day following: as often towards the most holy place, and The feast of unleavened bread succeeds that about the golden altar. He also at last brings of the passover, and falls on the fifteenth day it into the open court, and sprinkles it about of the month, and continues seven days, wherethe great altar. Besides this, they set the ex- || in they feed on unleavened bread; on every tremities, and the kidneys, and the fat, with one of which days two bulls are killed, and the lobe of the liver, upon the altar, and the one ram, and seven lambs. Now these lambs high-priest presents a ram to God as a burnt- || are entirely burnt, besides the kid of the offering

goats, which is added to all the rest, for sins; On the fifteenth day of the same month, for it is intended as a feast for the priest on when the season of the year is changing for every one of those days. But on the second

* Exod. xxix. 38. + Numb. xxix. 2.

Numb. xxviii. 3.

Levit. xxiii, 27.

§ Numb. xxix. 12.
il Or Abib. Deut. xvi. 1.

day

OF THE PURIFICATIONS.

day of unleavened bread, which is the six- other loaves were brought in their stead, while teenth day of the month, they first partake the loaves were given to the priests for their of the fruits of the earth, for before that day | food, and the frankincense was burnt in that they do not touch them. And while they sup- sacred fire wherein all their offerings were pose it proper to honour God, from whom burnt also ; and so other frankincense was set they obtain this plentiful provision, in the first upon the loaves instead of what was there beplace they offer the first fruits of their barley, fore. The high-priest also, at his own expense, and that in the manner following: they take offered a sacrifice twice every day. It was a handful of the ears, and dry them; they made of four, mingled with oil, and gently then beat them small, and cleanse the barley baked by the fire. The quantity was one from the bran; they then bring one tenth deal tenth deal of flour. He brought the half of it to the altar, to God, and, casting one handful to the fire in the morning, and the other half of it upon the fire, they leave the rest for the at night. The account of these sacrifices I use of the priests; and after this it is that they shall give more accurately hereafter, but 'I may publicly or privately reap their harvest. think I have premised what for the present They also, at this participation of the first

may be sufficient concerning them. fruits of the earth, sacrifice a lamb as a burntoffering to God.

CHAP. XI. When a week of weeks has passed over after this sacrifice, which weeks contain forty and nine days; on the fiftieth* day, called by cost , they bring to God a loaf nade of thee: MOSES took out the tribe of Levi from

communicating with the rest of the peoAlour, of two tenth deals with leaven; and ple, and set them apart to be a holy tribe, and for sacrifices they bring two lambs; and when purified them by water, taken from perpetual they have only presented them to God, they springs, and with such sacrifices as were usaare made ready for supper for the priests: nor ally offered to God on the like occasions. He is it permitted to leave any thing of them till also delivered to them the tabernacle, and the the day following. They also slay three bul-sacred vessels, and the other curtains which locks for a burnt-offering, and two rams, and were made for covering the tabernacle, that fourteen lambs, with two kids of the goats for they might minister under the conduct of the sins; nor is there any one of the festivals but priests, who had been already consecrated to in it they offer burnt-offerings. They also al. God. low themselves to rest on every one of them : He also determined concerning animals, accordingly the law prescribes in them all which of them might be used for food, and what kinds they are to sacrifice, and how they which they were obliged to abstain from, are to rest entirely, and must slay sacrifices in which matters, when this work shall give me order to feast upon them.

occasion, shall be farther explained, and the However, out of the common charges baked causes shall be added by which he was inbread was set on the table of shew bread duced to allot some of them to be our food, without leaven, of twenty-four tenth deals of and enjoined us to abstain from others. Howflour, for so much is spent upon this bread: ever, he forbade us entirely the use of blood two heaps of these were baked ; they were for food, and esteemed it to contain the soul taken the day before the sabbath, but were and spirit. ' He also forbade us to eat the brought into the holy place on the morning of flesh of the animal that died of itself, as also the sabbath, and set upon the holy table six the caul, and the fat of goats, and sheep, and another, where two golden cups, full of frank-He also ordered that those whose bodies incense, were also set upon them; and there were afflicted with leprosy, and that had a they remained till another sabbath; and then gonorrhea, should not come into the city it

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1

nay, he removed the women, under certain || countrymen who were pure of it also, and situations, till the seventh day, after which h thence made the laws which concerned others looked upon them as pure, and permitted them that had the distemper. He did this for the to come in again. The law permits those honor, of God; but, as to these matters, let also who have taken care of funerals to come every one consider them after what manner he in after the same manner, when this number pleases. of days is over; but if any continued longer As to the women, when they have borne a than that number of days in a state of pol-child, Moses forbade them to come into the lution, the law appointed the offering two | temple, or to touch the sacrifices, before forty lambs for a sacrifice, one of which they are todays were over, supposing it be a boy; but purge by the fire, and the other the priests take if she hath borne a girl, the law is that she for themselves. In the same manner do those cannot be admitted before twice that number sacrifice who have had the gonorrhea; but for of days be over; and when, after the aforethe lepers, he suffered them not to come into mentioned-time appointed for them, they perthe city at all, nor to live with any others, as form their sacrifices, the priests distribute them if they were in effect dead persons. But if before God. any one had obtained, by prayer to God, a But if any one suspected that his wife had recovery from that distemper, and had gained been guilty of adultery, he was to bring a a healthful complexion again, such a one re- tenth deal of barley flour: they then cast one turned thanks to God with several sorts of sa- handful to God, and gave the rest of it to the crifices, concerning which we will speak here- || priests for food. One of the priests set the after.

woman at the gates that are turned towards Hence one cannot but smile at those who the temple, and took the veil from her head, say, that Moses was himself afflicted with the and wrote the name of God on parchment, leprosy when he fled out of Egypt, and that and enjoined her to swear that she had not at he became the conductor of those who on that all injured her husband, and to wish that, if account left that country, and led them into she had violated her chastity, her right thigh the land of Canaan : for had this been true, might be put out of joint, that her belly might Moses would not have made these laws to his swell, and that she might die thus: but that own dishonor, which indeed it was more if her husband, by the violence of his affeclikely he would have opposed if others had tion, and of the jealousy which arose from it, endeavoured to introduce them : and this the had been rashly moved to this suspicion, that rather, because there are lepers in many na- she might bear a male child on the tenth tions who are yet in honor, and not only month. Now, when these oaths were over, free from reproach and avoidance, but who the priest wiped the name of God out of the have been great captains of armies, and been parchment, and wrung the water into a vial. intrusted with high offices in the common. He also took up some dust out of the temple, wealth, and have had the privilege of entering if any happened to be there, and put a little into holy places and temples: so that nothing of it into the vial, and gave it her to drink; hindered, but if either Moses himself, or the whereupon the woman, if she were unjustly multitude that was with him, had been liable accused, conceived a child, and brought it to to such a misfortune, he might have made perfection ; but if she had broken her faith of laws about them for their credit and advan-wedlock to her husband, and had sworu falsely tage, and have laid no manner of difficulty before God, she died in a reproachful manupon them. Accordingly, it is a plain case ner :* her thigh fell off from her, and her that it is out of violent prejudice only that they belly swelled with a dropsy: and these are report these things about us. But Moses was the ceremonies about sacrifices, and about the pure from any such distemper, and lived with purifications thereto belonging, which Moses

camp, the city, and the court of the Mosaic tabernacle asion to the latter city, temple, and holy house, which he temple, and the tabernacle itself a holy house, with allu- knew so well long afterwards.

* Numb. v. 27. VOL. 1.—(9.)

2.E

provided

OF SEVERAL LAWS INSTITUTED BY MOSES.

provided for his countrymen. He also pre- || rity in their sacred ministrations, but in their scribed the following laws to them.

daily conversation, that it might be unbladet

able also; and on this account it is, that those CHAP. XII.

who wear the sacerdotal garments are without spot, and eminent for their purity and sobriety.

Nor are they permitted to drink wine so long: S for adultery, Moses forbade it entirely, || as they wear those garments. Moreover,

as esteeming it a happy thing that men they offer sacrifices that are entire, and have. should be wise in the affairs of wedlock, and

no defect whatever. that it was profitable both to cities and fami

Moses gave them all these precepts, being lies that children should be known to be ge- || such as were observed during his own life-time: nuiņe, He also abborred a man's connexion but though he lived now in the wilderness, with his mother, father's wife, aunt, sister, or son's wife, as instances of abominable wick: yet did he make provision how they might ob

serve the same laws when they should have edness. He also forbade a man to lie with taken the land of Canaan. He gave them bis wife when she was defiled; and not to rest to the land from ploughing and planting come near brute beasts; nor to approve of the every seventh year, as he had prescribed to lying with a male in order to hunt after un- | thein to rest from working every seventh day; lawful pleasures on account of beauty. To || and ordered that then what grew of its own those wbich were guilty of such insolent be- || accord out of the earth should in common haviour, he ordained death for their punish- || belong to all that pleased to use it, making no ment,

distinction in that respect between their own As for the priests, he prescribed to them | countrymen and foreigners ; and he ordained also a double degree of purity ; * for he restrain- | that they should do the same after seven times ed them in the foregoing instances, and also seven years, $ which in all are fifty years; and forbade them to marry a harlot, a slave, or a the fiftieth year is called by the Hebrews the captive, and such as got their living by cheat-Jubilee. At that time debtors are freed from ing trades, and by keeping inns; as also a | their debts, and slaves are set at liberty, which woman parted from her husband on any occa- || slaves became such, though they were of the sion whatsoever. Nay, he did not think it pro- | same stock, by transgressing some of those per for the high-priest to marry even the wilaws whose punishment was not capital; but dow of one that was dead, though he allowed they were punished by this method of slavery. that to the priests; but he permitted bim | This year also restores the land to its former only to marry a virgin, and to retain her ; || possessors in the following manner: when the whence it is that the high-priest is not to ap- ll jubilee is come, which name denotes liberty, proach one that is dead, although the rest | he that-sold the land, and he that bought it, are not prohibited from coming near to their | meet together, and make an estimate on one brethren, parents, or children, when they are hand of the fruits gathered, and on the other dead, but they are to be unblemished in all || hand of the expenses laid out upon it. If the respects. He ordered that the priest, who had | fruits gathered come to more than the exany blemish, should have bis portion indeed penses laid out, he that sold it takes the land among the priests ; but he forbade him to || again; but if the expenses prove more than ascend the altar, or enter into the holy house. | the fruits, the present possessor receives of He also enjoined them not only to observe pu- the former owner the difference that was

* These words of Josephus are remarkable, that the | We must here note with Reland, that the precept Jawgiver of the Jews required of the priests a double de- 1 given to the priests of not drinking wine, while they wore gree of purity, in comparison of that required of the peo the sacred garments, is equivalent to their abstinence from ple, of which he gives several instances. This was the it while they ministered in the temple, because they then also

among the first Christians, of the clergy, in com- | only wore those sacred garments, which were laid up there parison of the laity, as the apostolical constitutions and from one time of ministration to another. canons every where infornı us. + Levit. xxi, 11.

§ Levit. xxv. 1.

wanting,

case

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