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the Levites,

wanting, and leaves the land to him: but if|| the cloud stood over the tabernacle, they
the fruits received, and the expenses laid out, thought proper to stay in the same place, as
prove equal, the present possessor relinquishes supposing that God there inhabited among
it to the former owner. Moses would have men, but when that removed they journeyed
the same law obtain as to those houses, alsoff also.t
which were sold in villages : but he made a Moses was also the inventor of the form of
different law for such as were sold in a city ; || the Hebrew trumpet, which was made of
for if he that sold it tendered the purchaser his | silver. In length it was little less than a cu-
money again within a year, he was forced to bit. It was composed of a narrow tube, some-
restore it; but in case a whole year had inter- || what thicker than a flute, but with so much
vened, the purchaser was to enjoy what be breadth as was sufficient for admission of the
bad bought. This was the constitution of breath of a man's mouth ; it ended in the
the laws which Moses learned of God when form of a bell, like common trumpets. Its

the camp lay under mount Sinai, and this sound was called, in the Hebrew tongue, ner he delivered in writing to the Hebrews.

There were two of them made ; and 回

Now when this settlement of laws, seemed when the first of them gave a signal, the 21 to be well over, Moses 'thought proper to take heads of the tribes were to assemble, and le!

a review of the host, in order to settle the consult about the affairs to them properly be

affairs of war: so he charged the heads of longing: but when both of them sounded they OM

the tribes, excepting the tribe of Levi, to called the multitude together, which was done take an exact account of the number of those when the tabernacle was to remove. When who were able to go to war; for as to the the second signal was given, those that were Levitesthey were holy, and free from all on the south quarter did the like. In the such burdens. Now, when the people had next place, the tabernacle was taken to pieces, been numbered, there were found six hundred and was carried in the midst of six tribes thousand that were able to go to war, from that went before, and of six that followed. twenty to fifty years of age, besides three Now all the Levites were about the tabernathousand six hundred and fifty. Instead of cle. When the third signal was given, that Levi, Moses took Manasseh, the son of Jo- part which had their tents towards the west seph, among the heads of tribes

, and Ephraim put themselves in motion; and at the fourth instead of Joseph. It was indeed, the desire signalf those on the north did so likewise. of Jacob himself to Joseph, that he would || They also used trumpets in their sacred mi. give him his sons to be his own by adop-|| nistrations, when they were bringing their tion, * as I have before related.

sacrifices to the altar, as well as on the sab:
When they set up the tabernacle, they re- baths, and on the rest of the festival days:
ceived it into the midst of their camp ; three. And now it was that Moses offered that sacri-
of the tribes pitching their tents on each sidefice which was called the Passover in the wil-
of it; and roads were cut through the midst | derness, as the first he had offered after the
of these tents. It was like a well-appointed departure out of Egypt.
market, and every thing was there ready for
sale in due order, and all sorts of artificers

were in the shops, and it resembled nothing
so much, as a city that sometimes was move-

able, and sometimes fixed. The priests had
the first places about the tabernacle; then|| A and went from mount Sinai ; and, hav-

LITTLE while afterward Moses rose up, titude was reckoned from thirty days old, ing passed through several mansions, of which were twenty-three thousand eight hundred we will speak anon, he came to a place called and eighty males; and during the time that|| Hazeroth, where the multitude began again


* Book II, chap. 8.

+ Exod. xl, 36, 37.

These two signals are wanting in the Hebrew and Samaritad, but extant in the Septuagint, as in Josephus.'


them in a

to be mutinous, and to blame him for the || multitude together; and, standing in the midst misfortunes they had suffered in their travels ; || of them, he said : “Of the two things that and that when he had persuaded them to leave God determined to bestow upon us, liberty, a good land, they at once had lost that land, || and the possession of a happy country, the one and, instead of the happy state he had pro- || ye are already parlakers of, by the gift of mised them, they were still wandering in their || God, and the other you will quickly obtain; for present miserable condition, being already in we now have our abode near the borders of want of water; and if the manna should hap- || Canaan, and nothing can hinder the acquisipen to fail, they must then utterly perisb ; yet, tion of it, when we now at last are fallen upwhile they generally spake many bitter things on it: I say not only no king, nor city; but against the man, there was one who exhorted neither the whole race of mankind, if they them not to be unmindful of Moses, and of | are all gathered together, could do it. Let what great pains he had been at about their us, therefore, prepare ourselves for the work; common safety, and not to despair of assist- || for the Canaanites will not resign up their ance from God. The multitude, however, land to us without fighting, but it must be became still more unruly,, and inore mutinous wrested from them by great struggles in war. against Moses than before; hereupon Moses,* Let us then send spies, who may take a view although he was so basely abused by them, || of the goodness of the land, and what strength encouraged them in their despairing condi- it is of; but, above all things, let us be of one tion, and promised that he would procure mind, and let us honour God, who is our suthem a great quantity of flesh meat, and || preme helper and assister.” that not for a few days only, but for many Wben Moses had said thus, the multitude days; and when they could not believe him, || requited him with marks of respect, and and one of them asked, whence he could ob- I chose twelve spies of the most eminent men, tain such vast plenty of what he promised ? ||one out of each tribe, who, passing over he replied, “ Neither God nor I, although we all the land of Canaan, from the borders of hear such opprobrious words from you, will Egypt, came to the city Hamath and to mount leave off our labours for you; and this shall || Lebanon ; and when they had learned the soon appear.” As soon as he had said this, || nature of the land and of its inhabitants, they the whole camp was filled with quails, and returned home, having spent forty days in the they stood round about them, and gathered | whole work. They also brought with them not long ere God punished the Hebrews for and gave an account of the great quantity of that insolence and those reproaches they had || the good things the country afforded, which used towards him, for no small number of | were motives to the multitude to go to war; them died; and to this day the place retains but then they terrified them again with the the memory of their destruction, and is named | great difficulty there was in obtaining it, sayKibroth Hattaavah, which is, the graves oting, that the rivers were so large and deep lust. †

that they could not be passed over, the hills

were so high that they could not travel along CHAP. XIV.

for them, and the cities were strengthened with walls and firm fortifications. They told them also, that they found at Hebron the posterity

of the giants. Accordingly these spies, who HEN Moses had led the Hebrews to a had seen the land of Canaan, when they per

place called Paran, which was near || ceived that all these difficulties were greater the borders of the Canaanites, and a place there than they had met with since they came difficult to be continued in, he gathered the out of Egypt, were affrighted at them them




* This circumstance clearly evinces the propriety with in most men; but on him it bad no other effect than to which Moses is denominated the meekest of men. The ll induce him to exert himself the more for the good of the provocations he received would have excited resentment people. B.

+ Numb. xi. 34.



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selves, and endeavored to intimidate the
multitude also...

: From this acéount the people supposed that
it was impossible to get the possession of the OF THE PUNISHMENT THREATENED TO THE ISRAELITES ON
country,* and, when the congregation was
dissolved, they, their wives, and children,
continued their lamentation, as if God would MOSES now.came boldly to the multitude,
not indeed assist them, but only 'promised
thein fair; they also again blamed Moses, at their abuse of him, and would inflict punish-
and made a clamor against him and his bro-ment upon them, not indeed such as they
ther Aaron, the high-priest ; accordingly they deserved for their sins, but such as parents
passed that night very ill, and with contume- ||inflict on their children, in order to their cor-
lious language against them ; but in the morn-rection; for, he said, that when he was in
ing they ran to a congregation, intending to their tabernacle, and was bewailing with tears
stone Moses and Aaron, and then to return that destruction which was coming upon them,
into Egypt.t

God put him in mind:what things he had done But of the spies there were Joshua the son for them, and what benefits they had received of Nun, of the tribe of Ephraim, and Caleb, from him, and yet bow ungrateful they had of the tribe of Judah, who were afraid of proved: that just now they had been induced the consequence, and came into the midst of by the timorousness of the spies to think their them, and stilled the multitude: desiring them words truer than his own promise to them, to be of good courage, and neither to con-'|| and that on this account, though he would not demn God, as having deceived them, neither destroy them all, nor utterly exterminate their to hearken to those who had affrighted them nation, which he had honored more than by telling what was not true concerning the any other part of mankind, he would not Canaanites, but believe those that encouraged permit them to take possession of the land of them to hope for good success, and that Canaan, nor enjoy its happiness, but would they should gain possession of the happiness make them wander in the wilderness, and live promised them, because neither the height of without a fixed habitation, and without a city, mountains, 'nor the depth of rivers, could for forty years together, as a punishment for hinder men of true courage from attempting their transgression; but at the same time he them, especially while God would take care promised to give that land to their children, of them beforehand, and be assistant to them. and to bestow on them those gocd things which “Let us go then,” said they, “ against our their fathers had forfeited by their ungoverned enemies, and have no suspicion of ill suc- passions. cess, trusting in God to conduct us, and fol When Moses had discoursed thus, accordlowing those that are to be our leaders.”ing to the direction of God, the multitude Thus did these two exhort them, and endea-grieved, and were in affliction; and intreated vor to pacify the rage they were in; but | Moses to procure their reconciliation to God, Moses and Aaron fell on the ground, and and to permit them no longer. to wander in besought God, not for their own deliverance, the wilderness, but to bestow cities upon

them but that he would now put a stop to what the but he replied that God would not admit of people were unwarily doing, and would bring any such trial, for that God was not moved their minds to a quiet temper, which were to this determination from any human levity now disordered by their present passion. The or anger, but that he had judicially condemned cloud also now appeared, and stood over the them to that, punishment. Now we are not tabernacle, declaring the presence of God toto disbelieve that Moses, who was but a sinbe there. I

gle person, pacified so many ten thousands

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*' This was the effect of their unbelief; a sin with which so many signal and, repeated. exertions of the Divine
they are repeatedly charged in the Scriptures, and which power. B.
was the more aggravated in them, as they had witnessed + Numb. xiv. 4.

Numb; xiv. 10.
VOL. 1.-(10.)

2 F


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when they were in anger, and converted them sacrifices in an imperfect condition : nayo . to a mildness of temper; for God was with many were not able even at first so much as him, and prepared the way to his persuasions to enter into the temple, but went their ways of the multitude; and, as they had often been in this state, as preferring a submission to disobedient, they were now sensible that such the laws of Moses before the fulfilling of their disobedience was disadvantageous to them, own inclinations, even when they had no fear and that they had thereby fallen into calami- upon them that any body could convict them, ties.

but only out of a reverence to their own cone This man was indeed admirable for his vir- science ; so that this legislation, which apo tue, and powerful in making men give credit peared to be divine, made this man toj be to what he delivered, not only during the esteemed as one superior to his own human time of his natural life, but even there is still nature. Nay, farther, a little before the be no one of the Hebrews who does not act, ginning of ihis war, when Claudius was em even now, as if Moses were present, and ready peror of the Romans, and Ismael was our to punish him if he should do any thing that high-priest ; and when so great a famine* is indecent; nay, there is no one but is obe-was come upon us, that one tenth deak of dient to what laws he ordained, although wheat was sold for four drachmæ, and when they might be concealed in their transgres- no less than seventy corit of flour were brought sions. There are also many other demonstra-into the temple, at the feast of unleavened tions that his power was more than human ; | bread, not one of the priests was so hardy as for some have even come from the parts be to eat one crumb of it, even while so great yond Euphrates, a journey of four months, a distress was on the land, and this out of a through many dangers, and at great expenses, dread of the law, and of that wrath which in honour of our temple; and yet when they God retains against acts of wickedness, even had offered their oblations could not partake when no one can accuse the actors; whencë of their own sacrifices, because Moses had we are not to wonder at what was then done, forbidden it, by somewhat in the law that did whilst this very day the writings left by Moses not permit them, or somewhat that had behave so great force, that even those that hate fallen them, which our ancient customs made us confess, that he who established this settle inconsistent therewith ; so that some of these ment was God, and that it was by the means did not sacrifice at all, and others left their of Moses, and of his virtue.


Containing an Interval of Thirty-eight Years.



they were so uneasy at it, that althoughi God of the ENGAGEMENT WHICH TOOK PLACE BETWEEN The bad forbidden them to meddle with the Ca. HEBREWS AND THE CANAANITES, WITHOUT THE CONSENT naanites, yet could they not be persuaded to

be obedient to the words of Moses, and to T HE residence of the Hebrews in the wil-be quiet; but supposing they should be able

derness was so disagreeable to them, and to beat their enemies, even without his appro


* This famine, as Dr. Hudson observes, in the days of + These cori are thirty-one Sicilian, or forty-one AtheClaudius, is mentioned in the Antiquities XX. 4. and Acts,||nian medimni. xi, 28. as also by Tacitus, Phlegon, Dio, and Africanus.


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bation, they accused him; and suspected that their troops, were pursued, and Aled after a he made it his business to keep them in a dis- shameful manner * to their camp.

Wheretressed condition, that they might always stand upon this unexpected misfortune made them in need of his assistance. Accordingly they quite despond, and they hoped for nothing resolved, to fight with the Canaanites, and that was good, as gathering from it that this said, that God gave them his assistance, not affliction came from the wrath of God, beout of regard to their leader's intercessions, cause they rashly went out to war without his but because he took care of their entire nation, approbation. on account of their forefathers: whose affairs When Moses saw how deeply they were afhe took under his own conduct : as, also ihat|fected with this defeat, and when he was afraid it was on account of their own virtue, that lest the enemies should grow insolent upon he had formerly procured them their liberty, this victory, and should attack them in order and would assist them, now they were willing to gain still greater glory, he resolved that it to take pains for it. They also said that they was proper to withdraw the army into the wilwere of themselves of abilities sufficient for derness, to a farther distance from the Ca. the conquest of their enemies, although Moses naanites. So the multitude gave themselves should have a mind to alienate God from up again to his conduct; for they were sensithem; and that however it was for their ad- ble that, without his care, their affairs could vantage to be their own masters, and not so not be in a good condition : and be caused far to rejoice in their deliverance from the in the host to remove, and he went farther into dignities they endured under the Egyptians, the wilderness; as intending there to let them as to bear the tyranny of Moses, and to suffer rest, and not to permit them to fight the Cathemselves to be deluded, and live according naanites before God should afford them a more to his pleasure : as though God did only fore- favorable opportunity. tell what concerned them, out of his kindness to him ; and as though they were not all the

CHAP. II. posterity of Abraham, and that God made of the sedition or coram AND OF THE MULTITUDE him alone the author of all their knowledge,

it .


THAT gant pretences, and to put their confidence in armies, and especially upon ill success, God; and to resolve to take possession of that to be bard to be pleased, and governed with land which he had promised them, and not difficulty, did now befall the Jews: † for beto give ear to him, who, on this account, anding in number six hundred thousand, and by under the pretence of divine authority, for reason of their great multitude not readily bade them so to do. Considering, therefore, subject to their governors, even in prosperity, the distressed state they were in at present, they at this time were more than usually anand that in those desert places they were still gry, both against each other, and against to expect things would be worse with them, their leader, because of the distress they were they resolved to fight with the Canaanites; } in, and the calamities they then endured : on as submitting only to God, their supreme com- which account such a sedition overtook them mander, and not waiting for any assistance as we have not the like example either among from their legislator.

the Greeks or the Barbarians; by means of When they had come to this resolution, which they were in danger of being all destroythey went against their enemies; but those ed, but were notwithstanding saved by Moses, enemies were not dismayed either at the at- who would not remember that he had been tack itself, or at the great multitude that made almost stoned to death by them. Nor did God it: but received them with such courage, that neglect to prevent their ruin; but, notwithmany of the Hebrews were slain, and the re-standing the indignities they offered the lemainder of the army, upon the disorder of gislator and the laws, and their disobedience


* Numb. xiv. 45,

+ About An. 1512.


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