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that though Moses and Aaron were before un- | bread-corn, and made loaves of it, they should der some degree of hatred; they now. laid | give somewhat of what they baked to them. that hatred aside, and began to admire the Moreover, when any have made a sacred vow; judgment of God concerning them. So that I mean those that are called. Nazarites, * that hereafter they applauded what God had de- suffer their hair to grow long, and use no creed, and permitted Aaron to enjoy the wine : when they consecrate their hair, and priesthood peaceably. And thus God ordain- offer it for a sacrifice, they are to allot that ed him . priest three several times, and be re- hair to the priests, to be thrown into the fire. tained that honor without farther disturbance. Such, also, as dedicate themselves to God, as a And hereby this sedition of the Hebrews, corban, which denotes what the Greek's call a which had lasted a great while, was at length gift, when they are desirous of being freed composed.

from that ministration, are to lay down money. And now Moses, because the tribe of Levi || for the priests; thirty shekels if it be a wowas made free from war and warlike expe- man, and fifty if it be a man ; but if any be ditions, and was set apart for the divine wor too poor to pay the appointed sum, it shali be ship'; lest they should want, and seek after lawful for the priests to determine the sum, as the necessaries of life, and so neglect the they think fit. And if any slay a beast at temple; commanded the Hebrews, according home, for a private festival, but not for a reto the will of God, that when they should ligious one, they are obliged to bring the gain the possession of the land of Canaan, maw, and the cheek, or breast, and the right they should assign forty-eight good cities to shoulder of the sacrifice, to the priests. With the Levites, and permit them to enjoy their these Moses contrived that the priests should suburbs, as far as the limit of two thousand be plentifully maintained; besides what they cubits would extend from the walls of the city. I had out of those offerings for sins, which the And besides this, he appointed that the peo-people gave them; as I have set it down in the ple should

pay the tithe of their annual fruits | foregoing book. He also ordered, that out of the earth, both to the Levites, and to the of every thing allotted for the priests, their priests. And this is what that tribe receives servants, their sons, their daughters, and their of the multitude. But I think it necessary to wives, should partake, as well as themselves; set down what is paid by all, peculiarly to the excepting what came to them out of the sacripriests.

fices that were offered for sins. For of those Accordingly 'he commanded the Levites to none but the males of the family of the priests yield up to the priests thirteen of their forty-might eat; and this in the temple also; and eight cities; and to set apart for them the the same day they were offered. tenth part of the tithe which they every year

When Moses had made these constitutions, receive of the people; as also that it was but after the sedition was over, he removed, tojust to offer to God the first-fruits of the entiregether with the whole army, and came to the product of the ground; and that they should borders of Idumea. He then sent ambassaoffer the first-born of those four-footed beastsdors to the king of the Idumeans, and dethat are appointed for sacrifices, if it be a sired him to give him a passage through his male, to the priests, to be slain; that they and country: and agreed to send him what hosttheir entire families may eat them in the holy ages he should desire, to secure him from city; but that the owners of those first-born, any injury. He desired also, that he would which are not appointed for sacrifices, in the allow his army liberty to buy provisions ; laws of our country, should bring a shekel | and if he insisted upon it, he would pay and a half in their stead; but for the first-down a price for the very water they should boro of a man, five shekels : that they should drink. But the king was not pleased with also have the first-fruits out of the shearing this ambassage from Moses, nor did be allow of the sheep ; and that when any baked || a passage for the army, but brought his peo* Grotius observes, that the Greeks, as well as the Jews, sometimes consecrated the hair of their heads to the gods.

On Numb. vi, 18.
VOL. 1.—(10.)

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TRIBES AND A HALF OF THE HEBREWS.

ple armed to meet Moses, and to hinder them | merly called Arce, but has now the name of in case they should endeavor to force their Petra: at this place, which was encompassed passage. Úpon which Moses consulted God with high mountains, Aaron went up one of by the oracle; who would not have him be them in the sight of the whole army; Moses gin the war first: and so he withdrew his having before told him that he was to die; forces, and travelled round about through the for this place was over against them. He wilderness.

there put off his pontifical garments, and det Then it was that Miriam, the sister of livered them to Eleazar his son ; to whom the Moses, came to her * end; having completed high-priesthood belonged, because he was the her f fortieth year since she left Egypt; on I elder brother; and died & while the multitude the first day of the lunar month Xanthicus. looked upon him. He died in the same year They then made a public funeral for her, at a wherein he lost his sister; having lived in all great expense.

She was buried upon a cer an hundred and twenty-three years. He died tain mountain, which they call Sin. And on the first day of that lupar month, which is when they had mourned for her thirty days, called by the Athenians, Hecatombæon ; 'by Moses purified the people after this manner. the Macedonians, Lous: but by the Hebrews, He brought a heifer, that had never been Abba. used to the plough, or to husbandry; that

CHAP. V. was complete in all its parts, and entirely of a

OF THE CONQUEST OF SIHON AND OG, KINGS OF THE AMORred color; at a little distance from the camp, ITES; AND THE DIVISION OF THEIR LAND BY LOT TO TWO into a place perfectly clean. This heifer was slain by the high priesty can dishes

, bbed reprin: Thake people whenurned on form Aarons thirty tabernacle of God. After this, the entire hei- Moses removed the army from that place, and fer was burnt in that state, together with its came to the river Arnon; which issuing out skin and entrails, and they threw cedar-wood, of the mountains of Arabia, and running and hyssop, and scarlet wool, into the midst of through all that wilderness, fell into the lake the fire. Then a clean man gathered all her Asphaltites; and became the limit between ashes together, and laid them in a place per- the land of the Moabites, and the land of the fectly clean. When, therefore, any persons Amorites. This land is fruitful, and sufficient were defiled by a dead body, they put a little to maintain a great number of men, with the of these ashes into spring water, with hys. | good things it produces. Moses, therefore, sop; and, dipping part of these ashes in it, sent messengers to Sihon, the king of this they sprinkled them with it, both on the third country, desiring that he would grant his army day, and on the seventh ; and after that they a passage, upon what security he should please were clean. This he enjoined them to do also, to require : he promised that he should be no when the tribes should come into their own ways injured ; neither as to that country land.

which Sihon governed, nor as to its inhabitNow when this purification, which their ants : and that he would buy his provisions leader made, upon the mourning for his sis at such a price as should be to their advanter, as it has now been described, was over, tage; even though he should desire to sell he caused the army to remove, and to march them their very water. But Sihon refused his through the wilderness, and through Arabia. offer, and put his army in array, preparing And when he came to a place which the Ara- | every thing in order to hinder their passage bians esteem their metropolis, wbich was for over Arnon. ||

* Numb. xx. 1.

because the Latin copies say, it was on the tenth ; and so + Josephus here uses this phrase, when the fortieth say the Jewish calendars also, as Dr. Bernard assures us. year was completed, for when it was begun; as does It is said her sepulchre is still extant near Petra, the old St. Luke, when the day of Pentecost was completed. capital of Arabia Petræa, at this day; as also that of Acis ii. 1.

Aaron, not far off. I Whether Miriam died, as Josephus's Greek copies § Numb. xx. 28. imply, on the first day of the month, may be doubted; # Numb. xxi. 23.

When

When Moses saw that the Amorite king was these were more, distressed with thirst, thaņ disposed to commence hostilities, he thought with any of those that fought against them, he ought not to bear that insult; and deter- for it was the summer season : and when the mining to wean the Hebrews from their.indo- greatest number of them were brought down lent temper, and prevent the disorders which to the river, out of a desire to drink; as also arose thence, which had been the occasion of when others fled away by troops, the Hebrews their former sedition ; nor indeed were they came round them, and shot at them; so that, now thoroughly easy in their minds; he in- what with darts, and what with arrows, they quired of God, whether he would give him made a slaughter of them all: Sihon also, leave to fight? which when he had done, and their king, was slain. So the Hebrews spoilGod had promised him the victory, he was ed their dead bodies, and took their prey.* very courageous, and ready to proceed to The land also, which they took, was full of fighting. Accordingly he encouraged the sol- fruits, and the army went all over it without diers, and desired of them that they would fear, and fed their cattle upon it, and took take the pleasure of fighting, now God gave the enemies prisoners. For they could no way them leave so to do. Upon this commission, put a stop to them, since all the fighting men which they so much longed for, they put on were destroyed. Such was the destruction their armor, and set about the work with which overtook the Amorites, who were neither out delay. But the Amorite king was not sagacious in counsel, nor courageous in action. now like to himself, when the Hebrews were Hereupon the Hebrews took possession of their ready to attack him ; both himself was af- land, which is situate between three rivers, frighted at the Hebrews, and bis army, which and naturally resembling an island, the river before bad shewn themselves to be of good Arnon being its northern limit, and the river courage, were then found to be timorous. So Jabbok determining its southern side; which, they could not sustain the first onset, nor bear running into Jordan, loses its own name, and up against the Hebrews : but fled away, think-takes the other. While Jordan itself runs ing this would afford them a more likely way along by it, on its western coast.t for their escape than fighting. For they de When matters were come to this state, Og, pended upon their cities, which were strong; the king of Gilead and Gaulanitis, fell upon

which they 'reaped no advantage, when the Israelites. He brought an army with they were forced to Ay from them. For as him, and came in haste to the assistance of soon as the Hebrews saw them giving ground, bis friend Sihon. But though be found him they immediately pursued ; and when they already slain, he resolved to fight the Hehad broken their ranks, they greatly terribed brews, supposing he should be too hard for them. And some of them broke off from the them, and being desirous to try their valor. rest, and ran away to the cities. Now the But failing of his hope, he was both slain in Hebrews pursued them briskly, and obsti- the battle, and all his army was destroyed. I nately persevered in the labors they had al- So Moses passed over the river Jabbok, and ready undergone; and being very skilful in overran the kingdom of Og. He overthrew slinging, and very dextrous in throwing their cities, and slew all their inhabitants ; darts, or any thing else of that kind; and who exceeded in riches all the men in that also having on nothing but light armor, which part of the continent, on account of the goodmade them quick in pursuit, they overtook ness of the soil, and the great quantity of his their enemies. And for those that were most wealth. Now Og had very few equals, either remote, and could not be overtaken, they in the largeness of his body, or the beauty of reached them by their slings and their bows, his appearance. He was also a man of great so that many were slain, and those that escap- activity ; so that his actions were not unequal ed the slaughter were sorely wounded; and to the vast largeness and handsome appear

* This victory is celebrated in Numb, xxi. 30. Deut. i. 4. iii. 2. iv. 46. xxix. 7, 8. Josh. xjii. 10. Judges xi. 21. Ps. cxxxv. 10, 11. cxxxvi. 18, 19, and by Philo, p. 642.

+ Numb, xxi. 24.

See Numb, xxi. 35. Deut. iii. 3. Josh, xii. 4. Ps. cxxxv. 11, 12. and Philo, p. 643.

ance

TIFICE BY WHICH THE HEBREW'S WERE WEAKENED.

ance of his body. And men could easily guess y dle with any other country; but were to be at his strength and magnitude, when they took contented with the possession of the land of his bed at Rabbath, the royal city of the Am-Canaan, God having forbidden them to go monites. Its structure was of iron; its breadth any farther. So he, with more haste than four cubits, and its length a cubit more than wisdom, resolved to make an attempt upon double thereto. However, his fall did not only them by words; but he did not judge it pruimprove the circumstances of the Hebrews for dent to fight against them, after they had had the present: but by his death he was the occa- the prosperous successes, and even became sion of further good success to them; for they out of ill successes more happy than before ; presently took those sixty cities which were but be thought to hinder then, if he could, encompassed with excellent walls, and had from growing greater ; and so he resolved to been subject to him; and all the people got, send ambassadors to the Midianites aboutboth in general and particular, a great prey. them. Now these Midianites, knowing there

was one Balaam, who lived by Euphrates, CHAP. VI.

and was the greatest of the prophets at that

time, and one that was in friendship with OF balaam'S ATTEMPT to curse israel, And Of The Ar- them, sent some of their honorable princes

along with the ambassadors of Balak, to enTHEN Moses had brought his army to treat the prophet to come to them; that be

Jordan, he pitched his camp in the might imprecate curses to the destruction of great plain over against Jericho.* This city the Israelites.Ị So Balaam received the amwas a very happy situation, and very fit for bassadors, and treated them very kindly. producing palm trees and balsam. And now And when he had supped, he inquired what the Israelites began to be very proud of them- was God's will, and what this matter was selves, and were very eager for fighting. Mo- for which the Midianites entreated him to come ses then, after he had offered for a few days to them: but when God opposed his going, be sacrifices of thanksgiving to God, and feasted came to the ambassadors, and told them the people, sent a party of armed men to lay that he was himself willing and desirous to waste the country of the Midianites, and to comply with their request, but that God was take their cities. Now the occasion which opposite to bis intentions, even that God who he took for making war upon them was as had raised him to great reputation on account follows:

of the truth of his predictions. For that this When Balak, the king of the Moabites, army which they entreated him to come to who had from his ancestors a friendship and curse was in the favor of God. On which league with the Midianites, saw how greatly account he advised them to go home again, the Israelites were increased, he was much and not to persist in their enmity against the affrighted on account of his own and his king- Israelites. And when he had given them that don's danger. For he was t not acquainted answer he dismissed the ambassadors. with this, that the Hebrews would not med

Now the Midianites, at the earnest entrea

* Numb, 8811, 1.

the help of their gods, to devote not only particular per. + What Josephus here remarks is worthy our remark, || sons, but whole armies, to destruction. This they are viz. that the Israelites were never to meddle with the said to have done sometimes by words of inprecation, "Moabites, Ammonites, or any other people, but those of which there was a set form among some people, which belonging w the land of Canaan, and the countries of Æschines calls drogasomermi apav, the determinare curse. Sihon and Og beyond Jordan, as far as the desert and Sometimes they also offered sacrifices, and used certain Euphrates; and that, therefore, no other people had reason rites and ceremonies, with solemn charms. A famous to fear the conquests of the Israelites; but that those instance of this we find in the life of Crassus, where Plucountries given them by God were their proper and pe- tarch tells us, that Atticus, tribune of the people, made a fire culiar portion among the nations, and that all who endea- at the gate out of which Crassus was to march to the war vored io possess them might ever be justly destroyed against the Parthians, into which he threw certain things by them.

to make a fume, and offered sacrifices to the most angry | Numb. xxii. 6. An opinion prevailed both in those gods, with horrid imprecations upon him; these, he says, days, and in after ages, that some men had a power, by according to ancient tradition, had such a power, that

ties of Balak, senti other ambassadors to Ba- what he was now going about, by the proviJaam, who, desiring to gratify the men, in- dence of God. And when he was disturbed quired again of God; but he was displeased by reason of the voice of the ass, which was at this second trial, and bid him by no means that of a man ; the angel plainly appeared to to contradict the ambassadors. Balaam did Bim,* and blamed him for the stripes he had not imagine that God gave this injunction in given his ass ; informing him, that the creature order to deceive him; so he went along with was not in fault, but that he was himself come the ambassadors. But when the divine angel to obstruct his journey, as being contrary to met him in the way, when he was in a nar- the will of God. Upon this Balaam was row passage, and edged in with a wall on afraid, and was preparing to return back, yet both sides, the ass on which Balaam rode | God excited him to go on his intended way'; understood that it was a divine spirit that but added this injunction, that he should dem met him; and thrust Balaam to one of the clare nothing, but what he himself should walls, without regard to the stripes which her suggest.† inaster, when he was hurt by the wall, gave When God had given him this charge, the her. But when the ass, upon the angel's con- prophet came to Balak; and after the king tinuing to distress her, and upon the stripes bad entertained him in a magnificent manner, which were given her, fell down ; by the will he desired him to go to one of the mountains, of God she made use of the voice of a man, to take a view of the state of the camp of the and complained of Balaam, as acting un-Hebrews. Balak himself also came to the justly to her; that whereas he had no fault to mountain, and brought the prophet along find with her in her former service, he now in- with him, with a royal attendance.

This flicted stripes upon her; as not understanding mountain lay over their heads, and was disthat she was hindered from serving him in tant sixty furlongs from the camp. I He then no man who was loaded with them could avoid being un

phet, of the true God : and intimates that God's answer the done. B.

second time, permitting him to go, was ironical, and on * Numb. xxii. 31. “Then the Lord opened the eyes of design that he should be deceived; which sort of decepBalaam, and he saw the angel of the Lord standing in the tion, by way of punishment for former crimes, Josephus way.There are several instances to be found both in the never scruples to admit; as ever esteeming such wicked scriptures and in profane authors, where the eyes have men justly and providentially deceived. But perhaps we been opened by a divine power to perceive that which had better to adhere closely to the test; which says, Numb. they could not see by mere natural discernment. Thus | xxiii. 20, 21, that God only permitted Balaam to go along the

eyes of Hagar were opened, that she might see the with, or in the Septuagint version to follow, the ambassafountain, Gen. sxi. 19. Homer also presents us with an | dors; in case they came and called him, or positively example of this kind. Minerva says to Diomed,

insisted on his going along with thein, on any terms. Yet more, from mortal mists I purge thy eyes,

Whereas Balaam seems, out of impatience, io bave risen And set to view the warring deities. ll. v. 164. Pope.

up in the morning and saddled his ass, and rather to have

called them, than staid for their calling him. So zealous And in Virgil, Venus performs the same office 10 Æneas, | does he seem to have been for his reward of divination, and shew's him the gods who were engaged in the destruc

his wages of unrighteousness. Numb. xxii, 7, 17, 18, 37. tion of Troy :

2 Peler ii. 15. Jude 1l, which reward or wages the truly Aspice; namque omnem, quæ nunc obducta tuenti

religious prophets of God never required, nor accepted"; Mortales hebetat visus tibi, et humida circum, &c.

as Josepbus justly takes notice in the cases of Samuel, AnÆn, ii. 601. tiq. VI. 4, and Daniel, Antiq. X. 17.

See also Gen. siv. Now cast your eyes

around: wbile I dissolve The mists and filmsibat mortal eyes involve ;

23, 24, 2 Kings. v. 15, 16, 26, and Acts viii. 18—24.

| Balaam required seven altars lo be built, and suitable Purge from your sight the dross, and make you see

sacrifices to be prepared. The ancients were very superThe shape of each avenging deity.

DRYDEN.

stitious about certain numbers, supposing that God deMilton seems likewise to have imitated this, when he lighted in odd numbers : makes Michael

open
Adam's

eyes to see the future revolu Terna tibi hæc primum triplici diversa colore lions of the world, and the fortunes of his posterity :

Licia circumdo; terque hæc altaria circun
Then purg'd with eupbrasy and rue

Effigiem duco; numero Deus impare gaudet.
The visual nerve, for he had much to see,

Virg. Eclog. viii, 73. And from the well of life three drops instilld.

Around his waxen image first I wind Paradise Lost, b. xi. 414. B. Three woollen fillets, of three colors join'd; † Note that Josephus never supposes Balaam to be an Thrice bind about his thrice devoted head, idolater, nor to seek idolatrous enchantments, or to pro Which round the sacred altar thrice is led, phesy falsely, but to be no other than an ill-disposed pro Unequal numbers please the gods.DRYDEN. B. vol. 1.-(11.)

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