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upon these promises of God, and went out sud. || he observed to them what prosperous successes denly against the enemies: and after five days' || they had already had, and what glorious things march he came upon them, and joined battle had been done ; and those such as were worthy with them'; and there was a terrible fight, and of that God who enabled them to do those such a number were slain, as could not be be-things, and worthy of the virtue of those laws lieved by those that heard it. : He also went on which they followed. He took notice; also, in the pursuit a great way; and destroyed the thats thirty-one of those kings that ventured to entire army of the enemies; few only escaped: give them battle were overcome; and every and all the kings fell in the battle; insomuch | army, how great soever it were, that confided that when there wanted men to be killed, in their power, and fought with them, 'was Joshua slew their horses, and burnt their cha- | utterly destroyed; so that not so much as any riots, and passed all over their country without of their posterity remained. And as for the opposition; no one daring to meet him in battle: cities, since some of them were taken, but the but he still went on, taking their cities by siege, || others must be taken in length of time by long and killing whatsoever he took.
sieges, both on account of the strength of their The fifth year was now past ;* and there walls, and of the confidence the inhabitants was not one of the Canaanites remained any had in them, he thought it reasonable that longer: excepting some that had retired to those tribes that came along with them from places of great strength. So Joshua removed | beyond Jordan, and had partaken of the danbis camp to the mountainous country, and | gers they had undergone, being their own placed the tabernacle in the middle of Shiloh ;t kindred, should now be dismissed and sent for that seemed a fit place for it, because of bome; and should have thanks for the pains the beauty of its situation: until such times they had taken together with them. As also as their affairs would permit them to build a he thought it reasonable that they should send temple. And from thence he went to She-one man out of every tribe, and he such as chem, together with all the people, and raised | had the testimony of extraordinary virtue, who an altar where Moses had previously directed. should measure the land faithfully; and, withThen did he divide the army, and placed one out any fallacy or deceit, should inform them half of them on Mount Gerizzim, and the of its real magnitude. other half on Mount Ebal; on which mountain Now Joshua, when he had thus spoken, the altar was; he also placed there the tribe found that the multitude approved of his
proof Levi, and the priests. And when they had | posal. So he sent men to measure their counsacrificed, and denounced the blessings and the try, and sent with them some geometricians, curses, and had left thein engraven upon the || who could not easily fail of ascertaining the altar, they returned to Shiloh.
truth, on account of their skill in that art. And now Joshua was old, and saw that the He also gave them a charge to estimate the cities of the Canaanites were not easily to be measure of that part of the land that was most taken : not only because they were situated in fruitful, and what was not so good. For such such strong places, but because of the strength is the nature of the land of Canaan, that one of the walls themselves : which being built | may see large plains, and such as are exceedround about, the natural strength of the places ingly fit to produce fruit, which, if they were on which the cities stood seemed capable of || compared with other parts of the country, repelling their enemies from besieging them. might be reckoned exceeding fruitful: yet, in For when the Canaanites had learned that comparison with the fields about Jericho, and the Israelites came out of Egypt in order to those that belong to Jerusalem, they will apdestroy them, they were busy all that time in pear to be of no account at all. And although making their cities strong. So he gathered || it happen, that these people have but very the people together at Shiloh; and when they, | little of this sort of land, and that it is, in gewith great zeal and haste, were come thither,neral, mountainous also, yet does it not come
oranca * An. 1487. + Josh, xviii. 1.
| Josh. xii. 3—24.
behind other parts, on account of its exceeding || ern parts, as far as the city of Damascus, and goodness and beauty.
For which reason Jo- the Upper Galilée, unto mount Libanus, and shua thought that the land for the tribes should the fountains of Jordan; which arise out of be divided by estimation of its goodness, ra- that mountain : that is, out of that part of it ther than its extent, it often happening that whose limits belong to the neighboring city one acre of some sort of land was equivalent | Arce. The Danites' lot included all that part to a thousand other acreś. Now the men that of the valley which respects the sun-setting, were sent, which were in number ten, travelled and were bounded by Azotus and Dora ; they all about, and made an estimation of the land ; also had' all Jamnia and Gath, from Ekron to and in the seventh month they returned to the that mountain where the tribe of Judah begins. city of Shiloh, where they had set op the ta After this manner did Joshua divide the six bernacle.
nations that bear the name of the sons of CaJoshua now took both Eleazar and the naan, with their land, to be possessed by the senáte, and with them the heads of the tribes, | nine tribes and a half; for Moses had preventand distributed the land to the nine tribes, and ed him, and had already distributed the land to the half tribe of Manasseh : appointing the of the Amorites, which was so called from one dimensions according to the largeness of each of the sons of Canaan, to the two tribes and tribe. * So when he had cast lots, Judah had a half, as we have shewn already; but the assigned bim by lot the upper part of Judea, parts about Sidon, as also those that belonged reaching as far as Jerusalem, and its breadth to the Arkitės, the "Amathites, and the Åraextending to the lake of Sodom; and the lot bians, were not yet regularly disposed of. of this tribe included the cities of Ascalon and But now Joshua was hindered by his age Gaza. The lot of Simeon, which was the se- from executing what he intended, and those cond, comprehended that part of Idumea which who succeeded him in the government took bordered upon Egypt and Arabia. As to the little care of what was for the advantage of Benjamites, their lot fell so, that it's length the public: so he gave it in charge to every reached from the river Jordan to the sea; but tribe, to leave none of the race of the Canaánin breadth it was bounded by Jerusalem and ites in the land that had been divided to them Bethel : and this lot was the narrowest of all, || by lot; for that Moses had assured them beby reason of the goodness of the land ; for it forehand, and they might rest fully satisfied, included Jericho, and the city of Jerusalem. that their own secarity, and their observance The tribe of Ephraim had the land that ex- of their own laws, depended wholly upon it. tended in length, from the river Jordan, to He also enjoined them to give thirty-eight Gezer: but in breadth as far as from Bethel cities to the Levites, for they had already reto the great plain. The half tribe of Manas-ceived ten in the country of the Amorites; seh had the land from Jordan, to the city of and three of these he assigned to fugitive manDora ; but its breadth was at Bethshan, which slayers, who were to inbabit there, for he was is now called Scythopolis. And after these very solicitous that nothing should be neglectwas Issachar ; which had its limits in length, | ed which Moses had ordained. These cities mount Carmel and the river ; but its limit in were, of the tribe of Judah, Hebron ; of that breadth was mount Tabor. The tribe of Ze- of Ephraim, Shechem; and of that of Naphbulon's lot included the land which lay as far | thali, Cadesh, which is a place of the Upper as the lake of Gennesareth, and that which Galilee. He also distributed among them belonged to Carmel and the sea. The tribe the rest of the prey not yet distributed, which of Aser had that part which was called The was very great, whereby they had an affluence Valley, for such it was; and all that part that of great riches, both all in general, and every lay over against Sidon. The city Arce be- one in particular ; and this of gold, vestments, longed to their share, which is also' named and other furniture, besides a multitude of Actipus. The Naphthalites received the east-cattle, whose number cannot be told.
* If I were writing to the learned, I must bave made phy of Canaan; but in this version it shall suffice to refer particular notes on this and the rest of Josephus's geogra- the English reader to my map of Palestine. Vol. 1:-(13.)
After this he gathered the army together, || for we are all the posterity of Abraham, both and spake thus to those tribes that had their we that inhabit here, and you that inhabit settlement in the land of the Amorites beyond there ; and it is the same God who brought Jordan ; for fifty thousand men of them had our forefathers and yours into the world ; armed themselves, and had gone to the war whose worship and form of government we are along with them : “ Since that God, who is to take care of, which he has ordained, and are the Father and Lord of the Hebrew nation, most carefully to observe ; because, while you has now given us this land for a possession, and continue in those laws, God will also shew. promised to preserve us in the enjoyment of it himself merciful and assisting to you ; but if as our own for ever ; and since you have with you imitate the other nations, and forsake alacrity offered yourselves to assist us when- | those laws, he will reject your nation.”* ever we wanted that assistance, according to When Joshua had spoken thus, and had sahis command; it is but just, now all our dif- || luted them all, both those in authority one by ficulties are over, that you should be per- | one, and the whole multitude in cominon, he mitted to enjoy rest, and that we should tres- || himself stayed where he was; but the people pass on your alacrity to help us no longer ; || conducted these tribes on their journey, and that so, if we should again stand in need of that not without tears in their eyes; and, init, we rnay readily have it on any future emer- || deed, they hardly knew how to part one from gency, and not tire you out so much now, the other. as may make you slower in assisting us an Now when the tribe of Reubel, and that of other time. We therefore return you thanks || Gad, and as many of the Manassites as folfor the dangers you have undergone with us : lowed them, were passed over the river, they and we do it not at this time only, but we built an altar + on the banks of Jordan, as a shall always be disposed to remember our monument to posterity, and a sign of their friends, and to preserve in mind what advan-relation to those that should inhabit on the tages we have had from them, and how you other side. But when those on the other side have put off the enjoyment of your own hap-heard that those who had been disinissed had piness for our sakes, and have labored for | built an altar, but did not hear with what inwhat we have now, by the good will of God, I tention they built it, but supposed it to be by obtained ; and resolved not to enjoy your own way of innovation, and for the introduction prosperity till you had afforded us that assist- of strange gods, they did not incline to dis.. ance. However, you have, by joining your believe it; but thinking this defamatory relabors with ours, gotten great plenty of || port, as if it were built for divine worship, was riches, and will carry home with you much | credible, they appeared in arms, as though prey, with gold and silver ; and, what is more they would avenge themselves upon those that than all these, our good will towards you, built the altar, and they were about to pass and a mind willingly disposed to make a re-over the river, and to punish them for their quital of your kindness, in what case soever subversion of the laws of their country; for you shall desire it ; for you have not omitted they did not think it fit to regard them on acany thing which Moses previously required of count of their kindred, or the dignity of those you, nor have you despised him, because he || that had given the occasion, but to regard was dead and gone from you, so that there the will of God, and the manner wherein he is nothing to diminish that gratitude which | desired to be worshipped; so these men put we owe you.
We therefore dismiss you joy- || themselves in array for war: but Joshua, and ful to your own inheritances, and entreat you Eleazar the high-priest, and the senate, reto suppose that there is no limit to be-set to | strained them, and persuaded them first to the intimate relation that is between us; ll make trial by words of their intention ; and and that you will not imagine, because this afterwards, if they found that their intention river is interposed between us, that you are was evil, then only to proceed to make war of a different race from us, and not Hebrews; || upon them. Accordingly they sent as am
* Josh, xxii. 1-6.
+ Josh, xxii, 10.
bassadors to them Phineas, the son of Eleazar, || on men thereby. " But if you think that your
you made the relation we bear to you, nor have we built the altar for justifiable reasons: and may then the altar in way of innovation ; we own one justly punish you, if the accusation prove and the same God with all the Hebrews, and true : for we can hardly suppose that you, that brazen altar which is before the taberwho have been acquainted with the will of nacle, on which we will offer our sacrifices. God, and have been hearers of those laws | As to the altar we have raised, on account of which he himself hath given us, now you which we are thus suspected, it was not built are separated from us, and gone to that patri- || for worship; but that it might be a sign and mony of yours, which you, through the grace a monument of our relation to you for ever : of God, and that providence he exercises over and a necessary caution to us to act wisely, you, have obtained by lot, can forget him, and and to continue in the laws of our country; can leave that ark, and that altar which is but not a handle for transgressing them, as peculiar to us, and can introduce strange gods, you suspect. And let God be our authentic and imitate the wicked practices of the Ca-witness, that this was the occasion of our naanites. Now this will appear to have been building this altar. Whence we beg you will a small crime, if you repent now, and proceed have a better opinion of us; and do not imno farther in your madness, but pay a due pute such a thing to us as would render any reverence to, and keep in mind, the laws of of the posterity of Abraham well worthy of your country. But if you persist in your sins, | perdition ; in case they attempt to bring in we will not grudge our pains to preserve our new rites, and such as are different from our laws, but will pass over Jordan, and defend usual practices.' them, and defend God also; and shall esteem When they had made this answer, and of you as of men no way different from the Phineas had commended them for it, he came Canaanites, but shall destroy you in the like to Joshua, and explained before the people manner as we destroyed them; for do not || what answer they had received. Now Joshua you imagine that because you are got over was glad that he was under no necessity of the river you are beyond the reach of God's setting them in array, or of leading them to power. You are every where in places that shed blood, and make war against men that belong to him, and it is impossible to overrun were of their own kindred ; and accordingly his power, and the punishment he will bring he offered sacrifices of thanksgiving to God
JOSHUA ; THEIR TRANSGRESSION OF THE LAWS OF THÉFR
for the same; so Joshua, after that, dissolved | animity, in action and in dangers ; and very this great assembly of the people, and sent sagacious in procuring the peace of the peos them to their own inheritances, while bimself ple, and of great virtue at all proper seasons: lived at Shechem. But in the * twentieth year He was buried in the city of Timnath, of the after this, when he was very old, he sent for tribe of Ephraim.Ş Abont || the same time those of the greatest dignity in the several died Eleazar the high-priest ; leaving the cities, with those in authority, and the senate; high-priesthood to his son Phineas. His mos and gathered together as many of the com- nument also and sepulchre are' in the city mon people as he could ; and when they were Gabatha. come, he put them in mind of all the benefits
CHAP. II. God had bestowed on them : wbich could not but be a great many, since from a low estate
OF THE AFFAIRS OF THE ISRAELITES AFTER TAE DEATH OF they were advanced to so great a degree of glory and plenty; and exhorted them to take notice of the intentions of God, which had been so gracious, iowards them; and told AFTER the death of Joshua and Eleazár,
Phineas prophesied that, according to friend by nothing else but their piety, and God's will, they should commit the governthat it was proper for him, now he was about ment to the tribe of Judah, and that this tribe to depart out of this life, to leave such an ad- should destroy the race of the Canaanites : for monition to them : and he desired that they then the people were concerned to learn what would keep in memory this his exhortation to was the will of God. They also took to their them.
assistance the tribe of Simeon ; but upon this So. Joshua, when he had thus discoursed to condition, that when those that had been trithem, died; baving lived an hundred and ten butary to the tribe of Judah should be slain; years, † forty of which he lived with Moses, they should do the like for the tribe of Siin order to learn what might be for his advan- meon. tage afterwards. He also became their com But the affairs of the Canaanites were at mander after Moses's death I for twenty-five this time in a flourishing condition, and they years. He was a man that wanted no wis- expected the Israelites with a great army at dom nor eloquence to declare his intentions the city Bezek, having put the government to the people; but was eminent on both ac- into the hands of Adonibezek, which name counts. He was of great courage and mag- denotes the Lord of Bezek, for Adoni in the
* An. 1467.
pag. 53, and this upon a diligent examination, viz. that + Josh, xxiv. 29.
1. One of those eminent men among the Canaanites came | From An. 1492 to An. 1467.
at the same time into Armenia, and founded the GenthuŚ This place is, in Judges ii. 9. called Timnath Heres, nian family or tribe; and that this was confirmed by the because of the image of the sun engraven on his sepul- | manners of the same family or tribe, as being like those of chre, in memory of that famous day when the sun siood the Canaanites." still till he had completed his victory. This is asserted by 9 By prophesying, when spoken of a high-priest, Joseseveral of the Jewish authors, that memorials alluding to phus, both here and frequently elsewhere, ineans no more particular transactions in the lives of great men were fre-than consulting God by Urim; which the reader is still quently made use of to adorn their tombs. Tully has to bear in mind upon all occasions. And if St. John, who recorded concerning Archimedes, that a sphere and a was contemporary with Josephus, and of the same councylinder were put upon his monument. B.
try, made use of his style, when he says that Caiaphas, || Since not only Procopius and Suidas, but an earlier being high-priest that year, prophesied that Jesus should author, Moses Chorenensis, pag. 52, 53. and perhaps from die for that nation; and not for that nation only, but that bis original author Mariba Catina, one as oid as Alesan. also he should gather together in one the children of God, der the Great, sets down the famous inscription at Tan- that were scaltered abroad, xi. 51, 52, be may possibly gier, concerning the old Canaanites, driven out of Pales. mean, that this was revealed to the high-priest by an exline by Joshiia, take it here in that author's own words: traordinary voice from between the cherubim, when he “We are those exiles that were governors of the Canaan- | had his breast-plate, or Urim and Thummim, on, before or iles; but have been driven out by Joshua, the robber; | in the most holy place of the temple; which was no other and are come to inhabit here." See the note tbere. Nor than the oracle of Urim and Thummim, of which above, is'it unworthy our notice what Moses Chorénensis adds, in the note on Antiq. III. 8.