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Hebrew tongue is called Lord. Now they || as an extraordinary reward, with the suburbs hoped to have been too hard for the Israelites, of two thousand cubits. But the land thereto because Joshua was dead: but when the belonging they gave as a free gift to Caleb, Israelites had joined battle with them, I mean | according to the injunctions of Moses. This the two tribes before mentioned, they fought Caleb was one of the spies which Moses sent valiantly, and slew above ten thousand of into the land of Canaai : they also gave land them, and put the rest to fight; and in the for habitation to the posterity of Jethro, the pursuit they took Adonibezek , who, when his | Midianite, who was the father-in-law to Mofingers and toes were cut off by them, said, ses. For they had left their own country and

Nay, indeed, I was not always to lie con- || followed them, and accompanied them in the cealed from God, as I find by what I now wilderness. endure: while I have not been ashamed to do Now the tribes of Judah and Simeon took the same to * seventy-two kings.”ť. So they || the cities which were in the mountainous part carried him alive as far as Jerusalem ; and of Canaan, as also Askelon and Ashdod, of when he was dead they buried bim in the || those that lay near the sea. But Gaza and earth, and went on still in taking the cities ; || Ekron escaped them; for they, lying in a flat and, when they had taken the greatest part country, and having a great number of chaof them, they besieged Jerusalem : and when riots, sorely galled those that attacked them. they had taken the lower city, which was not || So these tribes, when they were grown very under a considerable time, they slew all the in- | rich by this war, retired to their own cities, habitants. But the upper city was not to be and laid aside their weapons of war. taken without great difficulty, through the But the Benjamites, to whom belonged Jestrength of its walls, and the nature of the rusalem, permitted its inhabitants to pay triplace.

bute: so they all left off, the one to kill, and For this reason they removed their camp to the other to expose theniselves to danger, and Hebron; and when they had taken it, they || had time to cultivate the ground. The rest slew all the inhabitants. There were till then of the tribes imitated that of Benjamin, and left the race of giants ;£ who had bodies so did the same: and contenting themselves with large, and countenances so entirely different the tributes that were paid them, permitted the from other men, that they were surprising to Canaanites to live in peace, the sight, and terrible to the hearing. The However, the tribe of Ephraim, when they bones of these men are shewn to this very besieged Betbel, made no advance; nor perday, unlike to any credible relations of other formed any thing worthy of the time they men. Now they gave this city to the Levites, I spent, and of the pains they took about that

* This great nuniber of Reguli, or small kings, over der his protection; though he despairs of such a scheme whon Adonibezek had tyrannized, and for which be was being brought about; and thinks that if it were, it would punished according to the Lex Talionis; as well as the quickly be destroyed. Remarks on Italy, 4to. pag. 151. thirty-one kings of Canaan, subdued by Joshua, and named | Nor is it unfit to be observed here, that the Armenian in one chapter, Josh. xii, and thirty-two kings, or royal || records, though they give us the history of thirty-nine auxiliaries, to Benhadad king of Syria, 1 Kings xx. 1. ||of their ancientest heroes or governors, after the flood, Antiq. VIII, 14. intimate to us what was the ancient form before the days of Sardanapalus, had no proper king till of government among several nations, before the monar the 40ih, Parärus. See Moses Chorenensis, pag. 55, and chies began; viz. That every city or large town, with its the note there. And that Almighty God does not ap-. neighboring villages, was a distinct government by itself. I prove of such absolute or tyrannical monarchies, any one Which is the more remarkable, because this was certain. may learn that reads Deut. xvii. 14-20, and 1 Sam. ly the form of ecclesiastical government that was settled viii. 1-22. xii, 1–26. Although if such kings are set by the apostles, and preserved throughout the Christian | up as own him for their supreme king, and aim to gochurch, in the first ages of Christianity. Mr. Addison is vern according to his laws, he hath admitted of them, of opinion, that it would be for the good of mankind, to and protected them, and their subjects, in all generahave all the mighty empires and monarchies of the world tions. cantoned out into petty states and principalities; that, † Judg. i. 7. like so many large families, might lie under the observa of the old giants, the several species, statures, and tion of their proper governors : so that the care of the remaining bones, see Authent. Records, Part I. pag. 260 prince might extend itself to every individual person un -293, and Part II. 872_938. at large, VOL. 1.-(14.)


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siege. Yet did they persist in it, still sitting|| family, that belonged to the tribe of Ephraio, down before the city; though they endured and dwelt therein. This man married a wife great troyble thereby. But after some time, from Bethlehem, which is a place belonging they caught one of the citizens, that came to to the tribe of Judah. Now he was very fond them to get necessaries; and they gave him of his wife, and overcome with her beauty ; some assurances, that if he would deliver up but he did not meet with a return of affection, the city they would preserve him and his kin-for she was averse to him; which did more dred. So he sware that upon those terms inflame his passion for her. he would put the place into their hands. AC- relled one with another perpetually : and at cordingly, he was preserved with his family, last the woman was so disgusted at these while the Israelites slew all the other inbabit- quarrels, that she left her husband, and went ants, and retained the city for themselves. to her parents, in the fourth month. The

After this, the Israelites grew effeminate as husband, being very uneasy at her departure, to fighting any more against their enemies; went to his father and mother-in-law, made but applied themselves to the cultivation of up their quarrels, and lived with them there the land : which producing great plenty and four days, as being kindly treated. On the riches, they neglected the regular disposition fifth day he resolved to go home, and went of their settlement, and indulged themselves away in the evening; for his wife's parents in luxury and pleasures. Nor were they any were loth to part with their daughter, and delonger careful to hear the laws that belonged layed the time till the day was gone. Now to their political government. Whereupon they had one servant that followed them, and God was provoked to anger, and put them in an ass on which the woman rode : and when mind, first, how, contrary to his directions, they they were near Jerusalem, having gone alhad spared the Canaanites; and, after that, ready # thirty furlongs, the servant advised how those Canaanites, as opportunity served, them to take up their lodgings somewhere, lest used them very bạrbarously. But the Israel- some misfortune should befall them, if they ites, though they were in heaviness at these travelled in the night, especially since they admonitions from God, yet were they still were not far off enemies : that season often very unwilling to go to war. And since they giving reason for suspicion of dangers from got large tributes from the Canaanites, and even such as are friends. But the husband were indisposed for taking pains by their was not pleased with this advice, nor was he luxury, they suffered their aristocracy to be willing to take up his lodging among strancorrupted also, and did not ordain themselves gers; for the city belonged to the Canaanites; a senate, nor any such magistrates as their but desired rather to go twenty furlongs farlaws had formerly required. But they were ther, and so take their lodging in some Israelvery much given to cultivating their fields, ite city. Accordingly he came to Gibeah, a in order to get wealth : which great indo- city of the tribe of Benjamin, when it was lence of theirs brought a terrible sedition upon just dark ; and while no one that lived in the them; and they proceeded so far as to fight market-place invited him to lodge with him, one against another, from the following occa- there came an old man out of the field; one sion.

that was indeed of the tribe of Ephraim, but There * was a Levite, † a man of a vulgar resided in Gibeah ; and asked him, who he

* Josephus's early date of this history, before the be | Reland in his Palestina, Tom. II. pag. 810. finds a ginning of the judges, or when there was no king in contradiction in Josephus, as to the distance of Gibeah of Israel, Judges xix. 1. is strongly confirmed by the large Saul, in the tribe of Benjamin, from Jerusalem, 30 furlongs number of Benjamites, both in the days of Asa and Jeho- | here; but of the War. V. 2. 20 furlongs, and no more. shaphat; 2 Chron, xiv. 8. and svi. 17. who yet were here Yet is there no necessity of making these two places to reduced to 600 men. Nor can those numbers be at all contradict each other. These 20 furlongs only they had supposed genuine, if they were reduced so late as the now to go to Gibeah indeed; but it was not from Jerusaend of the judges, where our other copies place this re lem, but from the place where they now were ; which duction.

might easily be eight or ten furlongs from Jerusalem in

the way to Gibeah. So that here does not appear any real + About An. 1460. B. C.

contradiction at all.

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was ? for what reason he came thither so late? || upon her, than to abuse his guests; supposing and why he was looking out for provisions for that he should by this thearis, prevent an in, supper when it was dark ? To which he re-jury from being done to those guests. When plied that he was a Levite, and was bringing they no way abated of their earnestness for his wife from her parents, and was going the strange woman, but insisted absolutely on home; but he told him his habitation was in their desirës to have her, he entreated them the tribe of Ephraim. So the old man, as not to perpetrate any such act of injustice : well because of their kindred, as because they but they proceeded to take her away by force: lived in the same tribe, and also because and indulging still more the violence of their they had thus accidentally met together, took inclinations, they took the woman away to him to lodge with him. Now certain young their house; and when they had abused her men, of the inhabitants of Gibeah, having the whole night, they let her go about dayseen the woman in the market-place, and ad-break. So she came to the place where she miring her beauty, when they understood that had been entertained, under great affliction at she lodged with the old man, came to the what bad happened, and durst not look her doors; as contemning the weakness and few- husband in the face for shame; for she conness of the old man's family. And when the cluded that he would never forgive her for old man desired them to go away, and not what she had done. So she fell down, and to offer any violence or abuse there; they de- gave up the ghost : but her husband supposed sired bim to yield them up the strange wo his wife was only fast asleep; and thinking man, and then he should have no harm done || nothing of a more melancholy nature had to him. And when the old man alleged happened, endeavored to raise her op; rethat the Levite was of his kindred ; 'and that solving to speak comfortably to her, since they would be guilty of horrid wickedness if she did not voluntarily expose herself to those they suffered themselves to be overcome by | men's lust, but was forced away to their their pleasure, and so offend against their house. But as soon as he perceived that she laws; they despised his righteous admonition, was dead, he acted as prudently as the greatand laughed him to scorn: they also threat ness of the misfortune would admit; and laid ened to kill hin, if he became an obstacle his dead wife upon the beast, and carried her to their inclinations. Whereupon, when he home. Then cutting her limb by limb into found himself in great distress, and yet was twelve pieces, he sent them to every tribe, and not willing to overlook his guests, and see, I gave it in charge to those that carried them, to them abused, he produced his own daughter inform the tribes of those that were the causes to them; and told them, that it was * of his wife's death, and of the violence they smaller breach of the law to satisfy their last had offered her. +



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See Gen. xix. 8.

engagement to see justice done him for the injury he † Interpreters say but little concerning the real views had received. This is what the interpreters of scripture of the Levite in this transaction: they merely intimate, seem not to have known, and which it is necessary to exthat it was done to excite a general indignation against plain. the authors of the injury he had sustained. His motives The ancients had several ways of uniting themselves certainly were good and regular. He intended to unite together by strict ties, which lasted for a stipulated time: the whole nation in vengeance against a crime in which amongst these may be noticed the sacrifice of Abraham, it was interested: but as they might be checked in the the circumstances of wbich are mentioned Gen. xvi. 9, extent of the punishment by ihe number, the credit, and &c. Another method was, to take a bullock offered or the power of the offenders ; by the natural commiseration devoted in sacrifice, cut it into pieces, and distribute it. which is felt by those who are of the same blood; or by | All who had a piece of this devoted bullock were thencean aversion to involve a city in destruction; 'he sought forward connected, and were to concur in carrying on the and seized a method wbich put them to the indispensable | affair which had given' occasion for the sacrifice. But as necessity of espousing bis cause. The only part which this devoting and dividing was variously practised; it also he had io take was, to cut in pieces the body of his wife, | produced different engagements. If he who was al'the which he did, or else that of an ox, or other like animal, || expense of the sacrifice was a public person, or in high which had been either devoted or offered in sacrifice', || office, he sent of his own accord a piece of the victim to and to send a part of it to each' tribe. In conse all who were subject to him; and by this act obliged quence of this every tribe entered into an indissoluble them to enter into his views. If the sacrifice were of


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