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this whole time was five hundred and fifteen | upon the enemy suddenly, and slew some of years.

them, and put the rest to flight.

the rest to flight. And let no I shall now make mention of Araynah, who one suppose that it was a small army of the was a wealthy man among the Jebusites, but Philistines that came against the Hebrews : was not slain by David in the siege of Jeru. as guessing so from the suddenness of their salem ; because of the good will he bore to defeat, and from their having performed no the Hebrews; and a particular benignity and action that was worth recording, from the affection which he had to the king himself; slowness of their march, and want of courage: which I shall take a more seasonable oppor-but let him know that all Syria and Phenitunity to speak of* a little afterwards. Now ciả, with many other nations besides them, and David married otber wives over and above those warlike nations also, came to their asthose which he had before : he had also consistance, and had a share in this war. Which cubines.' The sons which he had were in thing was the only cause why, when they had number eleven, whose names were f Amnon, been so often conquered, and bad lost so many Empos, Eban, Nathan, Solomon, Jeban, Elien, ten thousands of their men, they still came Phalna, Enpaphen, Jenae, Eliphale, and a upon the Hebrews with greater armies. Nay, daughter, Tamar. Nine of these were born indeed, when they had so often failed of their of legitimate wives : but the two last of con- purpose in these battles, they came upon David cubines. And Tamar had the same mother with an army three times as numerous as bewith Absalom.

fore, and pitched their camp on the same

spot of ground as before. The king of Israel CHAP. IV.

therefore inquired of God again, concerning

the event of the battle ; and the high-priest OF DAVID's further succESS AGAINST THE PHILISTINES; prophesied to him, that he should keep bis HIS REMOVAL OF THE ARK TO JERUSALEM, AND AIS DE

army in the groves, called the Groves of

Weeping, which were not far from the eneWH

"HEN the Philistines understood that my's camp: and that he should not move,

David was made king of the Hebrews, nor begin to fight, till the trees of the grove they made war against hiin at Jerusalem, should be in motion without the winds blowAnd when they had seized upon that valley ing; but as soon as these trees moved, and the which is called The valley of the Giants; and time foretold to him by God was come, he is a place not far from the city; they pitched should, without delay, go out to gain what their camp there. But the king of the Jews, I was already prepared, an evident victory. who never permitted himself to do any thing For the several ranks of the enemy's army without prophecy, and the command of God, did not sustain him, but retreated at the first and without depending on him as a security onset, whom he closely followed, and slew for the time to come, bade the high-priest them as he went along, and pursued them to foretell to him what was the will of God, and the city Gaza, which is the limit of their counwhat would be the event of this battle. And try. After this he spoiled their camp, in which when he foretold that he should gain the vic- be found great riches : and he also destroyed tory, and the dominion, he led out bis army their gods. against the Philistines; and when the battle When this had proved the event of the batwas joined, he came himself behind, and felltle, David thought proper, upon a consultation


* Chap. xiii,

when Saul's daughter, Michal, laughed at David's dancing + This number (eleven) and most of these names differ before the ark, 2 Sam. vi. 16, &c. it is probable she greatly from those in 1 Chron. iii. 1—9.

did so, because her father Saul did not use to pay It deserves here to be remarked, that Saul very rare such regard to that ark; to the Urim there inquired ly, and David very frequently, consulted God by Urim: / by; or to God's worship before it; and because she and that David aimed always to depend, not on his own thought it beneath the dignity of a king to be so reprudence or abilities, but on the divine direction: con- ligious. trary to Saul's practice. See the note on III. 8. And


with the elders, and rulers, and captains of || he was not a priest, and yet touched the ark; thousands, to send for those that were in the God struck him dead. Hereupon both the flower of their age, out of all his countrymen, king and the people were displeased at the and out of the whole land ; and withal for the death of Uzzah; and the place where he died priests and the Levites : in order to their going is called the Breach of Uzzah I unto this day. to Kirjathjearim, to bring up the ark of God So David was afraid, and supposing that if he out of that city, and to carry it to Jerusalem, received the ark to himself into the city, he and there to keep it; and offer before it might suffer in the like manner as Uzzah those sacrifices, and those other honors, with had, suffered, who, upon his barely putting which God used to be well pleased. For had out his hand to the ark, died in the manner they done thus in the reign of Saul, they had already mentioned: he did not receive it to not undergone any great misfortunes at all. himself into the city; but he took it aside So when the whole body of the people were unto a certain place belonging to a righteous come together, as they had resolved to do, the man, whose name was Obededom, who was, king came to the ark, which the priests by his family a Levite, and deposited the ark brought out of the house of Aminadab, and with him.

with him. And it remained there three estire laid it upon a new cart, and permitted their months. This augmented the house of Obedbrethren and children to draw it, together with edom, and conferred many blessings upon it: the oxen.

Before it went the king, and the and when the king heard what had befallen whole multitude of the people with him, sing- jj Obededom ; how he was become of a poor ing hymns to God, and making use of all sorts man, in a low estate, exceeding happy, and of songs usual among them; accompanied the object of envy to all those that saw or inwith the sounds of musical instruments, and quired after his house, he took courage; and with dancing and singing of psalms; as also hoping that he should meet with no misfortune with the sounds of trumpets and of cymbals: thereby, he transferred the ark to his own and so they brought the ark to Jerusalem. house ; § the priests carrying it, while seven But as they came to the threshing floor of companies of singers, who were set in that or* Chidon, a place so called, Uzzah † was der by the king, went before it; and while he slajn by the anger of God. For as the oxen himself played upon the harp, and joined in shook the ark, he stretched out his hand and the music; || insomuch, that when his wife would needs take hold of it. Now because Michal, the daughter of Saul, saw him so do

* i Chron. xvi. 9.

music, and such public declarations of joy. Miller's His† Josephus seems to be partly in the right, when he


of the Church. B. observes here, that Uzzah was no priest, (though perhaps Ý Strabo tells us, that it was customary among the he might be a Levite,) and was therefore struck dead for | Greeks, as well as other nations, to use music and dancing touching the ark, contrary to the law; and for which pro in the processions before their gods, lib. 10. Callimatane rashness death was ihe penalty by that law, Numb.chus mentions the chori, and dancings of the youth at the iv. 15, 20. See the like before VI. 1. It is not impro- | altar of Apollo; Plato observes that among the Egyptians bable that the putting this ark in a cart, when it ought to all kinds of music, songs, and dances, were consecrated to have been carried by the priests or Levites, as it was their gods. De Legibus, 1. 3. And even Lucian (De presently here in Josephus SO carried from Obed-Saltatione) expressly says that among the ancients no edorn's house to David's, night be also an occasion of the ceremonial of religion, no expiation, no atonement, was anger of God on that breach of the law. See Numb. iv. accounted rightly accomplished without dancing. So 15. 1 Chron. xv. 13.

that David was far from being singular in his behaviour 2 Samvi. 8. 1 Chron. xv. 13.

upon this occasion; nor was his behaviour, in this parti§ It is supposed by some, that this bringing back of the cular, any disparagement to his regal digniiy. His dance ark was appointed to be one of the great festivals; and ing, i. e. his moving in certain serious and solemnu meache reason why David might summon so many of his sures suited to music of the same character and tendency, principal ministers and officerş to accompany him in the was an exercise highly conducive to the purposes of expedition, might be, to possess the young people, piety, and his mixing with the public festivities of his who perhaps had heard little or nothing of the ark, by people was a condescension (as Tacitus relates of Au. reason of its having been absent so long, with a mighty gustus the Roman emperor) not unbecoming the greatest veneration for it when they saw the king, and so many of monarch. Policy taught Augustus to put himself upon the chief nobility, waiting on it, with such a variety of

a level with his subjects in the public rejoicings;

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ing, she laughed at him. But when they had herself thought of it. So this Michal, who was brought in the ark, they placed it under the David's wife, had no children; however when tabernacle which David had pitched for it; she was afterwards married to him to whom and he offered costly sacrifices, and peace- Saul her father had given her, (for at this time offerings ; and treated the whole multitude, David bad taken her away from him, and had and dealt both to the women, and the men, her himself,) she bare five † children. But and the infants, a loaf of bread and a cake, concerning those matters f I shall discourse in and another cake baked in a pan, with a por- a proper place. tion of the sacrifice. So when he had ihus Now when the king saw that his affairs feasted the people, he sent them away, and re- grew better almost every day, by the will of turned to his own house,

God, he thought he should offend him, if, while But when Michal his wife, the daughter of he himself continued in houses made of cedar, Saul, came and stood by him, she wished him such as were of great height, and had the most all other happiness ; and entreated, that what-curious works of architecture in them, he ever he should farther desire, to the utmost should overlook the ark, while it was laid in possibility, might be given by God, and that || a tabernacle ;, and he was desirous to build a he might be favorable to him. Yet did she temple to God, as $ Moses had predicted such blame bim,* that so great a king as he was a temple should be built. And when he had should dance after an unseemly manner; and discoursed with Nathan the prophet: about in his dancing uncover himself among the these things, and had been encouraged by him servants and the handmaidens. But he re

But he re- to do whatsoever he had a mind to do, as havplied, that; he was not ashamed to do what ing God with him, and bis helper in all things: was acceptable to God, who had preferred him he was thereupon the more ready to set about before her father, and before all others; that that building. But God appeared to Nathan he would play frequently, and dance, without that night, and commanded him to | say to any regard to what the handmaidens and she David, that he took his purposes and his de

piety taught David, that all men are upon a level in the probrious term proceeded from nothing but the overflowsolemnities of religion. So that David was not singular ing spleen of a proud passionate woman. Calmet's and in his behaviour upon this occasion. Patrick's Commen

Patrick's Commentaries. B. tary, and The History of the Life of King David, vol. 2. + Hence correct our other copies. 2 Sam. vi. 23. B.

I This is now wanting. * The words of Michal, wherein she upbraids David, § Josephus here informs us that, according to his unare these :—How glorious was the King of Israel to-day, derstanding of the sense of his copy of the Pentateuch, who uncovered himself to-day, in the eyes of the hand- Moses had himself foretold the building of the temple: maids of his servants, as one of the vain fellows shame. which yet is nowhere that I know of in our present lessly uncovereth himself! 2 Sam. vi. 20. At first read- copies. And that this is not a mistake, set down by him ing, they seem to intimate, that David, in his dancing, unwarily, appears by what he observed before, IV. 8. had exposed his naked body, and acted some way or other how Moses foretold, i hat upon the Jews' future disobedi. immodestly. But these words, we are to consider, were ence, their temple should be burnt and rebuilt; and that spoken in a fit of passion, and when Michal was minded not once only, but several times afterwards. See also lo aggravate matters; for it is not to be doubted, but that Josephus’s mention of God's former commands to build David kept himself within the bounds of modesty, how such a temple presently, chap. xiv. contrary to our other joyous soever he might be. It was a command which copies; or at least to our translation of the Hebrew, God gave the Israelites, that they should rejoice in their 2 Sam. vii. 6, 7. 1 Chr. xvii. 5,6. feast, Deut. xii, 7; but then, their joy was not to be las 11 Josephus seems in this place, with our modern incivious or petulant, but pious and moderate. In the case terpreters, to confound the two distinct predictions which before us, David was in the more immediate presence of God made to David, and to Nathan, concerning the God, and about a very sacred business; and therefore it building him a temple, by one of David's posterity; is incongruous to think, that he would commit any thing the one belonging to Soloinon, the other to the. Mesimmodest. And that he could not expose his nakedness siah: the distinction between which is of the greatest fas his wife would insinuate) is evident from his having consequenee to the Christian religion ; and of which I not only an ephod on, but being clothed with a robe of have largely treated in my Boyle's Lectures, from fine linen, besides his usual under garments, 1 Chron. xv. pag. 247-272. To which discourse I must bere refer 27, and, therefore, though bis putting off his regal robes the inquisitive reader. See also Antiq. VII. 13. and might give some occasion to Michai's expression of his chap. xiv. uncovering himself, yet it must be owned that this opVOL. 1.—(20.)

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