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CHAP. V.

sires kindly, since nobody had before now thought of building him a temple; although upon his having such a notion, he would not permit him to build him that temple, because he had made many wars, and was defiled with the slaughter of his enemies; that however, after his death in his old age, and when

lived a long life, there be a

OF DAVID'S SUCCESSES AGAINST THE PHILISTINES, AND THE

MOABITES, AND THE KINGS OF SOPHENE AND OF DAMAS:
CUS, THE SYRIANS, AND THE IDUMEANS; OF HIS LEAGUE
WITH THE KING OF HAMATH; AND HIS GRATITUDE FOR
THE FRIENDSHIP OF JONATHAN,

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the kingdom after him, and should be called against the Philistines, and not see any inSolomon, whom he promised to provide for dolence permitted in his management ; that as a father provides for his son, by preserving | so it might prove as God had foretold to him, the kingdom for his son's posterity, and deli- that when he had overthrown his enemies, be vering it to them; but that, if he sinned, he should leave his posterity to reign in peace. would still punish him with diseases and bar. So he called together bis army, and charged repness of land. When David understood them to be ready and prepared for war; and this from the prophet, and was overjoyed at when he thought that all things were in a this knowledge of the sure continuance of the good state, he removed from Jerusalem), and dominion to his posterity, and that his house came against the Philistines; and when he should be splendid and very famous, he camehad overcome them in battle, and had cut off to the ark, and fell down on his face, and a great part of their country, and united it to began to adore God, and to return thanks to the country of the Hebrews; he transferred him for all his benefits; as well for those that the war to the Moabites. And when he had he had already bestowed upon him, in raising overcome two parts of their army in battle, him from a low state, and from the employ- he took the remaining part captive; † and ment of a shepherd, to so great dignity of do- imposed tribute upon them, to be paid anminion and glory; as for those also which henually. I He then made war against Hadadhad promised to his posterity, and besides for ezer, the son of Rehob, ş king of Sophene; that providence which he had exercised over and when he had joined battle with bim, at the Hebrews, in procuring them the liberty the river Euphrates, he destroyed twenty they enjoyed. And when he had said thus, thousand of his footmen, and about seven thouand had sung a hymn of praise to God, he sand of his horsemen. He also took a thousand went his way.

of his chariots, and destroyed the greatest part of them; and ordered that no more than || one hundred should be kept.

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* About An. 1081.

Moab during his exile. But of the reality of this motive + There is no small obscurity in the words of the there is no manner of appearance; and since this exė. text, which are these :—He smote Moab, and measured || cution which David inflicied may relate either to the them with a line, casting them down to the ground; even whole nation, or the army only, to clear David from in two lines measured he to put to death, and with one the imputation of too much cruelty, we should rather line to keep alive. Which words seem to allude to a conceive it of the third, or half part at most, of the army. custom among the kings of the east, when they were Le Clerc's and Calmet's Commentaries. B. thoroughly incensed against any nation, viz, to make the # 2 Sam. viii. 2. captives all come together in one place, and prostrate Ś Whether Syria Zobah, 2 Sam. iii. 8, I Cbr. xviii. tbemselves upon the ground; that, being divided into | 3–8, be Sopbene, as Josephus here supposes, (which yet two parts, as it were with a line, their conqueror might Ptolemy places beyond Euphrates, as Dr. Hudson obappoint which part he pleased either for death or life, serves here, whereas Zobah was on this side,) or whether which was sometimes determined by casting of lots. || Josephus was not here guilty of a mistake in his geograSome are of opinion, that David made three lots or parts phy, I cannot certainly determine. of these Moabites, two of which he ordered to be slain, 1 David's reserving only 100 chariots for himself, out and one part only to be kept alive. The reason of this of "1000 he had taken from Hadadezer, was most proseverity against this miserable people, the Rabbins assure bably done in compliance with the law of Moses, which us, was, because they had slain his parents and brethren, forbade the king of Israel to multiply horses to himself, whom he had committed to the custody of the king of Deut. xvii. 16. One of the principal uses of horses in

Now

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Now when * Hadad, king of Damascus Now, when David bad made an expedition and of Syria, heard that David fought against against Damascus and the other parts of Hadadezer, who was his friend, he came to Syria, and had brought it all into subjection, his assistance with a powerful armiy, in hopes and had placed garrisons in the country, and to rescue him: but when he had joined battle appointed that they should pay tribute, he with David, at the river Euphrates, he failed returned home. He also dedicated to God of his purpose, and lost a great number of his at Jerusalem the golden quivers, and the ensoldiers; for there were slain of the army of tire armor which the guards of Hadad used Hadad twenty thousand, and all the rest fled. to wear; which Shishak the king of Egypt Nicolaus also, of Damaseus, makes mention of took away when he fought with David's the king, in the fourth book of his histories, grandson Rehoboam; with a great deal of where he speaks thus : “ A great while after other wealth, which he carried out of Jerusathese things had bappened, there was one of lem. However, these things will come to be that country whose name was Hadad, wbo explained in their proper places hereafter. was become very potent. : He reigned over Now as for the king of the Hebrews, be was Damascus, and the other parts of Syria, ex-assisted by God, who gave him great success cepting Phænicia.

He made war against in his wars; and he made an expedition, David, king of Judea : and tried his fortune against the best cities of Hadadezer, Belah in many battles, and particularly in the last and Machon. So he took them by force, battle at Euphrates, wherein he was beaten. and laid them waste. Therein was found a He seems to have been the most excellent of very great quantity of gold and silver, besides all their kings, in strength and manhood." || that sort of brass which is said to be more Besides this, he says of his posterity, that af- valuable than gold. Of which brass Solomon ter his death they succeeded one another in made that large vessel which was called the his kingdom, and in his name; where he thus brazen sea; and those most curious lavers, speaks : When Hadad was dead, his poste- when he built the temple of God. rity reigned for ten generations, each of his But when the king of Hamath was informsuccessors receiving from his father his domi- ed of the ill success of Hadadezer, and had nion and his name : as did the Ptolemies in heard of the ruin of his army, he was afraid Egypt. But the third was the most powerful | on his own account, and resolved to make a of them all: and was willing to avenge the league of friendship with David, before he defeat his forefather had received ; so he should come against him. So he sent to him made an expedition against the Jews, and his son Joram, and professed that he owed laid waste the city which is now called Sa- him thanks for fighting against Hadadezer, maria." Nor did he err from the truth. For who was his enemy; and made a league with this is that Hadad who made the expedition him of mutual assistance and friendship. He against Samaria, in the reign of Ahab, king| also sent him presents, vessels of ancient workof Israel: .concerning whom we shall speak in | manship, both of gold, silver, and brass.t. due place hereafter.

So when David had made this league of mu

Judea at that time being for drawing their chariots : see testimony of Nicolaus of Damascus, produced in this place Joseph Antiq. V. 1, and Bp. Sherlock's discourse on that by Josephus, seem to be faultless; when it says, that he subject.

was the third of the Hadads, or second of the Benhadads, * It deserves here to be remarked, that this Hadad, | who besieged Samaria, in the days of Ahab. He must being a very great king, was conquered by David; whose rather have been the seventh or eighth, if there were ten posterily yet for several generations were called Ben- in all of that name, as we are assured ibere were. For badad or the son of Hadad, till the days of Hazael ; || testimony makes all the Hadads or Benhadads of the same whose son Adar or Ader is also in our Hebrew copy, | line; and to have immediately succeeded one another. 2 Kings xiii. 24, written Benhadad; but in Josephus Whereas Hazael was not of that line, nor is he called Adad or Adar. And strange it is, that the son of Ha- || Hadad, or Benhadad, in any copy. And note that from zael, said to be such in the same text, and in Josephus, this Hadad, in the days of David, to the beginning of IX. &, should still be called the son of Hadad. I would Hazael, were near 200 years, according to the most exact therefore here correct our Hebrew copy from Josephus's: || chronology of Josephus. which seems to have the true reading. Nor does' the + 1 Chron. xviii, 9, 10.

tual

tual assistance with Toi, (for that was the make return of that familiar acquaintance name of the king of Hamath,) and had receive which Jonathan had with bim; and for ed the presents he sent bim, he dismissed his which he was still debtor. And when one of son with that respect which was due on both | Saul's freed men was brought to him, who sides. But then David brought those presents was acquainted with those of his family that that were sent by him, as also the rest of the were still living, he asked him, whether he gold and silver which he had taken of the could tell him of any one belonging to Joha. cities of the nations whom he had conquered, than that was now alive, and capable of a and dedicated them to God. Nor did God requital of the benefits he had received from give victory and success to him only, when he Jonathan? The man replied that a son of his went to the battle hiinself, and led his own was remaining, whose name was Mephiboarmy ; but he gave victory to Abishai, the sheth ; but that he was lame of his feet, for brother of Joab, general of his forces,* over that when bis nurse heard that the father and the Idumeans; and by him to David, when grandfather of the child were fallen in the bata he sent him with an army into Idumea. Fortle, she snatched him up, and fled away, and Abishai destroyed eighteen thousand of them let him fall from her shoulders, and his feet in the battle. Whereupon the king of Israel were lamed. So when he had learned where placed garrisons through all Idumea, and re- and by whom he was bronght up, he sent ceived the tribute of the country, and of every messengers to Machir, to the city Lodebar : head among them. Now David was in his for with him was the son of Jonathan brought nature just, and made his determinations with up, and sent for him to come to him. So regard to truth. He had for the general of when Mephibosheth came to the king, he fell his whole army Joab; and he made Jelio- on his face, and worshipped him. But David shaphat, the son of Ahilud, recorder. He also encouraged him, and bid him be of good appointed Zadok, of the family of Phineas, to be cheer, and expect better times. So he gave high-priest, together with Abiathar; for he was bim his father's house, and all the estate which his friend. He also made Seisan the scribe, and his grandfather Saul was in possession of, and committed the command over the guards of bade him come and diet with him, at his own his body to Benaiah,f the son of Jehoiada. His table, and never to be absent one day. And elder sons were near his body, and had the when the youth had worshipped him, on accare of it also.

count of his words, and gifts given to him; He also called to mind the covenants and he called for Ziba, and told him, that he had the oaths be had made with Jonathan, the son given the youth his father's house, and all of Saul; and the friendship and affection Jo- Saul's estate. He also ordered that Ziba nathan had for him. For besides all the rest | should cultivate his land, and take care of it, of his excellent qualities, with which he was and bring him the profits of all to Jerusalem. endowed ; he was also exceeding mindful of Accordingly David brought him to his table such as had at other times bestowed benefits every day; and bestowed upon the youth, upon him. He therefore gave order that in- Ziba, and his sons, who were in number fifteen, quiry should be made, whether any of Jona- || and his servants, who were in number twenty, than's lineage were living ; to whom he might When the king had made these appointments,

* By this great victory over the Idumeans or Edom- | the marginal note, is remembrancer, or writer of chroniites, the posterity of Esau, and by the consequent tri- cles; an employment of no mean estimation in the eastern bute paid by that nation to the Jews, were the prophecies world, where it was customary with the kings to keep delivered to Rebecca before Jacob and Esau were born, | daily registers of all the transactions of their ceigns; and and by old Isaac before his death, that the elder, Esau, a trust, which whoever discharged to purpose, must be or the Edomites, should serve the younger, Jacob, or let into the true springs and secrets of action, and consethe Israelites; and Jacob, or the Israelites, should be quently must be received into the inmost confidence. Esau's, or the Edomites', lord; remarkably fulfilled. For whether the office of a Lord Chancellor was consistSee VIII, 7. Gen. xxv, 23, and xxvii. 29, 37, and the ent with the constitution of ihe Jewish state, a modern Notes ou I. 18.

author seems to doubt. History of the Life of King Da+ The word in our translation is recorder, which, in vid, vol: 2. B.

and

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