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when he says, “Such of the priests as were | Scythians. Now as to Javan and Madai, the saved took the sacred vessels of Jupiter Enya- sons of Japhet; from Madai came the Malius, and came to Shinar of Babylonia." deans, which are called Medes by the Greeks,

but from Javan and Jonia all the Grecians CHAP. V.

are derived. Thobel founded the Thobelites,

now called Iberes: and the Mosocheni, now OF THE MANNER IN WHICH THE POSTERITY OF NOAH SENT called Cappadocians, were founded by Mo

soph. There is also a mark of their ancient A FTER this they were dispersed abroad on denomination still to be shown, for there is

account of the difference of their lan- even now among them a city called Mazaca, guages, and went out by colonies every which may inform those who are able to unwhere; and each colony took possession of derstand, that so was the nation once called. that land unto which God led them, so that Thiras also called those whom he ruled over the whole continent was filled with them, both Thiracians, but the Greeks changed the name the inland and maritime countries. There into Thracians: and so many were the counwere some also who passed over the sea in tries that had the children of Japhet for their ships, and inhabited the islands; and some of inhabitants. those nations still retain the denominations Of the three sons of Gomer, Aschanax which were given them by their first foun- | founded the Aschanaxians, who are ders, but some have lost them, and some have called by the Greeks Rheginians; Riphath only admitted certain changes in them, that founded the Ripbeans, now called Paphlagothey might be more intelligible to the in- ||nians; and Thrugramma the Thrugrammeans, habitants; and they were the Greeks who who, as the Greeks resolved, were named becaine the authors of such mutations; for Phrygians. Of the three sons of Javan also, when, in after ages, they grew potent, they the son of Japhet. Elisa gave name to the claimed to themselves the glory of antiquity, | Eliseans, who were his subjects; they are giving names to the nations that sounded well now the Æolians. Tharsus to the Tharsians, in Greek, that they might be better under- | for so was Cilicia of old called; the sign of stood among themselves, and setting agree which is, that the noblest city they have, and able forms of government over them, as if they la metropolis also, is Tausus, the letter Tau were a people derived from themselves. being by change put for Theta. Cethimus

possessed the island Cethima. It is now called CHAP. VI.

Cyprus, and from that all islands, and the

greatest part of the sea-coasts, are named HOW EVERY Nation WÁS DENOMINATED FROM THEIR FIRST Cethim by the Hebrews; and one city there

is in Cyprus that has been able to preserve OW they were the grand-children of Noah its denomination; it is called Citius by those

in honor of whom names were imposed who used the language of the Greeks, and has on the nations by those that first seized upon not, by the use of that dialect, escaped the them. Japhet, the son of Noah, had seven name of Cethim: and so many nations have sons; they inhabited so, that beginning at the children and grand-children of Japhet the mountains Taurus and Amanus, they pro- || possessed. Now when I have promised someceeded along Asia, as far as the river Tanais, what which, perhaps, the Greeks do not know, and along Europe to Cadiz, and settling I will return and explain what I have omitted; themselves on the lands they chose, which for such names are pronounced here after the none had inhabited before, they called the manner of the Greeks, to please my readers, nations by their own names; for Gomer for our own language does not so pronounce founded those whom the Greeks called Gala-them ; but the names in all cases are of one tians, but were then called Gomerites. Ma- and the same ending ; for the name we here gog founded those that from him were named pronounce Noeus, is there Noah, and in every Mogogites, but who are by the Greeks called case retains the same termination.



The children of Ham possessed the land || of one only, the Philistim, for the Greeks call from Syria and Amanus, and the mountains part of that country Palestine. As for the rest, of Libanus, seizing upon all the maritime Ludieim, Enemim, and Labim, who alone inparts, and keeping them as their own. Some, habited Libya, and called the country from indeed, of its names are utterly vanished: himself; Nedim and Phethrosim, and Ches. others of them being changed, and another loim and Cephthorim, we know nothing of sound given them, are hardly to be dis-them besides their names; for the Ethiopic covered; yet there are a few which have kept war,* which we shall describe hereafter, was their denominations entire; for of the four the cause that those cities were overthrown. sons of Ham, time has not at all hurt the The sons of Canaan were these; Sidonius, nanie of Chus; for the Ethiopians, over whom | who built a city of the same name, but called he reigned, are even at this day, both by by the Greek's Sidon; Amathus inhabited themselves and by all men in Asia, called Amathine, which is even now called Apathe Chusites. The memory also of the Mesraites by the inhabitants, although the Macedonians is preserved in their name: for all we who in- named it Epiphania, from one of his posterity; habit the country of Judea call Egypt Mestre, Arudeus possessed the island Aradens; Aruand the Egyptians Mestrians, Phut also was cuis possessed Arce, which is in Libanus. But the founder of Libya, and called the inhabit of the seven others, Chetteus, Jebuceus, Amorants Phutites, from himself; there is also a

reus, Gergesseus, Eudeus, Sineus, and Samariver in the country of the Moors which bears i reus, we have nothing in the sacred books but that name, whence the greatest part of the their names; for the Hebrews overthrew their Grecian historians mention that river, and the cities, and their calamities came upon them on adjoining country, by the appellation of Phut: the occasion following. but the name it has now is derived from one When, after the deloge, the earth was reof the sons of Mestraim, who was called settled in its former condition, Noah set Lybyos. We will inform you presently what about its cultivation, and planted it with has been the occasion why it has been called | vines; and when the fruit was ripe, and he Africa also. Canaan, the fourth son of Ham, had gathered the grapes in their season, and inhabited the country now called Judea, and the wine was ready for use, be offered sacricalled it from his own name Canaan. "The | fice, and feasted; and, being inebriated, he children of these four_were, Sabas, who fell asleep, and lay naked in an unseemly founded the Sabeans: Evilas, who founded manner. When his youngest son saw this, the Evileans, now called Getuli; Sabathes, he came laughing, and showed him to his who founded the Sabathens, called by the brethren, but they covered their father's nakedGreeks Astoborans; Sabactas, who settledness; and when Noah was made sensible of the Sabactens: and Ragmus, who founded | what had been done, he prayed for prosperity the Ragmeans. This latter had two sons, to his other sons; but for Ham, he did not one of whom, Judadas, settled the Judadeans,curse him by reason of his nearness in blood, a nation of the western Ethiopians, and left but cursed his posterity; and when the rest of them his name; as did Sabas to the Sabeans. them escaped that cuirse, God inflicted it on But Nimrod, the son of Chus, stayed and the children of Canaan. But of these matters tyrannized at Babylon, as we have already we shall speak more hereafter. observed.

Shem, the third son of Noah, had five sons, I Now all the children of Mestraiın, being who inhabited the land that began at Eueight in number, possessed the country from phrates, and reached to the Indian ocean. Gaza to Egypt, though it retained the name || For Elam left behind him the Elamites, the

* One observation ought not here to be neglected, with or destruction of six or seven nations of the posterity of regard to that Ethiopic war, which Moses, as general of Mesraim, with their cities, which Josephus would not the Egyptians, put an end to, II, 10. apd about which have said, if he had not had ancient records to justify his modern writers seem very much unconcerned; viz, that it | assertions, though those records be now lost. was a war of that consequence, as to occasion'tñe removal + Gen, ix. 21.

Gen, s, 21.


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ancestors of the Persians. Ashur lived at the begotten by Sala when he was an hundred and city Ninive, and named his subjects Assyrians, thirty years old: whom Arphaxad had for his who became the most fortunate nation beyond son at the hundred and thirty-fifth year of his others. Arphaxad named the Arphaxadites, age. Arphaxad was the son of Shem, and who are now called Chaldeans. 'Aram had born twelve years after the deluge. Now the Aramites, whom the Greeks call Syrians; Abram had two brethren, Nabor and Haran : and Lud founded the Ludites, who are now of these, Haran left a son, Lot; as also Sarai called Lydians. Of the four sons of Aram, and Milcha, bis daughters; and died among Uz founded Trachonitis and Damascus; this the Chaldeans, in a city of the Chaldeans called country lies between Palestine and Cælesyria. | Ur, and his monument is shown to this day, UI founded Armenia ; and Gather the Bac. These married their pieces; Nahor married trians; and Mesa the Mesaneans: it is now Milcha, and Abram married Sarai. Now called Charax Spasina. Sala was the son of Terah hating Chaldea on, account of his Arphaxad: and his son was Heber, from mourning for Haran, they all removed to whom they originally called the Jews He- Haran of Mesopotamia, where Teran $ died, brews.* Heber begat Joctan and Phaleg. and was buried, when he had lived to be He was called Phaleg because he was bornt two hundred and five years old ; for the life at the dispersion of the nations to their several of man was already, by degress, diminished, countries, for Phaleg among the Hebrews and became shorter than before, till the signifies division, Now Joctan, one of the birth || of Moses, after whom the term of husons of Heber, had these sons, Elmodad, Sa- man life was one hundred and twenty years, leph, Asermoth, Jera, Adoram, Aizel, Decla, God determining it to the length that Moses Ebal, Abimeal, Sabeus, Ophir, Euilar, and happened to live. Now Nahor had eight Jobab: these inhabited from Cophen, an In- sons by Milcha;. Uz and Buz, Kemual, Chedian river, and in part of Asia adjoining to it; sed, Azau, Pheldas, Jadelph, and Bethuel. and this may suffice concerning the sons of These were all the genuine sons of Nahor; Shem.

for Teba and Gaam, and Tachus and Maaca, I will now treat of the Hebrews. The son were born of Reuma his concubine; but of Phaleg, whose father was Heber, was Ra- Bethuel had a daughter Rebecca, and a son gau, whose son was Serug, to whom was born Laban. Nahor: his son was Terab, who was the father of Abraham, who accordingly was the

CHAP. VII. tenthľ from Noah, who was born in the two OF ABRAM'S REMOVAL FROM THE COUNTRY OF THE CHALhundred and ninety-second year after the deluge: for Terah begat Abram in his seventieth year. Nahor begat Haram when he was one hundred and twenty years old! Wawas A BRAM, having no sons of his own, adopted

Lot, his brother Haran's son, and his wife was born to Serug at his hundred and thirty- Sarai's brother : he left the land of Chaldea second year; Ragau and Serug at one hun when he was seventy-five years old; and at dred and thirty; at the same age also Phaleg the command of God I went into Canaan, had Ragau; Heber begat Phaleg in his hun- and therein he dwelt himself, and left it to his dred and thirty-fourth year, he himself being posterity. He was a person of great sagacity,


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* That the Jews were called Hebrews from their pro- | by which the confusion of languages, and the dispersion genitor Heber, our author Josephus here rightly affirms; of mankind, fell no later than the 100th year after the and not from Abram the Hebrew, or passenger over Eu- deluge, which is impossible to be supposed, and is a phrates, as many of the moderns suppose. Shem is also great deal too soon for such confusion of languages and called ihe Father of all the Children of Heber, or of all || dispersion of mankind, which, by the best chronology, ' the Hebrews, in a history long before Abram passed over || did not happen till 300 years later, or till 400 years after Euphrates. Gen, x. 21:

the flood. # If Phaleg were so called at his birth, as Josephus Therefore the second Cainan is spurious. See Berhere rigbtly asserts, it is plain the short Hebrew, or Ma- | nard's note. sorete, chronology, was not the chronology of Josephus, $ An. 1962.

ll An. 1612.

Gen, xii, 1, VOL. I.



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