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state, rejoiced at it; and invited the prophet | but presently he complained of him, because to sup with him. But Jadon said, he could he had not come into his house, and partaken not endure to come into bis house, nor to taste of his hospitality. And when the other said, of bread or water in that city. * For that was that God had forbidden him to taste of any a thing God had forbidden him to do; as also one's provision in that city, he replied, 66 Cer

to go back by the same way which he came : tainly God had not forbidden that I should set · but he said, he was to return by another way. food before thee: for I am a prophet as thou

So the king wondered at the abstinence of the art, and worship God in the same manner that man; but was himself in fear, as suspecting a

thou dost : and I am now come, as sent by change of his affairs for the worse from what him, in order to bring thee into my house, had been said to him.

and make thee my guest.” Now Jadon gave

credit to this lying prophet, and returned back CHAP. IX.

with him. But when they were at dinner, and

were merry together, God appeared to Jadon, OF JADON'S RETURN TO BETHEL AT THE INSTICATION OF A and said that he should suffer punishment for

FALSE PROPHET, AND HIS AWFUL ESD; THE EFFECT OF
THE LYING PROPHET'S ARGUMENTS ON THE MIND OF JE-

transgressing his commands: and he told him ROBOAM, &c.

what that punishment should be; for he said,

that on his return," he should meet with a lion, NOW

row there was a certain wicked man in by which he should be torn to pieces, and be

that city, who was a false prophet, whoin deprived of burial in the sepulchres of his faJeroboam had in great esteem : but he was thers."

Which things came to pass, as I deceived by him, and his fattering words.

suppose, according to the will of God: that This man was then bed-ridden, by reason of so Jeroboam might not give heed to the words the infirmities of old age. However he was of Jadon, as of one that had been convicted informed by his sons concerning the prophet of lying. However, as Jadon was again gothat was come from Jerusalem, and concern- | ing to Jerusalem, a lion assaulted him, and pulling the signs done by him : and how when ed him off the beast he rode on, and slew bim : Jeroboam's right hand had been enfeebled, at yet did he not at all hurt the ass; but sat by the prophet's prayer he had it revived again. him, and kept him, as also the prophet's body. Whereupon he was afraid that this stranger and This continued till some travellers that saw it. prophet should be in better esteem with the came and told it in the city to the false proking than himself, and obtain greater honor phet, who sent his sons, and brought the body from him; and he gave order to his sons to unto the city, and made a funeral for him, at saddle his ass immediately, and make all great expences. He also charged his sons to ready that he might--go out. Accordingly bury himself with him, and said, that all which they made haste to do what they were com he had foretold against that city, and the altar, manded; and he got upon the ass, and fol- and priests, and false prophets, would prove lowed after the prophet. And when he had true: + and that if he were buried with overtaken him, as he was resting himself under him he should receive no injurious treatment. a thick and shady oak, he at first saluted hin, after his death : the bones not being then to Why this prophet was forbid to eat or drink with the

sted fast in executing the charge committed to thee; let people of Bethel, the reason is obvious, because he was nothing hinder or divert thee, but take abundant care, to have no familiarity with idolaters; but why he should that thou dost thy business effectually.” But this construcnot return by the same way that he went, is not so very tion is a little too much strained; nor can I see, why we evident. There is a passage in Isaiah concerning Senna may not say, that God enjoined his prophet not lo return cherib, which helps, as some think, to elucidate this mat

by the same way, lest Jeroboam, or any other of the inter, where God tells him, that he would turn bim back by habitants of Bethel, either to satisfy their curiosity upon the same way that he came, Isaiah xxxvii. 29, 34, i. e. be an occasion so uncommon, or to do him some mischief should return home withoui doing anything. All his threats for his severe denunciations against their altar and way of and all his great projects should have no effect against worship, might send men after him to bring biın back. Jerusalem, And in like manner when God commanded Calmei's and Le Clerc's Com. B. the prophet not 10 return by the same way, it was as much as if he had said, “ See that thou be constant, and it 1 Kings xiii, 32. VOL. I. (26.)

be

41

CHAP. X.

be distinguished asunder.” But when he had performed those funeral rites to the prophet, and had given that charge to his sons, as he was a wicked and impious man, he went to Jeroboam and said to him :-" Wherefore is it

OP KEHOBOAM'S IMPIETY, AND HIS PUNISHMENT BY SHISHAK

KING OF EGYPT.

Jerolebat thou art disturbed at the words of Rwho, as we said before, was king of the

this silly fellow ?" And when the king related what had happened about the altar and about two tribes, built strong and large cities, Bethhis own hand; and gave him the names of a lehem, Etam, Tekoa, Betbzur, Shoco, Aduldivine man, and an excellent prophet; helam, Ipan, Maresha, Ziph, Adoraim, Laendeavonred, by a wicked trick, to weaken thatchish, Azekalı, Zorah, Aijalon, and Hebron. his opinion, and by using plausible words con

These he built first of all in the tribe of Judah. cerning what had happened, he aimed to injure He also built other cities in the tribe of Benthe truth that was in them. For he attempted

For he attempted jamin; and walled them about, and put garto persuade him, that his hand was enfeebled risons in them all, and captains, and a by the labor it had 'undergone, in supporting great deal of corn, and wine, and oil; and he the sacrifices : and that upon its resting awhile furnished every one of them plentifully with it returned to its former nature again. And other provisions that were necessary for sus that as to the altar, it was but new, and had tenance. Moreover he put therein shields and borne an abundance of sacrifices, and those spears, for many thousand men.

The priests large ones too ; and was accordingly broken also that were in all Israel, and the Levites; to pieces, and fallen down, by the weight of and if there were any of the multitude that what had been laid upon it. He also informed . were good and righteous men, they gathered him of the death of him that had foretold those themselves together to him: having left their things, and how he perished; whence he con own cities, that they might worship God in cluded that he had not any thing in him of Jerusalem. For they were not willing to be a prophet, nor spake anything like one. forced to worship the heifers, which Jeroboam When he had thus spoken he persuaded the had made: and they augmented the kingdom king; and entirely alienated his mind from of Rehoboam for three years. And after he Go and from doing works that were righte- had married a woman of his own kindred, and us and holy; and encouraged him to go on had by her three children ; he married also in his impious practices. * And accordingly he another of his own kindred who was daughter was to that degree injurious to God, and so of Absalom by Tamar, whose name was Ma-. great a transgressor ; that he sought for no achah; and by her he had a son, whom he thing else every day but how he might be guilty named Abijah.

named Abijah. He had also many other chilof some new instances of wickedness; and such dren by other wives ; but he loved Maachah as should be more detestable than what he had above them all. Now he had eighteen legiti. been so insolent as to do before. And so much mate wives, and thirty concubines ;'S and he shall at present suffice to have said concerning had born to him twenty-eight sons, and threeJeroboam.

score daughters; but he appointed Abijah,

whom he had by Maachah, to be his successor • How much a larger and better copy. Josephus had in prophet against his own belief, in order to persuade this remarkable history of the true prophet of Judea, and Jeroboam to persevere in his idolatry and wickedness; his concern with Jeroboam, and with the false prophet of and which it seems prevailed with him; than which Bethel, than our other copies have, is evident at first sight. more plausible could not be invented; was intimated in The prophet's very name Jadon, or, as the constitutions Josephus's copy, or in some other ancient book, cannot call him, Adonias, IV. 6, is wanting in our other copies : now be determined: our other copies say not one word and it is there, with no little absurdity, said, that God of it. revealed Jadon the true prophet's death; not to himself, + An. 974. as here, but to the false prophet. Of which see Essay on Gath, 2 Chron, xi. 8, the Old Test. page 74, 75. Whether the particular ac

Ś Sixty, 2 Chron. xi. 21. count of the arguments made use of, after all by the false

in the kingdom: and intrusted him with the While Rehoboam, and the multitude with treasures and the strongest cities.

him, were shut up in Jerusalem, by the army Now I cannot but think, that the greatness of Shishak; and when they besought God to of a kingdon, and its change into prosperity, give them victory and deliverance, they could often becomes the occasion of mischief and not persuade God to espouse their cause ; but of transgression to men. For when Reho- | Shemaiah the prophet told them, that God boam saw his kingdom so much increased, he threatened to forsake them, as they had themwent out of the right way into irreligious selves forsaken his worship. When they practices, and despised the worship of God, heard this, they were in great consternation; till the people themselves imitated his wicked and, seeing no way of deliverance, they all actions. For so it usually happens, that the earnestly set themselves to confess that God manders of subjects are corrupted at the same might justly overlook them since they had time with those of their governors; which been guilty of impiety towards him, and had subjects then lay aside their own sober way of let his laws lie in confusion. So when God living, as a reproof of their governors' intem saw them in that disposition, and that they perate courses; and follow their wickedness, acknowledged their sins, he told the prophet as if it were virtue. For it is not possible to he would not destroy them ; but that he would shew that men approve of the actions of their make them servants to the Egyptians : that kings, unless they do the same actions with they might learn whether they would suffer them. Agreeably whereto it now happened | less by serving men or God. So when Shito the subjects of Rehoboam : for when he shak had taken the city without fighting; bewas grown'impious, * and a transgressor him-cause Rehoboam was afraid, and received him self, they endeavoured not to offend him by into it; he spoiled the temple, and emptied resolving still to be righteous. But God sent the treasures of God, and those of the king, Shishak, † king of Egypt, to punish them for and carried off innumerable thousands of gold their unjust behaviour towards him. Con

Con- and silver; and left nothing at all behind him. cerning whom Herodotus was mistaken, and He also took away the bucklers of gold, and applied his actions to Sesostris. For this the shields, which Solomon the king' had Shishak, & in the fifth year of the reign of made. Nay, he did not leave the golden Rehoboam, made an expedition into Judea quivers which David had taken from the king with many thousand men. For he had one of Zobah, and had dedicated to God. And thousand two hundred chariots, . threescore when he had thus done, he returned to his thousand horsemen, and four hundred thou own kingdom. Now Herodotus of Halicarsand footmen. These he brought with him ; nassus mentions this expedition ; having only and they were the greater part of them Li- mistaken the king's name, and in saying that, byans and Ethiopians. Now therefore when he made war upon many other nations alsó, be fell opon the country of the Hebrews, he and brought Syria of Palestine into subjectook the strongest cities of Rehoborun's king- tion; and took the men that were therein pridom, without fighting; and when he had put soners, without fighting. Now it is manifest garrisons in them, he came last of all to Jeru- || that he intended to declare our nation was salem. S

subdued by him: for he saith, that he left be

WWWNA

* An. 971.

had taken the fenced cities of Judah, they returned, with..t It may seem something strange, that Shishak, who out giving Jeroboam, or his dominions, any the least dis. was so nearly allied to Rehoboam, should come up against || turbance. Patrick's Com. B. him, and take his royal city: but Rehoboam, we must re | That this Shishak was not the same person with the member, was not the son of Pharaoh's daughter, and famous Sesostris, as some have very lately, in contradictherefore no relation to Shishak. But, even had he been tion to all antiquity, supposed ; and that our Josephus did never so nearly related, as kingdoms, we know, never not take him to be the same, as they pretend ; but that marry, so, it is likely that Jeroboam, who had lived long Sesostris was many centuries earlier than Shishak, see in Egypt, stirred him up to invade his rival, and thereby Authent. Records, Part II. page 1024, 1025, 1026, and he might establish himself in this new kingdom: and the authors there cited. for this reason it was, that, when the armies of Egypt § 1 Kings xiv. 25.

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hind him pillars in the land of those that deli- || proud and a foolish man: and lost part of his vered themselves up to him, without fighting, dominions by not hearkeniog to bis father's and engraved upon them symbols of their friends. He was buried at Jerasalem, in the *effeminacy. Now our king Rehoboam deli- | sepulchres of the kings. And his son Abijah:|| : vered up our city without fighting. He says succeeded him in the kingdom; and this. in withal, that " The Ethiopians * learned the the eighteenth year of Jeroboam’s reign over rite of circumcision from the Egyptians, with the ten tribes. It must be now our business this addition ; that the Phænicians and Sy- to relate the affairs of Jeroboain, and how rians that live in Palestine confess that they he ended his life. For he ceased not, nor, learned it of the Egyptians." Yet is it evi.

Yet is it evi. rested to be injurious to God; but every dent that no other of the Syrians that live day raised up altars upon high mountains, in Palestine besides us alone are circum- and went on making priests out of the mulcised. But as to such matters let every titude. one, speak what is agreeable to his own opinion. :

CHAP. XI. When Shishak was gone away, king Rehoboam made bucklers and shields of brass, + OF THE DEATH OF JEROBOAM's son ; JEROBOAM'S DEFEAT BY. instead of those of gold; and delivered the same number of them to ihe keepers of the king's palace. So instead of famous warlike

was in no long time ready to return expeditions, and that glory which results from Jeroboam's wicked actions, and the puthose public actions, he reigned in great quiet-nishment they deserved, upon his head, and ness, though not without fear; as being al- | upon the heads of all his house. And whereas ways an enemy to Jeroboam. And he died

a son of the king's lay sick at that time, who when he had lived fifty-seven years, and reign- | was called Abijah; she enjoined his wife to ed seventeen. He was in bis disposition a lay aside her robes, and to take the garments

DEATH

ABIJAH; HIS SUBSEQUENT
OF HIS HOUSE BY BAASHA.

AND DESTRUCTION

• Herodotus, as here quoted by Josephus, and as this before. And, as they were carried before the king to the: passage

still stands in his present copies, Book II, Chap. house of the Lord, it seemed likewise to be a matter of 104, affirms, that “the Phænicians and Syrians in Pa. religion, that their value should not be diminished. Now, lestine, (which last are generally supposed to denote the in making these three hundred shields we are told, that Jews,) owned their receiving circumcision from the Egyp- | three pounds of gold went to one shield, 1 Kings si 17. tians. Whereas it is abundantly evident, that the Jews Thus at four pounds per ounce, or forty eight pounds received their circumcision from the patriarch Abraham, sterling to the pound, amounts to no more than 432,0001.; Gen, xvii. 9-14. Jos, vii. 22, 23, as I conclude the and therefore it was a miserable case, that they were reEgyptian priests themselves did. It is not therefore duced froin so much wealth 10 so much poverty, that neivery unlikely, that Herodotus, because the Jews had liv.

ther reason of state, nor religion, could raise so small a ed long in Egypt, and came out of it circumcised, did sum on so great an occasion. Bedford's Scripture Chrothereupon think they had learned that circumcision in nulogy, lib. 6, c. 2. B. Egypt, and had it not before. Manerbo, the famous 1 Kings xiv. 27. Egyptian chronologer and historian, who knew the his. Ś From Au. 976 to 959, B, C. tory of his own country much better than Herodotus, # An. 959. complains frequently of his mistakes about their affairs; Jeroboam might be for having his wise go to consult, as does Josephus more than once in this chapter. Nor the prophet at Shiloh, because this was a secret not to be indeed does llerudotus seem at all acquainted with the entrusted with any body else; a secret which had it been affairs of the Jews. For as he never names them; so little divulged, might have endangered his whole government: or nothing of what he says about them, their country, or because, if once his subjects caine to understand, that he maritime cities, iwo of which he alone mentions, Cadytis himself had no confidence in the calves which he had set and Jenysis, proves true. Nor indeed do there appear to up, but in any matter of importance had recourse to the have ever been any such cities on their coast. See Es. true worshippers of God, it is not to be imagined, what an say on the Old Testament, Appendix, page 180. Reland's inducement this would have been for them to forsake' Palestine, Tom. II. L. III. page 668, 669, 670, and the these senseless idols, and to return to the worship of the Note un XI, 2.

God of Israel, whom they imprudently had forsaken. * This shews, to what low condition the kingdom of | The queen was then the only person he could have confi. Judab was reduced. These shields were a matter of state dence in. As a mother, he knew, that she would be dilia and grandeur; and therefore it concerned them, if they gent in her inquiry : and as a wile, faithful in her ree were able, to have them of the same value that they were port; but there were sundry reasons why he might-de

belonging

belonging to a private person, and to go to tices of their king, and have worshipped the Ahijah the prophet; for that he was a won- | gods that he made, and forsaken my sacrifices, derful man in foretelling future events; it Do thou, O woman! make haste back to thị baving been he who told him, that he should husband, and tell him this . message. But be king. He also enjoined her, when she thou shalt then find thy. son dead; for as came to him, tó inquire concerning the child, thou enterest the city he shall depart this as if she were a stranger, whether he should life. Yet shall he be buried with the laescape this" disteinper. So she did as her | mentations of all the multitude, and be hohusband badé her; and changed her babit, nored with a general mourning; he is the and came to the city Shiloh ; for there did only innocent person of Jeroboam's faAhijah live. But as she was going into his mily.” * house, his eyes being then dim with age, God When the prophet had foretold these events, appeared to him, and informed him that the the woman went bastily away with a disorwife of Jeroboan was come to him ; and what dered mind, and greatly grieved at the death answer he should make to her inquiry. Ac- || of the child. So she was in lamentation as cordingly as the woman was coming into the she went along the road, and mourned for the house, like a private person, and a stranger, | death of her son, that was just at hand. She he cried out, “ Come in, O thou wife of Jero was indeed in a miserable condition at the boam. Why concealest thou thyself ?- Thou unavoidable approach of death, and went art -not concealed from God; who hath ap- l apace; but in circumstances very unfortunate peared to me, and informed me that thou wast because of her son : for the greater haste she coming, and hath given me in command what made, she would the sooner see her son dead. I shall say to thee.” So he said, that she | Yet was she forced to make such haste on should go away to her husband and speak to account of her husband. Accordingly when him thús: “ Since I made thee a great man, she was come back, she found that the child when thou wast little, or rather nothing, and had given up the ghost, as the prophet had rent the kingdom from the house of David, said, and she related all the circumstances to and gave it to thee; and thou hast been un

the king. mindful of these benefits, hast left off my wor Jeroboam, however, did not lay any of ship, hast made the molten gods and honored these things to heart; but he brought togethem: I will in-like manner cast thee down ther a very numerous army, and made a waragain, and will destroy all thy house, and like expedition against Abijah, the son of Remake them food for the dogs, and the fowls. ), hoboam, who had succeeded his father in the For a certain king is rising up, by my ap- | kingdom of the two tribes. For he despised pointment, over all this people, who shall him, because of his age. But when he heard leave none of the family of Jeroboam remain of the expedition of Jeroboam, he was not ing. The multitude also shall themselves affrighted at it; but proved of a courageous paitake of the same punishment; and shall be temper of mind, superior both to his youth, cast out of this good land, and shall be and to the hopes of his enemy. So he chose scattered into the places beyond Euphrates ; | an army out of the two tribes, and met Jerobecause they have followed the wicked prac- | boarn at a place called mount Zemaraim, and

sire her to disguise herself. For though Shiloh lay within justly he might), that, if the prophet perceived it to be the confines of Ephraim, yet there is sufficient ground to his wife, he would either tell her nothing, or make things think, that it was subject to the house of David, and be much worse than they were. The only way, therefore, longed to the kingdom of Judah. It was certainly nearer to come at the truth, was, (as he thought,) to do what he Jerusalem than Shechem, which Rehoboam bad lately did: but herein appears, bis infatuation, that he should fortified, and made his place of residence: and therefore not think the person, whom he held culpable of resolv. Jeroboam thought it not safe to venture his queen, in a ing him in the fate of his son, able to see through this place tliai was under his rival's government, without 'her: guile and disguise. Calmet's Commentary, and Pool's putting on some disguise. He knew too, that the pro Annotations. B. pbet Ahijab was greatly offended at him, for the gross idolatry herhad introduced ; and therefore he thought (as * 1 Kings xiv, 13. VOL: 1. (26.)

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