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feasted on the fourteenth day, and that which with the king, and assisted him in the.gofollowed it. Whence it is, that even now all vernment of the people. He also lived with: the Jews that are in the habitable earth keep the queen. So that the affairs of the Jews these days as a festival ; and send portions were, by their means, better than they could to one another. Mordecai also wrote to the

ever have hoped for. And this was the state Jews that lived in the kingdom of Artaxerxes, of the Jews under the reign of Artaxerxes. I to observe these days, and celebrate them as festivals: and to deliver them down to pos

CHAP. VII. terity: that this festival might continue for all time to come; and that it might never be OF JOHN'S ASSASSINATION OF HIS BROTHER JESUS IN THE buried in oblivion. For since they were about to be destroyed by Haman, they would do a right ,


HEN Eliashib the highand on their inflicting punishment on their his son Judas enemies; to observe those days, and give || priesthood. And when he was dead, his son thanks to God on them. For which cause John took that dignity. On whose account the Jews still keep the aforementioned days, | it was also that Bagoses, the general of 1 anand call them days * of Purim. And Mor- other Artaxerxes' army, polluted the temple, decai became a great and illustrious person and imposed tributes on the Jews; that out


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against Haman and his wife Zeresh, with blessings upon the days whereon the Jews rested from their enemies : Mordecai and Esther, and with praises to God, for having and this is the reason why the festival continues for two preserved his people. Their resting on this day is ob days, though the former of them is only kept with great served so religiously, that they will not so much as set or solemnity. Patrick's Commentary ; Howel's History, ist sow any thing in their gardens, with full persuasion that it the notes; and Calmet's Dictionary, under the word Puwould not come up if they did ; and therefore they ei rim. B. ther play at chess, and such like games, or spend the * Take here part of Reland's Note on this disputed pastime in music and dancing, until it be proper to begin sage: " In Josephus's copies these Hebrew words days of their feasting, wherein they indulge themselves to such an Purim, or Lots, as in the Greek copies of Estheris. 26, 28, immoderate degree, that iheir feast of Purim has, with 29, 31, 32, is read days of phurim, or days of protection, great justice, been called the Bacchanals of the Jews.

but ought to be read days of purim, as in the Hebrew. They allow themselves to drink wine to excess, nay, Than which emendation nothing is more certain.” And even 10 such a pitch, as not to be able to distinguish be. bad we any assurance that Josephus's copy mentioned the tween the blessing of Mordecai and the curse of Haman, casting of lots, as our copies do, Esth. iii. 7. I should fully as themselves speak; and amidst the other sports and agree

with Reland; but as it now stands it seems to me by diversions of the day, they used formerly to erect a gib no means certain. bet, and burn upon it a man made of straw, whom they + As to this whole book of Esther in the present Hebrew called Haman; but herein it was thought, that they might copy, it is so very imperfect, in a case where the providence have a design to insult Christians, upon the death of our of God was so very remarkable, and the Septuagint and crucified Saviour ; and therefore Theodosius the second Josephus have so much of religion, that it has not so much (anno Dom. 408.) forbade them to use this ceremony, as the name of God once in it; and it is hard to say who under the penalty of forfeiting all their privileges. We made that epitome which the Masorites have given us for have only farther to remark concerning this festival, that the genuine book itself. No religious Jews could well be it is always kept for two days together, and the reason the authors of it: whose education obliged them to have hereof is this - The Jews at Shushan had two days al a constant regard to God, and whatsoever related to his lowed them to revenge themselves of their enemies, worship: nor do we know that there ever was so imperEsther is. 13. but the rest of the Jews in other nations fect a copy of it in the world, till alter the days of Bår. had but one. This caused, at first, sume difference in chocab, in the second century. their time of feasting; for the Jews in all other parts of. Concerning this other Artaxerxes, called Mnenion, the kingdom, having done execution on their enemies on and the Persian affliction and captivity of the Jews under the sbirteenth day, kepı their rejoicing feast on the four-him, occasioned by the murder of the High Priest's biroleentb; but the Jews at Shushan, being engaged in this ther in the holy house, see Authent. Rec. at large, pag. 49, works both on the thirteenth and fourteenth days, kept. 50, 116--161. And if any one wonder why Josephus ibeir festival for their deliverance on the fifteenth. When wholly omits the rest of the kings of Persia, after. ArMordecai however had made a record of this great de taxerxes Mnemon; till he came to their last king, Daliverance, he sent letters to all the Jews throughout the rius, who was conquered by Alexander the Great; I shall dominions of Abasuerus, to establish it as a standing ordi give them Vossius's and Dr. Hudson's answer, though in nance among them, that they should keep both the four my own words: viz. that Josephus did not do ill in omitteenth and fisteenth of the month Adar every year, as ting those kings of Persia with whom the Jews had 'vo




of the public stock, before they offered the knew that the city of Jerusalem was a famous daily sacrifices, they should pay for every lamb city; and that their kings: had given a great fifty shekels. Now Jesus was the brother of deal of trouble to the Assyrians, and the peoJohn, and was a friend of Bagoses; who had ple of Colesyria. So that he willingly gave promised to procure him the high priesthood. his daughter, whose name was Nicaso, in In confidence of whose support Jesus quar- | marriage to Manasseh; as thinking this allirelled with John in the temple ; and so pro ance by marriage would be a pledge and secuvoked his brother, that in his anger bis bro-rity that the nation of the Jews should conther slew him. Now it was a horrible thing tinue their good will to him. for John, when he was high-priest, to perpetrate so great a crime, and so much the more

CHAP. VIII. horrible, that there never was so cruel and impious a thing done, either by the Greeks or Barbarians. . However, God did not neglect its punishment. But the people were, on that very account, enslaved : and the temple was polluted by the Persians. Now when Bagoses, the general of Artaxerxes' that John, the high-priest of the Jews head A BOUT this † time Philip, king of Mace

don, was treacherously assaulted and slain his own brother Jesus in the temple; he || slain at Ægæ, by Pausanias, the son of Cecame upon the Jews immediately; and began rastes; who was derived from the family of in anger to say to them, “ Have you had the the Orestae. His son Alexander succeeded in impudence to perpetrate a murder in your || the kingdom ; and passing over the Hellestemple ?"

And as he was aiming to go into pont, overcame the generals of Darius' army the temple; they forbade him so to do. But in a

in a battle fought at Granicuin. So he he said, “ Am not I purer than he that was marched over Lydia, and subdued Ionia, and slain in the temple.?” And when he had said over-ran Caria, and fell upon the places of those words, he went into the temple. Accord.. | Pamphylia. ingly. Bagoses made use of this pretence; and But the elders of Jerusalem being very unpunished the Jews seven years for the murder || easy that the brother of Jaddua the highof Jesus.

priest, though married to a foreigner, should Now when Jobn was departed this life, his be a partner with him in the high priesthood, son Jaddua succeeded in the high priesthood. quarrelled with him. For they esteemed this He had a brother, whose name was Manasseh. | man's marriage a step to such as should be Now there was one * Sanballat, who was sent desirous of transgressing about the marriage of by Darius, the last king of Persia, into Sa- | strange wives'; and that this would be the bemaria. He was a Cuthean by birth; of which | ginning of a mutual intercourse with foreignstock were the Samaritans also. This man

ers; although the offence of some about mar

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concern; because he was giving the history of the Jews, dern Jews, greally shortened the Persian monarchy: For and not of the Persians. Which is a sufficient reason Josephus was in fact so far from diminishing, that he has also, why he entirely omits the history and the book of increased, its duration; and that no fewer than 38 or 39 Job; as not particularly relating to that nation. He

years. justly therefore returns to the Jewish affairs, after the * Many have here, very weakly, supposed that this death of Longimanus, without any mention of Darius II. || Sanballat, under the last Darius, is by Josephus confoundbefore Artaxerxes Mnemon, or of Ochus, or Arogus, as ed with Sanballat the Horonite in Nehemiah siji, 28. che canon of Ptolemy names them, after bim. Nor had he der Xerxes or Artaxerxes Lungimanus : who yet lived, by probably mentioned this other Artaxerxes, unless Bagoas, Josephus's own chronology, about 120 years before hin. one of the governors and commanders under him, had oc So palpable a mistake is hardly worth a particular concasioned the pollution of the Jewish temple, and had great futation, and only pardonable on account of the same perly distressed the Jews upon that pollution. But still, how son's former mistake, as to the duration of this Persian mo. very wide are those learned men from truth, who, from narchy, in Josephus's opinion; just, now observed, and soch bare omissions in Josephus, collectthat he was unac confuted. quainted with those reigns he omitted; and with the mo + An. 336.

riages, and their having married wives that him battle. Now' Sanballat was glad that were not of their own country, had been ap Darius was come down; and told Manasseh occasion of their former captivity, and of the that he would perform his promises to bim as miseries they then underwent. So they com soon as Darius should come back after the manded Manasseh to divorce his wife, or not had beaten his enemies: For not he only; but to approach the altar : the high-priest him all those that were in Asia 'also;" were pers self joining with the people in their indigna- suaded that the Macedonians would not '80 tion against his brother, and driving him away much as come to a battle with the Persians; from the altar. Whereupon Manasseh came on account of their multitude. But the evenit to his father-in-law, Sanballat, and told him, proved otherwise than they expected. For that although he loved his daughter Nicaso, the king joined battle with the Macedonians, yet was he not willing to be deprived of his and was beaten, and lost a great part of his sacerdotal dignity on her account; which was army. His mother also, with bis wife, and the principal dignity in their nation, and al- children, were taken captives; and he fled-inways continued in the same family.” But | to Persia. _So Alexander came into Syria, Sanballat promised not only to preserve to and took Damascus : and when he had obhim the honour of his priesthood, but to procure tained Sidon, be besieged Tyre. He then for bim the power and dignity of a high-priest, sent an epistle to the Jewish high-priest, reand to make him governor of all the places quiring bim to send him some auxiliaries; and he himself now ruled, if he would keep bis to supply his army with provisions: and that daughter for his wife. He also told him what presents be formerly sent to Darius he farther, that he would build him a temple like I would now send to bim; and choose;' the to that at Jerusalem, upon mount Gerizzim ; | friendship of the Macedonians: and that be which is the bighest of all the mountains that sbould never repent of so doing. ' But the are in Samaria; and he promised that he high-priest answered the messengers, that he would do this with the approbation of Darius had given his oath to Darius, not to bear arms the king, Manasseh was elevated with these against him: and he said he would pot transpromises; and stayed with Sanballat; upon gress it, while Darius was in the land of the a supposal that he should gain

a high priest- || living. Upon hearing this answer, Alexander hood, as bestowed on him by Darius. For it was very angry: and though he determined happened that Sanballat was then in years. not to leave 'I'yre, which was just ready to But there was now a great disturbance among be taken; yet as soon as he had taken it, he the people of Jerusalem, because many of threatened that he would make an expedition those priests and Levites were entangled in against the Jewish high-priest, and through such matches. For they all revolted to Ma-him teach all men to whom they must keep nasseh : and Sanballat afforded them money : their oaths. So when he had, with a good and divided among them land for tillage, and deal of pajos, during the siege, Taken Tyre, habitations also; and all this in order to gratify and had settled its affairs, he came to the city his son-in-law.

of Gaza, and besieged both the city, and him About this * time Darius heard how Alex- that was governor of the garrison', whose name ander had passed over the Hellespont;

and was Babemeses. had beaten his lieutenants, in the battle at Gra But Sanballat thought he had now a proper nicum ; and was proceeding farther. Where- opportunity of making his attempt. So he upon he assembled an army of horse and foot, renounced Darius ; and, taking with him seand determined that he would meet the Ma ven thousand- of his own subjects, he came to cedonians, before they should assault and con Alexander. And finding him beginning the quer all Asia.

So he passed over the river siege of Tyre, he said to him, that he deEuphrates; and came over Taurus, the Cili- livered up to him these inen, who came out of cian mountain : and at Issus of Cilicia he places under his dominion ; and gladly, acwaited for the enemy, as ready there to give cepted of him for his lord, instead of Darius.

* An. 334.

So, and

So when Alexander had received him kindly, || citizens. The procession was venerable, and Sanballat thereupon took courage, and spake | the manner of it different from that of other to him about his present affair. He told him, nations. It reached to a place called Sapha : that he had a son-in-law, Manasseh, who was which name translated into Greek signifies a brother to the high-priest Jaddua; and that prospect : for you have thence a prospect both there were many others of his owo nation now of Jerusalem and of the temple : and when the with him, that were desirous to have a temple Phænicians and the Chaldees * that followed

him would be for the king's advantage to have the der the city, and torment the high-priest to strength of the Jews divided into two parts ; death : which the king's displeasure fairly prolest, the nation being of one mind and united,mised them ; the very reverse happened. For upon any attempt for innovation, might prove when the multitude appeared at a distance in troublesome to kings : as it had tormerly prov white garments, while the priests stood clothed ed to the kings of Assyria. Hereupon Alex with fine linen, and the high-priest in purple ander gave the desired permission to Sanbal and scarlet clothing, with his mitre on his lat; who used the utmost diligence, and bailt head; having the golden plate whereon the the temple, and made Manasseh the priest : name of God was engraven ; Alexander apand deemed it a great reward, that his daugh- proached by himself, and adored that. ter's children should have that dignity. But first saluted the high-priest. The Jews also when the seven months of the siege of Tyre i did altogether salute Alexander, and encomwere over, and the two months of the siege pass him about.

pass him about. Hereupon the kings of Syof Gaza, Sanballat died. Now Alexander,

Now Alexander, ria, and the rest were surprised at what Alexwhen he had taken Gaza, made haste to go ander had done, and supposed bim disordered up to Jerusalem. And Jaddua the high-priest, in his mind. However, Parmenio alone went when he heard that, was in an agony, and un up to him, and asked him how it came to der terror; as not knowing how he should pass, that when all others adored bim, he meet the Macedonians; since the king was should adore the high-priest of the Jews? To displeased at his disobedience. He therefore whom he replied, “I did not adore him, but ordained that the people should make suppli- that God who hath honored him with his cations, and sbould join with him in offering high priesthood. For I saw this person in a sacrifice to god; whom he besought to pro-dream, in this very habit, when I was at Dios: tect that nation, and to deliver them from the in Macedonia. Who, when I was considerperils that were coming upon them. Goding with myself, how I might obtain the dohowever warned him in a dream, which came minion of Asia, exhorted me to make no deupon him after he had offered sacrifice, that | lay; but boldly to pass over the sea thither : he should take courage and adorn the city, for that he would conduct my army, and and open the gates; that the rest should

ap would give me the dominion over the Persians. pear in white garments; but that he and the Whence it is that having seen no other in that priests should meet the king in the habits pro- habit, and now seeing this person in it, and per to their order; without the dread of any remembering that vision, and the exhortation ill consequences; which the providence of

which the providence of wbich I had in my dream, I believe that. I God would prevent. When Jaddua rose from bring this army under the divine conduct, and his sleep, he greatly rejoiced; and declared shall therewith conquer Darius, and destroy to all the warning he had received from God : the power of the Persians; and that all things and having acted entirely according to his will succeed according to what is in my own dream, he awaited the coming of the king. mind.

When he understood that Alexander was When he had said this to Parmenio, and not far from the city, he went out in procession, had given the high-priest his right hand, the with the priests, and the multitude of the priests r'an along by him: and he came into

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the city. *. And when he went up into the j they belong to them; and derive their igetemple, he offered sacrifice to God, according nealogy from the posterity of Joseph, Ephraim, to the high-priest's direction : and magnifi-. and Manasseh. Accordingly, they made their cently treated both the high-priest, and the address to the king with splendor ; and shewpriests. And when † the book of Daniel was ed great alacrity in meeting him, at a little shewn to him, wherein Daniel declared that distance from Jerusalem. And when Alex one of the Greeks should destroy the empire ander had commended them, the Shechemites of the Persians, he supposed that himself was approached to him : taking along with them the person intended. And as he was then the troops that Sanballat had sent him :' and glad, he dismissed the multitude for the pre- they desired that he would come to their city, sent: but the next day be called them to him, and do honor to their temple also. To whom and bade them ask what favors they pleased he promised, that when he returned he would of him. Accordingly the high-priest desired come to them. And when they petitioned that they might enjoy the laws of their fore that he would remit the tribute of the seventh fathers, and might pay no tribute the seventh

year to them, because they did not sow: thered year. This was readily granted. And when on; he asked who they were that made such they entreated that he would permit the Jews a petition ; and when they said that they were in Babylon and Media to enjoy their own laws Hebrews, but had the name of Sidoniaps; lisalso, he willingly promised to do hereafter ing at Shechem: he asked them agajo whet what they desired. And when he said to the ther they were Jews ? and when they said multitude, that if any of them would enlist they were not Jews, “ It was to the Jews, themselves in his army, on this condition that said he, " that I granted that privilege :-howthey should continue under the laws of their ever, when I return, and am thoroughly inforefathers, and live according to them, he was formed by you of this matter, I will do what willing to take them with him ; many were

I shall think proper.'

And in this manner ready to accompany him in his wars.

took leave of the Shechemites: bat ordered When Alexander had thus settled matters at that the troops of Sanballat should follow hit Jerusalem, he led his army into the neigh-into Egypt, because there he designed to give bouring cities. And when all the inhabitants, them lands, which he did a little after in to whom he came, received him with great Thebais, when he ordered them to guard that kindness, the Samaritans, who had then She country, chem for their metropolis, (a city situate at On the death of Alexander § the govern, mount Gerizzim, and inhabited by apostates ment was divided among his successors; but of the Jewish nation ;) seeing that Alexander the temple' upon mount Gerizzim remained had so greatly honored the Jews, determined And if any one were'accused by those of Je to profess themselves Jews. For such is the rusalem of having eaten things || common, of disposition of the Samaritans, as we have al- of having broken the Sabbath, or of any other ready # declared, 'that when the Jews are in crime of the like nature, he fled away to the adversity, they deny that they are of kin to Shechemites, and said that he was accused uns them; and then they confess the truth. But justly. About this time it was that Jadduä, when they perceive that some good fortune the high-priėst, died : and Onias, the son took hath befallen them, they immediately pretend the high priesthood. This was the state of the to have communion with them, saying, that affairs of the people of Jerusalem at this time

* The time of the year when Alexander came to Jerusalem, seems rightly determined by the Rabbins in Megillath Taanith; when they keep the 21st of Casleu, a festival in memory of their superiority over the Samaritans at this time : as Reland here informs us. See the same discourse, pag. 56. Reland informs us farther that the same book says, the principal Jews were in white garments; with other circumstances agreeing with Josephus.

† The passages shewn to the king upon this occasion might be Dan, vii. 6. viii, 3—8, 20, 21, 22183 3. some ; or all of them very plain predictions of. Alexander's conquests and successes.

See Book ix. Chap. 14. li Here Josephus uses the very word “ eating Keyöpayud, things common,” for eating things unclean," as does our New Testament, Acts x. 14, 15, 28, xi 8, 9, Rom. xiv, 14. See the like in Josephus, XII. 7.


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