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brother what he has unhappily committed, || angry man, commanded all that were present thou wilt preserve us all. For we cannot to depart, that he might make himself known think of living if he be put to death; since we to his brethren, when they were alone.† And dare not shew ourselves alive to our father when the rest were gone out, he discovered without our brother. But here must we par- bimself, and said, " I commend you "I for your take of one and the same catastrophe. And so virtue, and for your kindness to your brother; far we beg of thee, O governor, that if thou I find you better men than I could have excondemnest our brother to die, thoù wilt pu- pected from what you contrived about me. nish us together with him, as partakers of his Indeed I did all this to try your love to your crime; for we shall not think it reasonable to brother. So I believe you were not wicked be reserved to kill ourselves for grief of our by nature, in what you did in my case: but brother's death, but so to die rather as equally that all has happened according to God's will; guilty with him of this crime. I will only who has hereby procured our enjoyment of leave with thee this one consideration, and what good things we have; and if he conthen will say no more, viz. that our brother tinue in a favorable disposition, of what we committed his fault when he was young, and hope for hereafter. Since, therefore, I know not yet of confirmed wisdom in his conduct; that our father is safe, and well, beyond exand that men naturally forgive such young pectation, and I see you so well disposed topersons. And I end here, without adding wards your brother, I will no longer rememwhat more I have to say, that in case thou ber what guilt you seem to have had about condemnest us, that omission may be supposed me; but rather return you my thanks, that to have hurt us, and permitted thee to take you have concurred with the intentions of God the severer side. But in case thou settest us to bring things to their present state. I would free, that this may be ascribed to thy own have you also forget the same, since that imgoodness; of which thou art inwardly con- prudence of yours is come to such a happy scious, that thou freest us from condemna- conclusion, rather than to be uneasy and blush tion ; and that not by barely preserving us, at those your offences. Do not, therefore, let but by granting us such a favor as will make your evil intentions, when you condemned us appear more righteous than we really are: me, and that bitter remorse which might foland by representing to thyself more motives low, be a grief to you now; because those for our deliverance than we are able to pro- intentions were frustrated. Go your way, reduce ourselves. If, therefore, thou resolvest joicing in what has happened by the Divine to slay him, I desire thou wilt slay me in his Providence, and inform your father of it, lest stead, and send him back to his father; or, if he should be spent with tears for you, and dethou pleasest to retain him with thee as a prive me of the most agreeable part of my feslave, I am fitter to labor for thy advantage licity; I mean lest he should die before he in that capacity, and, as thou seest, am better comes into my sight, and enjoys the good prepared for either of those sufferings."* So things that we now have. Bring therefore, Judas being very willing to undergo any with you, our father, and your wives and chilthing for the deliverance of his brother, cast dren, and all your kindred, and remove your himself down at Joseph's feet, and earnestly habitation hither; for it is not proper that the labored to assuage and pacify his anger. All persons dearest to me should live remote from his brethren also fell down before him, weep-me, now my affairs are so prosperous; espeing and delivering themselves up for destruction for the preservation of the life of Benjamin.

Joseph being now overcome with his affection, and no longer able to personate an

* In all this speech of Judas's we may observe, that Josephus supposed death to have been the punishment of

cially when they must endure five more years of famine." When Joseph had said this, he embraced his brethren, who were in tears and sorrow; but the generous kindness of their brother seemed to leave among them no room

theft in Egypt, in the days of Joseph; though it never was so among the Jews, by the law of Moses.

+ Gen. xlv. 1.

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For when thy father would have deprived thee of the dominion, I gave it thee; and by my kindness it was that when thou wast sent into Mesopotamia alone, thou obtainedst good

for fear, lest they should be punished on account of what they had consulted and acted against him. And they were then feasting. Now the king, as soon as he heard that Joseph's brethren were come to him, was ex-wives, and returnedst with many children, ceeding glad of it, as if it had been part of his own good fortune; and gave them waggons full of corn, and gold, and silver, to be conveyed to their father. Now when they had received more of their brother, part to be carried to their father, and part as free gifts to every one of themselves, Benjamin having still more than the rest, they departed.




and much wealth. Thy whole family, also, has been preserved by my providence; and it was I who conducted Joseph thy son, whom thou gavest up for lost, to the enjoyment of great prosperity. I also made him lord of Egypt, so that he differs but little from a king. Accordingly I come now as a guide to thee in this journey, and foretel to thee that thou shalt die in the arms of Joseph, and that thy posterity shall be many ages in authority and glory; and I will settle them in the land which I have promised them.

Now Jacob had twelve sons.

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Of these Jo

Encouraged by this dream, Jacob went on more cheerfully for Egypt, with his sons, S soon as Jacob came to know, by his and all belonging to them. Now they were sons returning home, in what state Jo-in all seventy. I once indeed thought it best seph was; that he had not only escaped death, not to set down the names of this family; but that he lived in splendor and happiness, especially because of their difficult pronunciaand ruled over Egypt, jointly with the king; tion by the Greeks. But upon the whole, I and had intrusted to his care almost all his think it necessary to mention those names; affairs, he did not think any thing he was told that I may confute such as believe that we to be incredible, considering the greatness of came originally not out of Mesopotamia, but the works of God, and his kindness to him: are Egyptians. although that kindness had, for some time past, been intermitted. So he immediately and zea-seph was come thither before: we will therelously set out upon his journey to him. fore set down the names of Jacob's children and grand-children. Reuben had four sons; Anoch, Phallu, Assaron, and Charmi. Simeon had six; Jamuel, Jamin, Avod, Jachin, Soar, and Saul. Levi had three sons; Gersom, Caath, and Merari. Judas had three sons: Sala, Pharez, and Zerab; and by Pharez, two grand-children; Esrom and Amur. Isachar had four sons: Thola, Phua, Jasub, and Samaron. Zabulon had with him three sons; Sarad, Helon, and Jalel. So far is the posterity of Leah, with whom went her daughter Dinah. These are thirty-three. Rachel had two sons; one of whom, Joseph, had two sons also; Manasseh and Ephraim. The other, Benjamin, had ten sons; Bolau, Bacchar, Asabel, Geras, Naaman, Jes, Ros, Momphis, Opphis, and Arad. These fourteen, added to the thirty-three before enumerated, amount to forty-seven: and this was

When he came to the well of the oath, Beersheba, he offered sacrifice to God;* and being afraid that the happiness there was in Egypt might tempt his posterity to fall in love with it, and settle in it, and no more think of removing into the land of Canaan, and possessing it as God had promised them; also, being afraid, lest if this descent into Egypt were made without the will of God, his family might be destroyed there, and out of fear lest he should depart this life before he came to the sight of Joseph; he fell asleep, revolving these doubts in his mind.

But God stood by him, and called to him twice by his name: and when he asked who he was? God said, "It is not just that thou Jacob shouldest be unacquainted with that God who has ever been a protector and a helper to thy forefathers, and after them to thyself.

* Gen. xlvii. 1.

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the legitimate posterity of Jacob. He had
beside by Bilha, the handmaid of Rachel,
Dan, and Naphthali, which last had four sons,
that followed him; Jesel, Guni, Issari, and
Sellim. Dan had an only begotten son, Usi.
If these be added to those above mentioned,
they completed the number fifty-four. Gad
and Aser were the sons of Zilpha, who was
the handmaid of Leah. Gad had these seven
sons; Saphoniab, Augis, Sunis, Azabon,
Aerin, Eroed, and Ariel. Aser had a daugh-
ter, Sarah, and six male children, whose
names were Jomne, Isus, Isoui, Baris, Abar,
and Melchiel. If we add these, which are
sixteen, to the fifty-four, the afore-mentioned
number, seventy, is completed, Jacob him-
self not being included.

take care of their father; as also hereby he provided, that they might be acceptable to the Egyptians, by doing nothing that would be common to them with the Egyptians; for the Egyptians are prohibited † from feeding sheep.

When Jacob was come to the king, and had saluted him, and wished all prosperity to his government, Pharaoh asked how old he was? Upon whose answer, that he was a hundred and thirty Aser had a daugh- hundred and thirty years old, he admired Jacob on account of the length of his life. And when he had added, that still he had not lived so long as his forefathers, he gave him leave to live with his children in Heliopolis; for in that city the king's shepherds had their pasturage.

least provisions for themselves, so ignorant were they what was to be done. But Joseph sold them corn for their money; and when their money failed them, they bought corn with their cattle and their slaves; and if any of them had a small piece of land, they gave up that to purchase them food. By which means the king became the owner of all their substance; and they were removed some to one

When Joseph understood that his father The famine now increased among the Egypwas coming, for Judas his brother arrived tians, and this heavy judgment grew more before him, and announced his approach, he oppressive to them, because neither did the went out to meet him, and they met together river overflow the ground, for it did not rise at Heroopolis. But Jacob almost fainted to its former height; nor did God send rain $ away at this great and unexpected joy; how-upon it. Nor did they, indeed, make the ever, Joseph revived him, though unable himself to refrain being affected in the same manner. Yet he was not wholly overcome with his passion, as his father was. After this he desired Jacob to travel on slowly, whilst he himself took five of his brethren with him, and hastened to the king, to tell him that Jacob and his family were come. This was a joyful hearing to Pharaoh, who bid Joseph tell him what sort of life his bre-place, and some to another; that so the posthren loved to lead, that he might give them permission to follow the same. He said, they were good shepherds, and had been used to follow no other employment: by which he provided for them, that they should not be separated, but live in the same place, and

session of their country might be firmly assured to the king; excepting the lands of the priests; for their country continued still in their own possession. And indeed this sore famine made their minds as well as their bodies slaves; and at length compelled them to

hated such Phoenician or Canaanite shepherds as had long enslaved the Egyptians of old time. See his Sanchoniotha, page 361-362.

*All the Greek copies of Josephus have the negativeWhereas Bishop Cumberland has shewn, that they rather
particle here, that Jacob himself was not reckoned one
of the seventy souls that came into Egypt. But the old
Latin copies want it, and directly assure us he was one
of them. It is, therefore, hardly certain which of these
was Josephus's true reading: since the number seventy
is made up without him, if we reckon Leah for one; but,
if she be not reckoned, Jacob himself must be one, to com-
plete the number.

N. B. The LXXII. add Machir, and Gilead, and Sate laam, and Taom, and Edem, who were born in Egypt, and so have in all seventy-five souls: as Acts vii. 14.

+Josephus thought that the Egyptians hated or despised the employment of a shepherd in the days of Joseph.

Reland here puts the question, how Josephus could complain of its not raining in Egypt during this famine, while the ancients affirm that it never does naturally rain there? His answer is, that when the ancients deny that it rains in Egypt, they only mean the upper Egypt, above the Delta, which is called Egypt in the strictest sense but that in Delta, and consequently in the Lower Egypt adjoining to it, it did not hold, and still does rain sometimes. See the note on III. 1.



procure a sufficiency of food by such disho-|| But this happened many years afterwards. norable means. But when this misery ceas- He also enlarged† upon the praises of Joseph; ed, and the river overflowed the ground, and how he had not remembered the evil doings the earth brought forth its fruits plentifully, of his brethren to their disadvantage: nay, Joseph came to every city, and gathered the on the contrary, was kind to them; bestowpeople thereto belonging together, and gave ing upon them so many benefits, as seldom are them back entirly the land, which, by their bestowed on men's own benefactors. own consent, the king might have possessed then commanded his own sons that they should alone, and alone enjoyed the fruits of it. He admit Joseph's sons, Ephraim and Manasseh, also exhorted them to look on it as their own into their number: and divided the land of possession; to resume their labors of us- Canaan in common with them; concerning bandry with cheerfulness; and to pay as a whom we shall treat hereafter. However, tribute to the crown, the fifth part of the he made it his request, that he might be fruits of the land which the king, when it buried at Hebron. So he died; when he was his own, restored to them. These men had lived a hundred and forty-seven years; ‡ rejoiced upon their becoming unexpectedly having not been inferior to any of his ances owners of their land, and diligently observ-tors in piety towards God; and having such ed what was enjoined them. And by this means Joseph procured to himself a greater authority among the Egyptians, and a greater love to the king from them. Now this law, that they should pay the fifth part of their friuits as tribute, continued until the time of their later kings.





THEN Jacob had lived seventeen years in Egypt, he fell into a disease, and died in the presence of his sons; but not till he had made his prayers for their prosperity; and had foretold prophetically how every one of them was to dwell in the land of Canaan.

Josephus supposes that Joseph now restored the Egyptians their lands again, upon the payment of a fifth part as tribute. It seems to me rather that the land was now considered as Pharaoh's; and this fifth part as its rent, to be paid to him, as he was their landlord, and they his tenants; and that the lands were not properly restored, and this fifth part reserved as a tribute only, till the days of Sesostris.

+ As to this encomium upon Joseph, as preparatory to Jacob's adopting Ephraim and Manasseh into his own family, and to be admitted into his two tribes, which Josephus here mentions; all our copies of Gen. omit it, c. xlviii. nor do we know whence he took it; or whether it be his own einbellishment.

Gen. xlvii. 28.

Though there be something of a natural desire in most men to be buried in the places where their ancestors lie; yet Jacob's aversion to have his remains deposited in Egypt seems to be more earnest than ordinary, or otherwise he would never have imposed an oath upon his sons, and charged them all, with his dying breath, not to suffer it to be done. For he very well knew, that had his body


a recompense for it as it was fit those should
have, who were so good as these were.
seph, by the king's permission, carried his
father's dead body to Hebron, and there bu-
ried it, at a great expense.§ But his bre-
thren were at first unwiling to return back
with him; because they were afraid, lest now
their father was dead, he should punish them.
for their secret practices against him; since
he was now gone, for whose sake he had
been so gracious to them. He persuaded
them, however, to fear no harm, and to en-
tertain no suspicions of him; so he brought
them along with him, and gave them great
possessions, and continually evinced the most
particular concern for them.

been buried in Egypt, his posterity, upon that very ac-
count, would have been too much wedded to the country,
ever to attempt the acquisition of the promised land; and
therefore, to wean them from the thought of continuing
in Egypt, and to fix their minds and affections in Canaan,
he ordered his body to be carried thither beforehand, in
testimony that he died in full persuasion of the truth of
the promises which were given to him and his ancestors.
Nor was it inconvenient, that future generations, after
their return into Canaan, should have before their eyes
the sepulchre of their forefathers, for a record of their
virtues, and an incitement to the imitation of them. But
the strongest motive of all for Jacob's desiring to be buried
in Canaan (supposing that he foreknew that our Saviour
Christ was to live and die, and, with some others, rise
again in that country) was, that he might be one of that
blessed number; as it was indeed an ancient tradition in
the church, that among those, who came out of their graves
after our Lord's resurrection, Mat. xxvii. 53, the patriarch
Jacob was one. Pool's Annotations, and Bibliotheca
Bibl. B.

Gen. 1. 21.

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Joseph also died when he had lived a hun- ||selves up to pleasure, and in particular to dred and ten years;* having been a man of the love of gain. They also became very ill admirable virtue; who conducted all his af-affected towards the Hebrews, as touched fairs by the rules of reason, and used his au- with envy at their prosperity; for when they thority with moderation; which was the cause saw how the nation of the Israelites flourishof his great felicity among the Egyptians, ed, and were become eminent already in even when he came from another country, plenty of wealth, which they had acquired by and that in such ill circumstances as we have their virtue and natural love of labor, they already described. At length his brethren thought their increase was to their own dedied, after they had lived happily in Egypt. ||triment; and having in length of time forEgypt.triment; Now the posterity and sons of these men after gotten the benefits they had received from some time carried their bodies, and buried Joseph, particularly the crown being now † them at Hebron. But as to the bones of come into another family,¶ they became very Joseph, they carried them into the land of abusive to the Israelites, and contrived many Canaan afterwards, when the Hebrews went ways of afflicting them, for they enjoined out of Egypt; for so had Joseph made them them to cut a great number of channels for promise him upon oath. § But what became the river, and to build walls ** for their cities of every one of these men, and by what toils and ramparts, that they might restrain the they got the possession of the land of Canaan, river, and hinder its waters from stagnating, shall be shewn hereafter; when I have ex-upon its running over its own banks; they set plained on what account it was that they left Egypt.


them also to build pyramids, †† and by all this wore them out; and forced them to learn all sorts of mechanical arts, and to accustom themselves to hard labor: and four hundred years did they spend under these afflictions, for they strove one against another which OW it happened that the Egyptians grew should get the mastery; the Egyptians desirdelicate and indolent, and gave them-ing to destroy the Israelites by these labors,



* When Joseph died he was not only embalmed, but § There are several reasons which might induce Joseph put into a coffin. This was an honor appropriated to not to have his dead body immediately carried into Capersons of distinction, coffins not being universally used naan, and buried as his father was. 1st, Because his in Egypt. Maillet, speaking of the Egyptian reposito. brethren, after his disease, might not have interest enough ries of the dead, having given an account of several at court to provide themselves with such things as were niches that are found there, says, "it must not be imanecessary to set off the pomp and solemnity of a funeral gined, that the bodies deposited in these gloomy apart-befitting so great a personage. 2dly, Because he might ments were all enclosed in chests, and placed in niches; foresee, that the Egyptians, in all probability, as long as the greatest part were simply embalmed and swathed their veneration for his memory was warm, would hardly after that manner that every one hath some notion of; have suffered his remains to have been carried into an after which they laid them one by the side of another, other country. 3dly, Because the continuance of his rewithout any ceremony: some were even put into these mains among them might be a means to preserve the retombs without any embalming at all, or such a slight one, membrance of the services he had done them, and therethat there remains nothing of them in the linen in which by an inducement to them to treat the relations he had they were wrapped but the bones, and those half rotten,' left behind him with more kindness. 4thly, And chiefly (Letter vii. p. 281.) Antique coffins of stone, and syca because the presence of his body with the Israelites might more wood, are still to be seen in Egypt. It is said that be a pledge to assure them, and a means to strengthen and some were formerly made of a kind of pasteboard, form-confirm their faith, and hope in God's promises to their ed by folding and glueing cloth together a great number of progenitors, that he would infallibly put their posterity in times; these were curiously plastered, and painted with possession of the land of Canaan: and accordingly, when hieroglyphics. Thevenot, part i. p. 137. B. Moses delivered them out of Egypt, he carried Joseph's it to the care of the tribe of Ephraim, who buried it near body along with him, (Exod. xiii. 19.) and committed Shechem, (Josh. xxiv. 32.) in the field which Jacob, a little before his death, gave to Joseph, as his peculiar property; Pereius, and Patrick's Commentary; Pool's Annotations, and Calmet's Dictionary, under the word. B.

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Of the burying places of Joseph, and of the other patriarchs, as they are here rightly stated, see Test. Simeon, 8. and Test. Benjamin, § 12, with the Note, in Authent. Rec. Part 1, page 415, 416.

Exodus, xiii. 19. Acts vii. 16.


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