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They also carried out the bones | son was, that God had commanded him to of Joseph with them, as he charged his sons bring the people to mount Sinai; that there to do.
they might offer him sacrifices. The Egyptians, however, soon repented that Now, when the Egyptians had overtaken the Hebrews were gone :* and the king also the Hebrews, they prepared to fight them, was greatly concerned that this had been pro- and by their multitude they drove them into cured by the magical arts of Moses; so they a narrow place; for the number that purresolved to go after them. Accordingly they sued after them was six hundred chariots, took their weapons, and other warlike furni- with fifty thousand horsemen, and two hunture, and pursued after them, in order to bring dred thousand footmen, all armed. They also them back, if once they overtook them; be- seized on the passages, by which they imacause they would have no pretence to pray gined the Hebrew's might fly, shutting them to God against them, since they had already up between inaccessible mountains and the been permitted to go out. And they thought sea, for there was on each side a ridge of they should easily overcome them; as they mountains that terminated at the sea, which had no armour, and would be weary with was impassable by reason of their roughness, their journey.
So they made haste in their and obstructed their flight; wherefore they pursuit, and enquired of every one they met, there pressed upon the Hebrews, with their which way they were gone? And indeed army, where the ridges of the mountains were that land was difficult to be travelled over, close with the sea, which army they placed not only by armies, but single persons. Now at the defiles of the mountains, that so they Moses led the Hebrews this way, that in case might deprive them of any passage into the the Egyptians should repent, and be desirous plain. to pursue
after them, they might undergo the When the Hebrews, therefore, were neither punishment of their wickedness, and of the able to bear up, being thus, as it were, bebreach of those promises they had made to sieged, because they wanted provisions, nor them : he also chose this route on account of saw any possible way of escaping ; and if the Philistines, who had quarrelled with them, they should have thought of fighting, they and hated them of old; that by all means had no weapons; they expected an universal they might not know of their departure, for destruction, unless they delivered themselves their country is near that of Egypt: and up voluntarily to the Egyptians: so they laid thence it was that Moses led them not along the blame on Moses, and I forgot all the signs the road that tended to the land of the Philis. that had been wrought by God for the retines, but he was desirous that they should covery of their freedom; and this so far, that
through the desert; and so, after a long their incredulity prompted them to throw journey, and after many afflictions, they might stones at the prophet, while he encouraged enter
upon the land of Canaan. Another rea- them, and promised them deliverance, and
* Exod. xiv. 5.
part where stands D was the army of Pharaoh. He also + Take the main part of Reland's excellent note here, ihought we might evidently learn hence how it might be which greatly illustrates Josephus and the Scriptures in said that the Israelites were in Etham before they crossed this history, with the small map thereto belonging, as the sea, and yet might be said to have come into Etham follows:-"A traveller,” says Reland,
" whose name was after they had passed over the sea. Besides, he gave me Eueman, when he returned out of Egypt, told me, that an account how he passed over a river in a boat, near the he went the same way from Egypt to mount Sinai, which city Suez, which he said must needs be the Hernopolis of he supposed the Israelites of old travelled, and that he the ancients, since that city could not be situated any found several mountainous tracts'that ran down. towards where else in that neighbourhood." the Red Sea, as he delineated them to me. See A, B, C. As to the famous passage produced here by Dr. BerHe thought the Israelites had proceeded as far as the nard, out of Herodotus, as the most ancient heathen tesa desert of Etham, (see Exod. xiii. 20.) when they were timony of the Israelites coming from the Red Sea into commanded by God to return back, (see Exod. xiv. 2.) Palestine, Bishop Cumberland has shewn that it belongs and to pitch their camp between Migdol and the sea; and to the old Canaanite or Phænician shepherds, and their that when they were not able to fly, unless by sea, they retiring out of Egypt into Canaan, or Phænicia, long bewere in the place here denoted by the letter B, where they | fore the days of Moses. were shut in on each side by mountains, and that on the * Exod. xiv. 11.
OF THE MIRACULOUS DIVISION OP THE SEA FOR THE HE
BREWS, WHEN THEY WERE PURSUED BY THE EGYPTIANS;
they resolved that they would deliver them- || where no one can see how any hope in man selves up to the Egyptians; so there was sor- can better their condition. Depend, thererow and lamentation among the women and fore, upon such a protector as is able to make children, who had nothing but destruction small things great, and to shew that this before their eyes, while they were encom- mighty force against you is nothing but weakpassed with mountains, the sea, and their ene- ness; and be not affrighted at the Egyptian mies, and discerned no way of Aying from army; nor do you despair of being preserved, them.
because the sea before, and the mountains beBut Moses, though the multitude looked hind, afford you no opportunity of Aying; for fiercely at him, did not relinquish the care of even these mountains, if God so please, may them, but despised all dangers, out of his be made plain ground for you, and the sea trust in God, who, as he had afforded them become dry land."* the several steps already taken for the recovery of their liberty, which he had fore
CHAP. XVI. told, he would not now suffer them to be subdued by their enemies; to be either made slaves, or be slain by then ; and standing in the midst of them, he said, “It is not just for use to distrust even men, when they have to the sea, f' while the Egyptians looked
had said this, he led them hitherto well managed our affairs, as if they would not be the same men hereafter ; but it on, for they were within sight. Now these is no better than madness, at this time, to were so distressed by the toil of their pursuit, despair of the providence of God, by whose that they thought proper to put off fighting power all bas been performed which he pro- till the next day; but when Moses was come mised, when you expected no such things; Ito the sea-shore, he took his rod, and made mean all that I have been concerned in for supplication to God, and called upon bio your deliverance, and escape from slavery. to be their helper and assistant: and said, Nay, when we are in the utmost distress, as “ Thou art not ignorant, O Lord, that it is you see we now are, we ought the rather to beyond human strength, and human conhope that God will succor us, by whose trivance, to avoid the difficulties we are now operation it is that we are now encompassed under ; but it must be thy work altogether to within this narrow place, that he may deliver procure deliverance to this army, which has us out of such difficulties as are otherwise left Egypt at thy appointment. We despair insurmountable, and out of which neither you of any other assistance or contrivance, and nor your enemies expect you can be deliver- have recourse only to that hope we have in ed, and may at once demonstrate his own thee: and if there be any method that can power, and his providence over us ; nor does promise us an escape by thy providence, we God use to give his help in small difficulties look up to thee for it ;. and let it come quickly, to those whom he favors, but in such cases and manifest thy power to us, and do thou
* This speech is very short in our copies. Exod. xiv. I their tongue, "and called it squadga Sanacod; thence the 13, 14.
Latin, Mare Rubrum; and we, the Red Sea. The He
brews call it the Sea of Suph, or Flags, by reason of the + The Red Sea, called by the ancients Sinus Arabicus, great abundance of that kind of weed, which grows at the and now Gulfo de Mecca, is that part or branch of the bottom of it; and the Arabs at this day name it Bubr el Southern Sea which interposes itself between Egypt on the Chaisem, i. e. the sea of Clysona, from a town situate on: west; Arabia-Felix and some parts of Petræa, on the east; its western coast, much about that place where the Iswhile the northern bounds of it touch upon Idumea, or raelites passed over from the Egyptian to the Arabian the coast of Edom. Edom, 'in the Hebrew tongue, signi- shore. But as the word Clysona may denote a drowning fies Red, and was the nickname given Esau for selling his or overflowing with water, it is not improbable that ihe birth-right for a mess of pottage. The country, which his town built in this place, as well as this part of the sea, posterity possessed was called after his name, and so was might have such a name giren it, in memory of the fatę the sea which adjoined to it; but the Greeks, not under of the Egyptians, who were drowned herein. Well's Geostanding the reason of the appellation, translated it into graphy of the Old Testament, vol. 2. B. vol. 1.-(7.)
up this people unto good courage, and their armor, were before-hand with them, hope of deliverance, who are deeply sunk into and got first over to the land on the other side, a disconsolate state of mind. We are in a without any hurt, whence the others were helpless place; but still it is a place that thou encouraged, and more courageously pursued possessest, for the sea is thine, and the moun them, as hoping no harm would come to them tains that enclose us are thine: so that these neither : but the Egyptians were not aware mountains will open themselves if thou com- that they went into a road made for the Hemandest them; and the sea also, if thou com- brews, and not for others; that this road was mandest it, will become dry land: nay, we made for the deliverance of those in danger, might escape by a flight through the air, if but not for those that were earnest to make thou shouldest determine we should have that use of it for the other's destruction. As soon, way of salvation."
therefore, as the whole Egyptian army was When Moses had thus addressed himself to within it, the sea flowed to its own place, and God, he smote with his rod upon the sea, which came down with a torrent raised by storms parted asunder at the stroke, and, receiving of wind, † and encompassed the Egyptians. those waters into itself, left the ground dry as Showers of rain also came down from the a road, * and a place of fight for the He-sky, and dreadful thunder and lightning, with brews.t Now when Moses saw this appear- | Aashes of fire. Thunderbolts also were darted ance of God, and that the sea went out of its | upon them: nor was there any thing which own place, and left dry land, he went first of God sends upon men as indications of his all into it, and bid the Hebrews follow him wrath, which did not happen at this time; along that divine road, and to rejoice at the for a dark and dismal night oppressed them, danger their enemies, that followed them, and thus did all these men perish, so that were in ; and gave thanks to God for this there was not one man left to be a messenger surprising deliverance which appeared from of this calamity to the rest of the Egyptians. him.
The Hebrews were not able to contain Now while the Hebrews made no stay, but themselves for joy at their wonderful deliverwent on earnestly, as led by God's presence, ance, and destruction of their enemies : now the Egyptians supposed, at first, that they | indeed, supposing themselves firmly deliverwere distracted, and were going rashly uponed, when those that would have forced them manifest destruction; but when they saw that into slavery were destroyed, and when they they were gone a great way without any found they had God so evidently for their harm, and that no obstacle or difficulty fell protector: and now having escaped the danin their journey, they made haste to pursue ger they were in, after this manner, and seethem; and, hoping that the sea would being their enemies punished in such a way as calm for them also, they put their cavalry is never recorded of any other men, they foremost, and went'down into the sea. Now were all the night employed in singing of the Hebrews, while these were putting on hymns, and in mirth. Moses || also composed
Exod. xiv, 29. “ The waters were a wall unto them called Etti'; the wilderness of Shur, the Mountain of Sinai, on their right hand and on their left.” Diodorus Siculus and the country of Paran, are still known by the same relates that the Ichthyophagi, who lived near the Red Sea, names. (Niebuhr's Travels, vol. i. p. 189, 191.) Marah's had a tradition handed down to them through a long line Elath, and Midian, are still familiar to the ears of the of ancestors, that the whole bay was once laid bare to the Arabs. The grove of Elim yet remains, and its twelve very bottom, the waters retiring to the opposite shore, and fountains have neither increased nor diminished in number that they afterwards returned to their accustomed chan- | since the days of Moses. B. nel with a most tremendous revulsion. (Bib. Hist. lib. iii. + Exod. xiv, 21. p. 174.). Even to this day the inhabitants of the neigh These storms of wind, thunder, and lighening, at this bourhood of Corondel preserve the remembrance of a drowning of Pharaoh's army, are almost wanting in our mighty army having been once drowned in the bay, | copies of Exodus, bul fully extant in that of David, Ps. which Ptolemy calls Clysma. (Shaw's Travels, p. 349.) | Ixxvii, 16, 17, 18. The very country where the event is said to have hap § Exod. xiv. 28. pened in some degree bears testimony to the accuracy 1 What some bave here objected against this passage of the Mosaical narrative. The scriptural Etham is still of the Israelites over the Red Sea, in this one night, from
a song unto God, containing his praises, and a || for the sake of those that accompanied Alexthanksgiving for his kindness, in hexameter | ander, king of Macedonia, who yet lived comverse.
paratively but a little while ago, the PamphyAs for myself, I have delivered every part lian Sea retired, and afforded them a passage of this history as I found it in the sacred through itself, when they had no other way to books; nor let any one * wonder at the go; I mean when it was the '
will of God to strangeness of the narration, if a way were destroy the monarchy of the Persians; and discovered to those men of old time, who were this is confessed to be true by all that have free from the wickedness of the modern ages, written about the actions of Alexander ; but whether it happened by the will of God, or as to these events let every one determine as I whether it happened of its own accord; while, he pleases.
the common maps, viz. that this sea being here about the road along the coast. But Alexander fell into the thirty miles broad, so great an army could not pass over winter season, and committing himself chiefly to fortune, it in so short a time, is a great mistake. Mons. Thevenot, he marched on before the waves retired; and so it hapan eye-witness, informs us, that this sea, for about five pened that they were a whole day journeying over it, days' journey, is no where more than eight or nine miles and were under water up to the navel.” Arrian's acacross; and in one place but four or five miles, accord-count is ibis, 1. page 72, 73 : “When Alexander removed ing to De Lisle's map, which is made from the best autho- | from Phaselis, he sent some part of his army over the rities.
mountains to Perga, which road the Thracians shewed What has been farther objected against this passage of him. A difficult way it was, but short. However, he the Israelites, and drowning of the Egyptians, being mi- himself conducted those that were with him by the searaculous also, viz. That Moses might carry the Israelites shore. The road is impassable at any other time than over at a low tide, without any miracle; while yet the when the north wind blows; but if the south wind prevail
, Egyptians, not knowing the tide so well as he, might be there is no passing by the shore. Now at this time, after drowned upon the return of the tide, is truly absurd. strong south winds, a north wind blew, and that not withYet does Artapanus, an ancient heathen historian, inform out the Divine Providence, as both he and they that were us, that this was what the more ignorant Memphites, who with bim supposed, and afforded him an easy and quick lived at a great distance, pretended; though he confesses, || passage.” Appian, when he compares Cæsar and Alexthat the more learned Heliopolitans, who lived much ander together, (De Bell. Civil. II, page 522,) says, “That nearer, owned the destruction of the Egyptians, and the they both depended on their boldness and fortune, as deliverance of the Israelites, to have been miraculous. inuch as on their skill in war. As an instance of which, And De Castro, a mathematician, who surveyed this sea Alexander journeyed over a country without water, in with great exactress, informs us, that there is no great the heat of summer, to the Oracle of Jupiter Amnion; and flux or reflux in this part of the Red Sea, to give a quickly passed over the bay of Pamphylia, when by color to the hypothesis; nay, that the elevation of the || Divine Providence the sea was cut off'; this Providence tide there is little above half the height of a man. So restraining the sea on his account, as it had sent him rain vain and groundless are these and the like evasions and wben he travelled over the desert." subterfuges of our modern sceplics and unbelievers ! and N. B. Since, in the days of Josephus, as he here assures so certainly do thorough inquiries, and authentic evidence, us, all the more numerous originial historians of Alexander disprove and confute such evasions and subterfuges upon gave the account he has here set down, as to the proviall occasions !
dential going back of the waters of the Pamphylian Sea, * Take here the original passages ofthe four old authors when he was going with his army to destroy the Perthat still remain, as to the transit of Alexander the Great sian monarchy, which the afore-named authors now reover the Pamphylian Sea, (for most of the oldest author's, maining fully confirm ; it is without any foundation that seen by Josephus, are entirely lost,) I mean of Calli- Josephus is here blamed, by some late writers, for quoting sthenes, Strabo, Arrian, and Appian. As to Callisthenes, those ancient authors upon the present occasion. Nor who himself accompanied Alexander in this expedition, I can the reflections of Plutarch, or any other author later Eustatius, in his noies upon the third Iliad of Homer, I than Josephus, be in the least here alleged to contradict lell us, that “this Callisthenes wrote how the Pamphy-him. Josephus went by all the evidence he then had, and Jian Sea did not only open a passage for Alexander, but that evidence of the most authentic sort, So that whatby rising and elevating its waters did pay him homage as ever the moderns may think of the thing itselt, there is its king.” Strabo’s account is this, Geog. XIV. page 666 : hence not the least color for finding fault with Josephus. - Now about Phaselis is that narrow passage by the sea
He had rather been to blame bad he omitted these quoside, through which Alexander led his army. There is a tations. However, since the pretended Epistles of Alexmountain called Climax, which adjoins to the sea of Pam ander omiited what all the ancient historians asserted phylia, leaving a narrow passage on the shore; which in about this matter, and which I know no sufficient grounds calm weather is bare, so as to be passable by travellers ; to contradict, as Plutarch informs us, De Vit. Alexand. but when the sea overflows it is covered to a great degree page 674: there will be reason to question those Epistles, by the waves. Now the ascent by the mountains being || whether they were genuine, or at least to think they were round about, and sleep, in still weather they make use of an imperfect collection of them.
On the next day Moses gathered together | might not be destitute of weapons. So when the weapons of the Egyptians, which were he had ordered the Hebrews to arm thembrought to the camp of the Hebrews by the selves with them, he led them to Mount Sinai, current of the sea, and the force of the winds in order to offer sacrifice to God, and to renassisting it; and he conjectured that this also der oblations for the salvation of the multitude, happened by Divine Providence, that so they || as he had been previously commanded.
Containing an Interval of Two Years.
FROM THE EXODUS OUT OF EGYPT, TO THE REJECTION OF THAT GENERATION,
OF THE VICISSITUDES EXPERIENCED BY THE HEBREWS IN
THEIR JOURNEY TO MOUNT SINAJ.
velled farther. The water, however, was bitter, and not fit for men to drink; and not only so, but it was intolerable even to the
cattle themselves. THEN the Hebrews had obtained such When Moses saw how much the people
a wonderful deliverance, the country were cast down, and that the occasion of it was a great trouble to them, for it was en- could not be contradicted ; for the people were tirely a desert, and had not water enough to not in the nature of a complete army of men, suffice any of the cattle; for it was parched who might oppose a manly fortitude to the up, and had not moisture that might afford necessity that distressed them; and the mulnutriment to the vegetables. So they were titude of the children and of the women, being forced to travel over this country, as having of too weak capacities to be persuaded by no other route. They had, indeed, carried reason, blunted the courage of the men themwater with them from the land over which selves; Moses was in great difficulties, and they had travelled before, as their conductor, made every body's calamities to be his owo had bidden them; but when that was spent for they all ran to him, and begged of him ; they were obliged to draw water out of wells, the women begged for their infants, and the with pain, by reason of the hardness of the men for the women, that he would not oversoil. The water thus obtained, also, was bit- look them, but procure some way or other for ter, and unfit for drinking, and this in so all their deliverance. He therefore betook himquantities. And as they thus travelled, they self to prayer to God, that he would change came late in the evening to a place called the water, and make it fit for drinking. And Marah,* from the badness of its waters : for when God had granted him that favor, he Mar denotes bitterness. Thither they came, took the top of a stick that lay at his feet, and afflicted, both by the tediousness of the jour- | divided it in the middle, and made the section ney, and by want of food; for it. entirely lengthways; he then let it down into the well, failed them at that time. Now here was a and persuaded the Hebrews that Gud had well, which induced them to stay in the hearkened to bis prayers, and liad promised to place; for although it was not sufficient to render the water such as they desired it to be, satisfy so great an army, it afforded them in case they would be subservient to him in some comfort in such a desert place ; for they what he should enjoin them to do, and this heard from those who had been to search, that not after a remiss or negligent manner. And there was nothing to be found, if they tra- when they asked, what they were to do in
* Dr. Bernard takes notice here, that this place Mar, || bimself. - Which waters are bitter still, as Thevenot aswhere the waters were bitter, is called by the Syrians | sures us; as there are also abundance of palm-trees." See and Arabians Mariri; and by the Syrians sometimes bis Travels, part I. chap. xxvi. page 166. Marath, all derived from the Hebrew Mar : as also he + Exod. xv. 23. takes notice, that it is called the bitter fountain, by Pliny