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three more. They also carried out the bones of Joseph with them, as he charged his sons to do.

son was, that God had commanded him to bring the people to mount Sinai; that there they might offer him sacrifices.

a narrow place; for the number that pursued after them was six hundred chariots, with fifty thousand horsemen, and two hundred thousand footmen, all armed. They also seized on the passages, by which they imagined the Hebrews might fly, shutting them † up between inaccessible mountains and the sea, for there was on each side a ridge of mountains that terminated at the sea, which was impassable by reason of their roughness, and obstructed their flight; wherefore they there pressed upon the Hebrews, with their army, where the ridges of the mountains were close with the sea, which army they placed at the defiles of the mountains, that so they might deprive them of any passage into the plain.

The Egyptians, however, soon repented that Now, when the Egyptians had overtaken the Hebrews were gone:* and the king also the Hebrews, they prepared to fight them, was greatly concerned that this had been pro-and by their multitude they drove them into cured by the magical arts of Moses; so they resolved to go after them. Accordingly they took their weapons, and other warlike furniture, and pursued after them, in order to bring them back, if once they overtook them; because they would have no pretence to pray to God against them, since they had already been permitted to go out. And they thought they should easily overcome them; as they had no armour, and would be weary with their journey. So they made haste in their pursuit, and enquired of every one they met, which way they were gone? And indeed that land was difficult to be travelled over, not only by armies, but single persons. Now Moses led the Hebrews this way, that in case the Egyptians should repent, and be desirous to pursue after them, they might undergo the punishment of their wickedness, and of the breach of those promises they had made to them he also chose this route on account of the Philistines, who had quarrelled with them, and hated them of old; that by all means they might not know of their departure, for their country is near that of Egypt: and thence it was that Moses led them not along the road that tended to the land of the Philistines, but he was desirous that they should go through the desert; and so, after a long journey, and after many afflictions, they might enter upon the land of Canaan. Another rea

*Exod. xiv. 5.

+ Take the main part of Reland's excellent note here, which greatly illustrates Josephus and the Scriptures in this history, with the small map thereto belonging, as follows:-"A traveller," says Reland," whose name was Eneman, when he returned out of Egypt, told me, that he went the same way from Egypt to mount Sinai, which he supposed the Israelites of old travelled, and that he found several mountainous tracts' that ran down, towards the Red Sea, as he delineated them to me. See A, B, C. He thought the Israelites had proceeded as far as the desert of Etham, (see Exod. xiii. 20.) when they were commanded by God to return back, (see Exod. xiv. 2.) and to pitch their camp between Migdol and the sea; and that when they were not able to fly, unless by sea, they were in the place here denoted by the letter B, where they were shut in on each side by mountains, and that on the

When the Hebrews, therefore, were neither able to bear up, being thus, as it were, besieged, because they wanted provisions, nor saw any possible way of escaping; and if they should have thought of fighting, they had no weapons; they expected an universal destruction, unless they delivered themselves up voluntarily to the Egyptians: so they laid the blame on Moses, and I forgot all the signs that had been wrought by God for the recovery of their freedom; and this so far, that their incredulity prompted them to throw stones at the prophet, while he encouraged them, and promised them deliverance, and

part where stands D was the army of Pharaoh. He also thought we might evidently learn hence how it might be said that the Israelites were in Etham before they crossed the sea, and yet might be said to have come into Etham after they had passed over the sea. Besides, he gave me an account how he passed over a river in a boat, near the city Suez, which he said must needs be the Heroopolis of the ancients, since that city could not be situated any where else in that neighbourhood."

As to the famous passage produced here by Dr. Bernard, out of Herodotus, as the most ancient heathen testimony of the Israelites coming from the Red Sea into Palestine, Bishop Cumberland has shewn that it belongs to the old Canaanite or Phoenician shepherds, and their retiring out of Egypt into Canaan, ar Phoenicia, long before the days of Moses.

Exod. xiv. 11.


they resolved that they would deliver them- || where no one can see how any hope in man selves to the Egyptians; so there was sorup can better their condition. Depend, thererow and lamentation among the women and fore, upon such a protector as is able to make children, who had nothing but destruction small things great, and to shew that this before their eyes, while they were encom- mighty force against you is nothing but weakpassed with mountains, the sea, and their ene-ness; and be not affrighted at the Egyptian mies, and discerned no way of flying from them.

army; nor do you despair of being preserved, because the sea before, and the mountains behind, afford you no opportunity of flying; for even these mountains, if God so please, may be made plain ground for you, and the sea become dry land."*


But Moses, though the multitude looked fiercely at him, did not relinquish the care of them, but despised all dangers, out of his trust in God, who, as he had afforded them the several steps already taken for the recovery of their liberty, which he had foretold, he would not now suffer them to be submade dued by their enemies; to be either slaves, or be slain by them; and standing in the midst of them, he said, "It is not just for us to distrust even men, when they have WHEN Moses had said this, he led them


hitherto well managed our affairs, as if they to the sea, while the Egyptians looked would not be the same men hereafter; but it on, for they were within sight. Now these is no better than madness, at this time, to were so distressed by the toil of their pursuit, despair of the providence of God, by whose that they thought proper to put off fighting power all has been performed which he pro-till the next day; but when Moses was come mised, when you expected no such things; I mean all that I have been concerned in for your deliverance, and escape from slavery. Nay, when we are in the utmost distress, as you see we now are, we ought the rather to hope that God will succor us, by whose operation it is that we are now encompassed within this narrow place, that he may deliver us out of such difficulties as are otherwise insurmountable, and out of which neither you nor your enemies expect you can be delivered, and may at once demonstrate his own power, and his providence over us; nor does God use to give his help in small difficulties to those whom he favors, but in such cases

to the sea-shore, he took his rod, and made. supplication to God, and called upon him to be their helper and assistant: and said, "Thou art not ignorant, O Lord, that it is beyond human strength, and human contrivance, to avoid the difficulties we are now under; but it must be thy work altogether to procure deliverance to this army, which has left Egypt at thy appointment. We despair of any other assistance or contrivance, and have recourse only to that hope we have in thee: and if there be any method that can promise us an escape by thy providence, we look up to thee for it ;. and let it come quickly, and manifest thy power to us, and do thou

This speech is very short in our copies. Exod. xiv. their tongue, and called it guga daλaroa; thence the 13, 14.

The Red Sea, called by the ancients Sinus Arabicus, and now Gulfo de Mecca, is that part or branch of the Southern Sea which interposes itself between Egypt on the west; Arabia-Felix and some parts of Petræa, on the east; while the northern bounds of it touch upon Idumea, or the coast of Edom. Edom, in the Hebrew tongue, signifies Red, and was the nickname given Esau for selling his birth-right for a mess of pottage. The country which his posterity possessed was called after his name, and so was the sea which adjoined to it; but the Greeks, not understanding the reason of the appellation, translated it into

Latin, Mare Rubrum; and we, the Red Sea. The Hebrews call it the Sea of Suph, or Flags, by reason of the great abundance of that kind of weed, which grows at the bottom of it; and the Arabs at this day name it Bubr el Chaisem, i. e. the sea of Clysona, from a town situate on its western coast, much about that place where the Israelites passed over from the Egyptian to the Arabian shore. But as the word Clysona may denote a drowning or overflowing with water, it is not improbable that the town built in this place, as well as this part of the sea, might have such a name given it, in memory of the fate of the Egyptians, who were drowned herein. Well's Geography of the Old Testament, vol. 2. B.

raise up this people unto good courage, and hope of deliverance, who are deeply sunk into a disconsolate state of mind. We are in a helpless place; but still it is a place that thou possessest, for the sea is thine, and the mountains that enclose us are thine: so that these mountains will open themselves if thou commandest them; and the sea also, if thou commandest it, will become dry land: nay, we might escape by a flight through the air, if thou shouldest determine we should have that way of salvation."

When Moses had thus addressed himself to God, he smote with his rod upon the sea, which parted asunder at the stroke, and, receiving those waters into itself, left the ground dry as a road, and a place of flight for the Hebrews. Now when Moses saw this appearance of God, and that the sea went out of its own place, and left dry land, he went first of all into it, and bid the Hebrews follow him along that divine road, and to rejoice at the danger their enemies, that followed them, were in; and gave thanks to God for this surprising deliverance which appeared from him.

As soon,

their armor, were before-hand with them,
and got first over to the land on the other side,
without any hurt, whence the others were
encouraged, and more courageously pursued
them, as hoping no harm would come to them
neither but the Egyptians were not aware
that they went into a road made for the He-
brews, and not for others; that this road was
made for the deliverance of those in danger,
but not for those that were earnest to make
use of it for the other's destruction.
therefore, as the whole Egyptian army was
within it, the sea flowed to its own place, and
came down with a torrent raised by storms.
of wind, and encompassed the Egyptians.
Showers of rain also came down from the
sky, and dreadful thunder and lightning, with
flashes of fire. Thunderbolts also were darted
upon them: nor was there any thing which
God sends upon men as indications of his
wrath, which did not happen at this time;
for a dark and dismal night oppressed them,
and thus did all these men perish, so that
there was not one man left to be a messenger
of this calamity to the rest of the Egyptians.§

The Hebrews were not able to contain Now while the Hebrews made no stay, but themselves for joy at their wonderful deliverwent on earnestly, as led by God's presence, ance, and destruction of their enemies: now the Egyptians supposed, at first, that they indeed, supposing themselves firmly deliverwere distracted, and were going rashly upon ed, when those that would have forced them manifest destruction; but when they saw that into slavery were destroyed, and when they they were gone a great way without any found they had God so evidently for their harm, and that no obstacle or difficulty fell protector: and now having escaped the danin their journey, they made haste to pursue ger they were in, after this manner, and seethem; and, hoping that the sea would being their enemies punished in such a way as calm for them also, they put their cavalry foremost, and went' down into the sea. Now the Hebrews, while these were putting on


Exod. xiv. 29. "The waters were a wall unto them on their right hand and on their left." Diodorus Siculus relates that the Ichthyophagi, who lived near the Red Sea, had a tradition handed down to them through a long line of ancestors, that the whole bay was once laid bare to the very bottom, the waters retiring to the opposite shore, and that they afterwards returned to their accustomed channel with a most tremendous revulsion. (Bib. Hist. lib. iii. p. 174.) Even to this day the inhabitants of the neig bourhood of Corondel preserve the remembrance of a mighty army having been once drowned in the bay, which Ptolemy calls Clysma. (Shaw's Travels, p. 349.) The very country where the event is said to have hap pened in some degree bears testimony to the accuracy of the Mosaical narrative. The scriptural Etham is still

is never recorded of any other men, they were all the night employed in singing of hymns, and in mirth. Moses || also composed


called Etti; the wilderness of Shur, the Mountain of Sinai, and the country of Paran, are still known by the same names. (Niebuhr's Travels, vol. i. p. 189, 191.) Marah's Elath, and Midian, are still familiar to the ears of the Arabs. The grove of Elim yet remains, and its twelve fountains have neither increased nor diminished in number since the days of Moses. B.

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a song unto God, containing his praises, and a || for the sake of those that accompanied Alexthanksgiving for his kindness, in hexameter


As for myself, I have delivered every part of this history as I found it in the sacred 1 books; nor let any one wonder at the strangeness of the narration, if a way were discovered to those men of old time, who were free from the wickedness of the modern ages, whether it happened by the will of God, or whether it happened of its own accord; while,

the common maps, viz. that this sea being here about thirty miles broad, so great an army could not pass over it in so short a time, is a great mistake. Mons. Thevenot, an eye-witness, informs us, that this sea, for about five days' journey, is no where more than eight or nine miles across; and in one place but four or five miles, according to De Lisle's map, which is made from the best authorities. What has been farther objected against this passage of the Israelites, and drowning of the Egyptians, being miraculous also, viz. That Moses might carry the Israelites over at a low tide, without any miracle; while yet the Egyptians, not knowing the tide so well as he, might be drowned upon the return of the tide, is truly absurd. Yet does Artapanus, an ancient heathen historian, inform us, that this was what the more ignorant Memphites, who lived at a great distance, pretended; though he confesses, that the more learned Heliopolitans, who lived much nearer, owned the destruction of the Egyptians, and the deliverance of the Israelites, to have been miraculous. And De Castro, a mathematician, who surveyed this sea with great exactness, informs us, that there is no great flux or reflux in this part of the Red Sea, to give a color to the hypothesis; nay, that the elevation of the tide there is little above half the height of a man. vain and groundless are these and the like evasions and subterfuges of our modern sceptics and unbelievers! and so certainly do thorough inquiries, and authentic evidence, disprove and confute such evasions and subterfuges upon all occasions!


* Take here the original passages of the four old authors that still remain, as to the transit of Alexander the Great over the Pamphylian Sea, (for most of the oldest authors, seen by Josephus, are entirely lost,) I mean of Callisthenes, Strabo, Arrian, and Appian. As to Callisthenes, who himself accompanied Alexander in this expedition, Eustatius, in his notes upon the third Iliad of Homer, tell us, that "this Callisthenes wrote how the Pamphylian Sea did not only open a passage for Alexander, but by rising and elevating its waters did pay him homage as its king." Strabo's account is this, Geog. XIV. page 666: Now about Phaselis is that narrow passage by the seaside, through which Alexander led his army. There is a mountain called Climax, which adjoins to the sea of Painphylia, leaving a narrow passage on the shore; which in calm weather is bare, so as to be passable by travellers; but when the sea overflows it is covered to a great degree by the waves. Now the ascent by the mountains being round about, and steep, in still weather they make use of

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ander, king of Macedonia, who yet lived comparatively but a little while ago, the Pamphylian Sea retired, and afforded them a passage through itself, when they had no other way to go; I mean when it was the will of God to destroy the monarchy of the Persians; and this is confessed to be true by all that have written about the actions of Alexander; but as to these events let every one determine as he pleases.

the road along the coast. But Alexander fell into the winter season, and committing himself chiefly to fortune, he marched on before the waves retired; and so it happened that they were a whole day journeying over it, and were under water up to the navel." Arrian's account is this, I. page 72, 73: "When Alexander removed from Phaselis, he sent some part of his army over the mountains to Perga, which road the Thracians shewed him. A difficult way it was, but short. However, he himself conducted those that were with him by the seashore. The road is impassable at any other time than when the north wind blows; but if the south wind prevail, there is no passing by the shore. Now at this time, after strong south winds, a north wind blew, and that not without the Divine Providence, as both he and they that were with him supposed, and afforded him an easy and quick passage." Appian, when he compares Cæsar and Alexander together, (De Bell. Civil. II. page 522,) says, “That they both depended on their boldness and fortune, as much as on their skill in war. As an instance of which, Alexander journeyed over a country without water, in the heat of summer, to the Oracle of Jupiter Ammon ; and quickly passed over the bay of Pamphylia, when by Divine Providence the sea was cut off; this Providence restraining the sea on his account, as it had sent him rain when he travelled over the desert."

N. B. Since, in the days of Josephus, as he here assures us, all the more numerous originial historians of Alexander. gave the account he has here set down, as to the providential going back of the waters of the Pamphylian Sea, when he was going with his army to destroy the Persian monarchy, which the afore-named authors now remaining fully confirm; it is without any foundation that Josephus is here blamed, by some late writers, for quoting those ancient authors upon the present occasion. Nor can the reflections of Plutarch, or any other author later than Josephus, be in the least here alleged to contradict him. Josephus went by all the evidence he then had, and that evidence of the most authentic sort. So that whatever the moderns may think of the thing itself, there is hence not the least color for finding fault with Josephus. He had rather been to blame bad he omitted these quotations. However, since the pretended Epistles of Alexander omitted what all the ancient historians asserted about this matter, and which I know no sufficient grounds to contradict, as Plutarch informs us, De Vit. Alexand. page 674: there will be reason to question those Epistles, whether they were genuine, or at least to think they were an imperfect collection of them.

On the next day Moses gathered together || might not be destitute of weapons. the weapons of the Egyptians, which were brought to the camp of the Hebrews by the current of the sea, and the force of the winds assisting it; and he conjectured that this also happened by Divine Providence, that so they

So when

he had ordered the Hebrews to arm themselves with them, he led them to Mount Sinai, in order to offer sacrifice to God, and to render oblations for the salvation of the multitude, as he had been previously commanded.


Containing an Interval of Two Years.




WHEN the

velled farther. The water, however, was bitter, and not fit for men to drink; and not only so, but it was intolerable even to the cattle themselves.

When Moses saw how much the people were cast down, and that the occasion of it could not be contradicted; for the people were not in the nature of a complete army of men, who might oppose a manly fortitude to the necessity that distressed them; and the multitude of the children and of the women, being of too weak capacities to be persuaded by reason, blunted the courage of the men themselves; Moses was in great difficulties, and made every body's calamities to be his own; for they all ran to him, and begged of him; the women begged for their infants, and the men for the women, that he would not over

HEN the Hebrews had obtained such a wonderful deliverance, the country was a great trouble to them, for it was entirely a desert, and had not water enough to suffice any of the cattle; for it was parched up, and had not moisture that might afford nutriment to the vegetables. So they were forced to travel over this country, as having no other route. They had, indeed, carried water with them from the land over which they had travelled before, as their conductor had bidden them; but when that was spent they were obliged to draw water out of wells, with pain, by reason of the hardness of the soil. The water thus obtained, also, was bit-look them, but procure some way or other for ter, and unfit for drinking, and this in small their deliverance. He therefore betook himquantities. And as they thus travelled, they self to prayer to God, that he would change came late in the evening to a place called the water, and make it fit for drinking. And Marah,* from the badness of its waters: for when God had granted him that favor, he Mar denotes bitterness.+ Thither they came, took the top of a stick that lay at his feet, and afflicted, both by the tediousness of the jour- divided it in the middle, and made the section ney, and by want of food; for it entirely lengthways; he then let it down into the well, failed them at that time. God had well, which induced them to stay in the place; for although it was not sufficient to satisfy so great an army, it afforded them some comfort in such a desert place; for they heard from those who had been to search, that there was nothing to be found, if they tra

Now here was a and persuaded the Hebrews the to

* Dr. Bernard takes notice here, that this place Mar, where the waters were bitter, is called by the Syrians and Arabians Mariri; and by the Syrians sometimes Marath, all derived from the Hebrew Mar: as also he takes notice, that it is called the bitter fountain, by Pliny

hearkened to his prayers, and had promised to render the water such as they desired it to be, in case they would be subservient to him in what he should enjoin them to do, and this not after a remiss or negligent manner. And when they asked, what they were to do in himself. Which waters are bitter still, as Thevenot assures us; as there are also abundance of palm-trees. See bis Travels, part I. chap. xxvi. page 166.

† Exod. xv. 23.


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