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order to have the water changed for the bet- | at their conductor, and were zealous to stone
ter; he bid the strongest men among them him, as the direct occasion of their present
that stood there, to draw up water; and told miseries.
them that when the greatest part was drawn But wbile the multitude were irritated and
up, the remainder would be potable. * So bitterly set against him, Moses cheerfully re-
they labored at it till the water was so agi- lied upon God, and upon his consciousness of
tated and purged as to be fit to drink. the care he had taken of his own people, and

Removing from thence, they came to Elim, he came into the midst of theni, even while t which place looked well at a distance, for they clamored against him, and had stones there was a grove of palm-trees; but when in their hands, in order to dispatch him. Now they came nearer, it appeared to be a bad he was of an agreeable presence, and very place, for the palm-trees were no more than able to persuade the people by his speeches : seventy, and they were ill-grown, and creep-accordingly he began to mitigate their anger, ing trees, by the want of water, for the coun- and exhorted them not to be over mindful of try about was all parched, and no moisture their present adversities, lest they should theresufficient to water them, and make them hope by suffer the benefits that had formerly been ful and useful, was derived to them from the bestowed on them to slip out of their memofountains, which were twelve in number; ries; and be desired them by no means, on acthey were rather a few moist places, than count of their present uneasiness, to cast those springs, which not breaking out of the ground, great and wonderful favors and gifts, which nor running over, could not sufficiently water they had obtained of God, out of their minds: the trees. And when they dug into the sand, but to expect deliverance out of their present they met with no water; and if they took troubles, which they could not free themselves a few drops of it into their hands, they found from ; and this by the means of that Divine it to be useless on account of its mud. The Providence which watched over them : as it trees also were too weak to bear fruit, for want was probable that God merely tried their virof being sufficiently cherished and enlivened tue, and exercised their patience, by these adby the water. So they laid the blame on versities, that it might appear what fortitude their conductor, and made heavy complaints they had, and what memory they retained of against him; and said, that this their miserable his former wonderful works in their favor : state, and the experience they had of adver- and whether they would not think of them upsity, were owing to him: for that they had on occasion of the miseries they now felt. He then journeyed thirty days, and had spent all told them, it appeared they were not really the provisions they had brought with them, good men, either in patience, or in rememberand meeting with no relief, they were in al ing what had been successfully done for them, very desponding condition. Thus by fixing sometimes by contemning God, and his comtheir attention upon nothing but their present mands, when, by those commands, they left misfortunes, they were hindered from remem- the land of Egypt; and sometimes by behavbering what deliverances they had received ing themselves ill towards him who was the from God, and those by the virtue and wis- servant of God, and this when he had never dom of Moses also; so they were very angry deceived them, either in what he said, or had

* The additions here to Moses's account of the sweet-phus upon many occasions. This is, however, barely conening the waters at Marah seem derived from some an- | jectural; and since Josephus never tells us when bis own cient profane author, and he such an author also as looks copy, taken out of the temple, had such additions; or less authentic than are usually followed by Josephus. when any ancient notes supplied them; or indeed when Philo has not a syllable of these additions ; nor any other they were derived from Jewish, and when from Gentile ancient writer that we know of. Had Josephus written || antiquities, we can go no farther than bare conjecture in his Antiquities for the use of the Jews, he would hardly such cases. Only the notions of Jews were generally so have given them these very improbable circumstances; but different from those of Gentiles, that we may sometimes writing to Gentiles, that they might not complain of his make no improbable guesses to which sort such additions omission of any accounts of such miracles derived from belong. See also somewhat like these additions in JoseGentiles, he did not think proper to conceal what he had | phus's account of Elisha's making sweet the bitter and met with there about this matter. Which procedure is barren spring near Jericho. Of the War, IV. 8. perfectly agreeable to the character and usage of Jose + Exod. xv. 27. VOL. 1.--(7.)

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ordered them to do by God's command. He | from the want, they were in; because in God, also reminded them of all that had passed: and in him alone, was their hope of salvation. bow the Egyptians were destroyed when they He also desired that he would forgive what attempted to detain them, contrary to the necessity had forced the people to do : since command of God; and after what manner the such was the nature of mankind, hard to please, very same river was to the others bloody, and and very complaining under adversities. ACnot fit for drinking, but was sweet and pota- cordingly God promised he would take care ble to them; and how they went a new road of them, and afford the succor they were dethrough the sea, which fled a long way from sirous of. Now when Moses had heard this, them: by which means they were themselves he came down to the multitude; and as soon preserved, but saw their enemies destroyed ; | as they saw him joyful at the promises he had and that when they were'in want of weapons, received from God, they changed their sad God gave then plenty of them. Thus he re countenances into gladness. So he placed counted all the particular instances, when they himself in the midst of them, and told them were in appearance just going to be destroyed, he came to bring them from God a deliverbut God had saved them in a surprising ance out of their present distress. Accordingly manner : that he had still the same power, a little time after came a vast number of quails, and that they ought not even now to despair (which birds are more plentiful in this Arabian of his providence over them, and accordingly Gulf than any where else) flying over the sea, he exhorted them to continue quiet, and to and hovered over them, till, wearied with their consider that help would not come too late, laborious flight, and indeed, as usual, flying though perhaps not immediately; if it were very near to the earth, they fell down among present with them before they suffered any the Hebrews, who caught them, and satisfied great misfortune. “ You ought,” said he,“ to their

, bunger with them, supposing this was reason thus, that God delays to assist you, the method whereby God meant to supply not because he has no regard to you, but be- them with food. Hereupon, Moses returned cause he will first try your fortitude, and the thanks to God for affording them assistance so pleasure you take in your freedom ; that he suddenly, and sooner than he had promised. may learn whether you have souls great enough But soon after this first supply of food, they to bear want of food, and scarcity of water on received a second; for, as Moses was lifting its account; or whether you really love to be up his hands in prayer, a dew fell down, and slaves, as cattle are slaves to such as own them, | Moses, when he found it adhere to his hands, and feed them liberally, but only in order to supposed this was also come for food from make them more useful in their service. As God; he tasted it, and perceiving that the for myself, I shall not be so much concerned people knew not what it was, but thought it for my own preservation, for if I die unjustly, snowed, and that it was what usually fell at I shall not reckon it any atifliction; but I am that time of the year, he informed them, that concerned for you, lest, by casting stones at this dew did not fall from heaven after the me, you should be thought to condemn God manner they imagined, but came for their himself.”

preservation and sustenance; so he gave them By this means Moses pacified the people, some of it, that they might be satisfied about and restrained them from stoning him, and what he had told them. They also imitated brought them to l'epent of what they were go-their conductor, and were pleased with the ing to do. And because he thought the neces- food, for it was like honey in sweetness, and sity they were under made their passion less in substance like to bdellium, one of the sweet unjustifiable, he thought it needful to apply to spices, but in bigness equal to coriander seed.' God by prayer and supplication; and going The people were now very earnest in gatherup to an eminence, he requested some succoring it; but they were enjoined to gather it for the people, and some way of deliverance equally,* the measure of a homer for every warriors

andro * It seems to me from what Moses, Exod, xvi. 18, St. did not putrefy, was just so much as came to a homer a Paul, 2 Cor. viii. 15, and Josephus here says, compared piece through the whole host of Israel, and no more." together, that the quantity of manna that fell daily, and

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one every day, because this food should not| thing to drink. God did not long delay to come in too small quantity, lest the weaker grant this request, but promised that he would might not be able to get their share, by rea- procure them a fountain, and plenty of water son of the overbearing of the strong in col-||from a place where they did not expect any; lecting it. However, these strong men, when so he commanded Moses to smite the rock they had gathered more than the measure ap- which they saw lying there with his rod, and pointed for them, they had no more than out of it to receive plenty of what they wantothers, but only tired themselves more in ga-sed; for he had taken care that drink should thering it; for- they found no more than a come to them without any labor or exertion. homer apiece, and the advantage they got by When Moses had received this command, he what was superfluous was none at all, as it came to the people who waited for and looked corrupted, both by worms breeding in it, and upon him, fór they saw already that he was by its bitterness. So divine and wonderful a coming apace from his eminence. As soon food was this! It also supplied the want of as he was come, he told them, that God other sorts of food to those that fed on it ; would deliver them from their present distress, and even now, * in all that place, this manna and had granted them an unexpected favor, comes down in rain, according to what Moses and informed them that a river should run then obtained of God, to send it the people for their sakes out of the rock; but they for their sustenance. Now the Hebrews call were amazed at that hearing, supposing they this food manna, † for the particle man in our were of necessity to cut the rock in pieces now language is the asking of a question, what is they were distressed by their thirst, and by this?

So the Hebrews were very joyful at their journey. Moses, however, by only smitwhat was sent them from heaven, and they ing the rock with his rod, opened a passage, made use of this food for forty years, I or as and out of it burst water in great abundance, long as they remained in the wilderness. and very clear ; while they were astonished

As soon as they removed thence, they came at this wonderful effect, and as it were quenchto Rephidim, ß distressed to the last degree by led their thirst by the very sight of it: so they thirst: for, though in the foregoing days they drank this pleasant, this sweet water, and had met with a few small fountains, they now such it seemed to be, as might well be expectfound the earth entirely destitute of water, and led where God was the donor. They were were in an evil case. They again turned their also in admiration how Moses was honored by anger against Moses; but he at first avoided||God, and they made grateful returns of sathe fury of the multitude, and then betook||crifices to God for his providence towards himself to prayer, beseeching God, that as he|them. Now that scripture which is laid up had given them food when they were in the in the temple q informs us how God foretold greatest want of it, so he would give them to Moses that water should in this manner be drink, since the favor of giving them food derived out of the rock. was of no value to them while they had no

* This supposal, that the sweet honey-dew,or manna, so 'from manah, to divide, i. e. a dividend, or portion allotted celebrated in ancient and modern authors, as falling usu- to every one, it is uncertain. I incline to the latter derially in Arabia, was of the very same sort with the manna vation. This manna is called angels' food, Ps. Ixxviii. 25. sent to the Israelites, savours more of Gentilism than of and by our Saviour, Jobn, vi. 31. as well as by JoseJudaism or Christianity. It is not improbable that some phus here and elsewhere, said to be sent to the Jews from ancient Gentile author, read by Josephus, thought so, heaven. nor would he bere contradict him, though, just before, + Exod. xvi. 15.

From an. 1532 to 1429, B. C. and IV. 3, he seems directly to allow that it had not been § Exod xvii. 1.. seen previously. However this food from heaven is bere # This rock is here at this day, as modern travellers described by the word vseobs, that it fell like snow; and agree, and must be the same that was there in the days of in Artapanus, a heathen writer, it is compared to meal, Moses. like to oatmeal, in color like to snow, rained down by q Note here, that the small book of the principal laws of God. Essay on the Old Test. Appendix, page 239. But Moses is ever said to be laid up in the holy house itself, as to the derivation of the word manna, whether from but the larger Pentateuch somewhere within the limits of man, which Josephus, says then signified, what is it? or the temple and its courts only. See V, 1. VI. 4. X.4.

CHAP.

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OF THE HOSTILITIES COMMITTED AGAINST THE HEBREWS BY

THE AMALEKITES, AND OF THEIR COMPLETE DEFEAT.

neighbouring nations, and among each other, CHAP. II.

they resolved to attack the Hebrews in battle.

These proceedings of the people of those countries occasioned perplexity and trouble

to Moses, who expected no such warlike preNHE name of the Hebrews began already parations : and when these nations were ready to be everywhere, renowned, and ru

to fight, the multitude of the Hebrews were mors about them ran abroad, which excited obliged to try the fortune of war; they were great fear in the inhabitants of those coun

in great disorder, and in want of all neces. tries : accordingly they sent ambassadors to saries, and yet were to make war with men one another, and exhorted each other to de- || who were well prepared for it. Then it was, fend themselves, and to endeavor to destroy therefore, that Moses began to encourage these men. Those that induced the rest to them, and to exhort them to have a good do so were such as inhabited Gobilitis and heart, and rely on God's assistance, by which Petra ;, they were called Amalekites, * and || they had been advanced into a state of freewere the most warlike of the nations that lived || dom, and to hope for victory over those who thereabout, and whose kings exhorted one

were ready to fight with them in order to deanother, and their neighbours, to engage in | prive them of that blessing. He said they this war against the Hebrews, telling them were to suppose their own army to be numethat an army of strangers, who had run away rous, wanting nothing, neither weapons, nor from slavery under the Egyptians, lay in wait money, nor provisions, nor such other conveto ruin them; which army they were not in niences as when men are in possession of they common prudence, and regard to their own fight undauntedly, and that they were to judge safety, to overlook, but to crush them before themselves to have all these advantages in the they should gather strength, and come to be Divine assistance. They were also to suppose in prosperity : and perhaps attack them first the enemies' army to be small, unarmed, and in an hostile manner, as presuming upon their weak, and such as want those conveniences indolence in not attacking them before : and which they know must be wanted when it is that they ought to avenge themselves for what God's will that they should be beaten. He rehad been done in the wilderness; but that minded them that they had experienced the this could not be so well done when the He- value of God's assistance in abundance of brews bad once laid their hands on their cities trials, and those such as were more terrible and goods ; that those who endeavored to than war; for that is only against men, but crush a power in its first rise were .wiser these were against famine and thirst, things than those that attempted to stop its progress that were in their own nature insuperable ; as when it became formidable : as these last seem also against mountains, and that sea which afto be angry only at the flourishing of others, forded them no way for escaping; yet had all but the former do not leave any room for their these difficulties been conquered by God's graenemies to become troublesome to them. Af- cious kindness; so he exhorted them to be ter they had sent such ambassages to the courageous at this time, and to consider their

* The Amalekites were a people descended from Ama- | knowing the Israelites were pre-ordained by God to be lek, the son of Eliphaz, the son of Esau, by a concubine, put in possession of the land of Canaan, they came against Gen. xxxvi. 12. And the ground of their enmity against them with an armed force, in hopes of frustrating the dethe Israelites is generally supposed to have been an in- signs of 'Providence concerning them. And this is the nate hatred, from the remembrance of Jacob's depriving reason which Moses himself assigns for this declaration of their progenitor, both of his birth-right and blessing. war; because his (ie. Amalek's) hand is against the throne. Their falling upon thein, however, and that without any l of God (i. c. against God himself) therefore the Lord will provocation, when they saw them reduced to so low a wage war against him from one generation to another, Exod. condition by the fatigue of their march, and the excessive xvii. 16. The injury done the Israelites was not so much drought they labored under, .was an inhuman action, and as the affront offered to the Divine Majesty; and therejustly deserved the defeat which Joshua gave them. But fore God threatens utterly to extirpate the designers of then the reason why God thought fit to denounce a per it. Universal History, 1. 1. c. 7. and Patrick's Commenpetual war against them is to be resolved into this, -That | tary. B.

entire prosperity to depend on the present con- , them, both by his words and works, and prequest of their enemies.

pared every thing, he retired to a mountain, Moses having thus encouraged the multi- || and committed the army to God and to tude, called together the princes of their tribes, Joshua. and their chief men, both separately and · The armies having joined battle, soon came jointly. The young men he charged to obey to a close fight hand to hand, both sides shewtheir elders, and the elders to hearken to their ing great alacrity, and encouraging one anleader; so the people were elevated in their other; and, indeed, while Moses stretched minds, and ready to try their fortune in bat- out his hands* towards heaven, the Hebrews tle, and hoped to be thereby at length de- | were too hard for the Amalekites; but Moses livered from all their miseries. Nay, they de- not being able to sustain his hands thus sired that Moses would immediately lead them stretched out (for as often as he let down his against their enemies, without the least delay, hands, so often were his own people worsted,) that no backwardness might be an hindrance he bade his brother Aaron, and Hur, their to their present resolution; so Moses classed sister Miriam's husband, to stand on each side all that were fit for war into different troops, of him, and take hold of his hands, and not and set over them Joshua, the son of Nun, of || to permit his weariness to prevent it, but to the tribe of Ephraim; one that was of great assist him in the extension of his hands. courage, and patient to undergo labours; of When this was done, the Hebrews conquered great abilities to understand, and to speak | the Amalekites by main force; and, indeed what was proper, and very serious in the ser- they had all perished, unless the approach of vice of God, and indeed, made like another night had obliged the Hebrews to desist from Moses, a teacher of piety, towards God. He killing any more. So our forefathers obtained also appointed a small party of the armed a most signal and most seasonable victory; men to be near the water, and to take care for they not only overcame those that fought of the children and the women, and of the against them, but also terrified the neighentire camp: so that whole night they pre- | bouring nations, and got, great and splendid pared themselves for the battle, they took | advantages, which they obtained of their enetheir weapons, if any of them had such as mies by their hard pains in this battle ; for were well made, and attended to their com- when they had taken the enemies' camp they manders, as ready to rush forth to the battle got great booty for the public, and for their

as Moses should give the word of own private families, whereas till then they command. Moses also kept awake, teach- | had not any plenty even of necessary food. ing Joshua after what manner he should or- | The afore-mentioned victory was also the’ocder his camp; but when the day began, Mo-casion of their prosperity, not only for the preses called Joshua again, and exhorted him to sent, but for future ages also, for they not approve himself in deeds such a one as his only made slaves of the bodies of their enereputation made men expect from him, and mies, but effectually damped their minds: and to gain glory by the present expedition in the after this battle, became terrible to all that opinion of those under him, for his exploits in dwelt round about them. They also acquired this battle; he also gave a particular exhor- || a vast quantity of riches; for a great deal of tation to the principal men. of the Hebrews, | silver and gold was left in the enemies' camp, and encouraged the whole army as it stood as also brazen vessels, which they made com.. before him; and when he had thus animated mon use of in their families; many utensils

as soon

* This eminent circumstance, that while Moses's hands of learning their prayers by heart, read them out of a were held up towards heaven, the Israelites prevailed; | book, which is in great measure, inconsistent with such and while they were 'let down towards the earth, the an elevated posture, and which seems to me to have been Amalekites prevailed; seems the earliest intimation we only a later practice under the corrupt state of the church: have of the proper posture, used of old, in solemn prayer, Though the constant use of divine forms of prayer, praise, which was the stretching out the hands and eyes towards and thanksgiving, appears to have been the practice of beaven, as other passages of the Old and New Testament God's people, Patriarchs, Jews, and Christians, in all the inform us. Nay, by the way, this posture seems to have past ages. continued in the Christian Church till the clergy, instead VOL. I.

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