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four-footed beasts, and made them male and no female companion, no society, for there female. On the same day he also formed was no such created, and that he wondered man. Accordingly Moses says, that in six at the other animals which were male and fedays the world, and all that is therein, was male, he laid him asleep, and took away one made; and that the seventh day was a rest, of his ribs, and out of it formed the woman ; $ and a release from the labour of such opera whereupon Adam knew her when she was tions, whence it is that we celebrate a rest brought to him, and acknowledged that she from our labours on that day, and call it the was made out of himself. Now a woman is Sabbath, which word denotes rest in the He called in the Hebrew tongue Issa : but the brew tongue.

name of this woman was Eve, which signifies Moreover Moses, after the seventh day was the mother of all living. over, begins to talk philosophically; * and con Moses says farther, that God planted a cerning the formation of man says thus : that paradise in the east, flourishing with all sorts God took dust from the ground, † and formed of trees, and that


them was the tree of man, I and inserted in him a spirit and a soul. || life, and another of knowledge, whereby was This man was called Adam, which in the He to be known what was good and evil; and brew tongue signifies one that is red, because that when he had brought Adam and his wife he was formed out of red earth compounded into this garden, he commanded them to take together, for of that kind is virgin and true care of the plants. || Now the garden was waearth. God also presented the living crea tered by one river, which ran round about tures, when he had made them, according to the whole earth, and was parted into four their kinds, both male and female, to Adam, | parts. Phison, which denotes a multitude, and gave them those names by which they are running into Iudia, makes its exit into the sea, still called. But when he saw that Adam had and is by the Greeks called Ganges. Eu

* Since Josephus, in his preface, says that Moses wrote some things enigmatically, some allegorically, and the rest in plain words; since in his account of the first chapter of Genesis, and the three first verses of the second, he gives us no hints of any mystery at all; but when he comes to ver. 4. &c. he says, that Moses after the seventh day was over, began to talk philosophically, it is not improbable that he understood the rest of the second and the third chapters in some enigmatical, allegorical, or philosophical sense. The change of the name of God just at this place from Elohim to Jehovah Elohim, from God to Lord God, in the Hebrew, Samaritan, and Septua. gint, also seems to favour some such change ju the narration or construction. of Gen. ii. 7.

Josephus supposed man to be compounded of spirit, soul, and body, with St Paul, 1 Thess. v. 23, and the rest of the ancients. He elsewhere says also, that the blood of animals was forbidden to be eaten, as having in it soul and spirit. § Gen. ii. 22.

The place wherein the country of Eden, as mentioned by Moses, seems most like to be situated, is Chaldea, noi far from the banks of the Euphrates. To this purpose, when we find Rabshekah vaunting his master's actions, “ have the Gods of the nations delivered them which my

fa. thers have destroyed, as Gazan and Haran, and Rezeph, and the children of Eden, which were in Telassar?” As Te. lassar, in general, signifies any garrison or fortification,

so here, more particularly, it denotes that strong fort w which the children of Eden built in an island of the Eu.

phrates, towards the west of Babylon, as a barrier against the incursions of the Assyrians on that side. And

therefore, in all probability the country of Eden lay on the west side, or rather on both sides the Euphrates, after its conjunction with the Tigris, a litle below the place where, in process of time, the famous city of Babylon came to be built.

Thuš'we have found out a country called Eden, which for its pleasure and fruitfulness, as all author's agree, answers the character which Moses gives of it. Herodotus, who was an eye witness of it, tells us, that where Euphrates runs out into Tigris, not far from the place where Ninus is seated, that region is, of all that ever he saw, the most excellent: so fruitful in bringing forth corn, that it yields two hundred fold; and so plenteous in grass, that the people are forced to drive their cattle from pasture, lest they should surteit themselves. B.

g Whence this strange notion came, which is not peculiar to Josephus, but Dr. Hudson says, is derived from elder authors; as if four of the greatest rivers in the world, running two of them at cast distances from the other two, by some means or other watered Paradise, is hard to say. Only since Josephus has already appeared to allegorize this history, and takes notice thai these four names had a particular signification : Phison for Ganges, a multitude; Phrath for Euphrates, either a dispersion or a flower; Diglath for Tigris, what is swift with narrowness; and Geon for Nile, what arises from the east; we perhaps mistake him when we suppose he literally means those four rivers, especially as to Geon, or Nile, which arises from the east; while he very well knew the literal Nile arises from the south; though what farther allegorical sense he had in view is now, I fear, impossible to be determined.

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phrates also, as well as Tigris, goes down somewhat to cover them, for the fruit sharpeninto the Red Sea. * Now the name Eu

ed their understanding; and they covered phrates, or Phrath, denotes either a dispersion, themselves with fig-leaves, and tying these or a flower; by Tigris, or Diglath is signified before them, out of modesty, they thought what is swift, with narrowness; and Geon runs they were happier than they were before, as through Egypt, and denotes what arises from they had discovered what they were in want the East, which the Greeks call Nile,

of. But when God came into the garden, || God therefore commanded that Adam and Adam, who was wont before to come and conhis wife should eat of all the rest of the plants, verse with him, being conscious of his wicked but to abstain from the tree of knowledge, behaviour, went out of the way. This beand foretold to them, that if they touched it, it

haviour surprised God; and he asked what would prove their destruction. But while all was the cause of his procedure : and why he, the living creatures had one languaget at that before delighted in that conversation, did that time, the serpent, which then lived to now fly from, and avoid it? When he made gether with Adam and his wife, shewed an no reply, as conscious to himself that he had envious disposition at his supposal of their liv transgressed the command of God, God said, ing happily, and in obedience to the com “ I had before determined about you both, mands of God; and imagining that when how you might lead a happy life, without any they disobeyed they would fall into calamities, affliction, care, or vexation of soul; and that he persuaded the woman, out of a malicious all things which might contribute to your enintention, to taste of the tree of knowledge, joyment and pleasure should grow up by my telling them, that in that tree was the know- providence, of their own accord, without your ledge of good and evil, which knowledge labor and pains taken : which state of labor when they should obtain they would lead a would soon bring on old age, and death would happy life: nay, a life not inferior to that

not be at any remote distance. But now thou of a god ; f by which means he overcame hast abused my good-will, and hast disobeyed the woman, and persuaded her to despise my commands ; for thy silence is not the sign the command of God. Now, when she had of thy virtue, but of thy evil conscience. tasted of that tree, and was pleased with its However, Adam excused his sin, and intreatfruit, she persuaded Adam to make use of it ed God not to be angry with him ; and laid also. Upon this they perceived that they were the blame of what was done upon his wife, become naked to one another; and being and said, that he was deceived by her, and ashamed thus to appear abroad, they invented thence became an offender; while she again

* By the Red Sea is not here meant the Arabian Gulf, which alone we now call by that name, but all that South Sea, which included the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf, as far as the East Indies; as Reland and Hudson truly nute from the old geographers.

+ Hence it appears, that Josephus thought several, at least, of the brute animals, particularly the serpent, could speak before the fall; and I think few of the more perfect kinds of those animals want the organs of speech at this day. Many inducements there are also to a notion, that the present state they are in is not their original state, and that their capacities have been once much greater than we now see them.

I Gen. iii. 5.

§ Those who take the word naked in a literal sense, suppose


the fall, the air, and other elements, immediately became intemperate and disorderly; so that our first parents soon knew, or felt, that they were naked, because the sun scorched tbem, they became wet with the rain, and the cold pierced them. Others take the expression in a figurative sense, to denote the commission

of such sins as man in his senses may well be ashaniel of. To this purpose they have observed, that when Moses returned from the Mount, and found that the people had made and consecrated a golden image, the expresssion in scripture is, the people were naked, they were ben come vile and reprobate sinners, (for so the word

uguros signifies in the new Testament, Rev. xvi. 15.)" for Aaron bad made them naked unto their shame, among their enemies," Exod. xxxii. 25. See Nicholl's Conference, vol. I. B.

H Our first parents were conscious of the approach of God to them in the garden by the voice which they heard as usual from the divine presence. The word voice may be rendered noise; and since God's usual way of notifying his presence afterwards was either by “a stiil small voice, or noise,” 1 Kin, xix. 12, or by a noise “ like that of great waters,” Ezek. i. 24. or like" the rustling of wind in the trees,” 2 Sam. v. 24. we may reasonably suppose, that it was either a isoft gentle noise, like a breeze of wind among the trees of Paradise, or a louder one like the murmuring of some large river, which gave Adam notice of God's approach. B.


accused the serpent. But God allotted him respects. but was wholly intent upon getting, punishment, because he weakly submitted to

and he first contrived to plough the ground. the counsel of his wife : and said, the ground He slew his brother on the following occashould not henceforth yield its fruits of its own

sion :- they had resolved to sacrifice to God; accord, but that when it should be harassed now Cain brought the fruits of the earth, and by their labor, it should bring forth some of of his husbandry; but Abel brought milk, and its fruits, and refuse to bring forth others. He

the first fruits of bis focks. But God I was also made Eve liable to the inconveniency

more delighted with the latter oblation, when of breeding, and the sharp pains of bringing be was honored with what grew naturally of forth children ; and this because she persuaded its own accord, than he was with what was Adam with the same arguments wberewith

the invention of a covetous man, and gotten the serpent had persuaded her, and had there- || by forcing the ground. Cain, therefore, was by brought him into a calamitous condition. very angry that Abel was preferred by God He also deprived the serpent of speech, out of

before him, and he slew his brother, and hid indignation at bis malicious disposition to

his dead body, thinking to escape discovery; wards Adam. Besides this, he inserted poison but God, knowing what had been done, came under his tongue, and made him an enemy to

to Cain and asked him, What was become of men; and suggested to them that they should

his brother ? because he had not seen him direct their strokes against his head, that be many days, whereas he used to observe them ing the place wherein lay his mischievous de- || conversing together at other times. But Cain signs towards men, and it being easiest to take was in doubt with himself, and knew not what vengeance on him that way; and when he had answer to give to God. At first he said, that deprived him of the use of his feet, he made he was himself at a loss about his brother's him to go rolling along, and dragging himself disappearing ; but when he was provoked by upon the ground : and when God had ap God, who pressed him vehemently, as resolvpointed these penalties for them, he removed ing to know what the matter was, he replied, Adam and Eve out of the garden * into ano.

“ He was not his brother's guardian or keeper, ther place.

nor was he an observer of what he did.” But

in return God convicted Cain, as having been CHAP. II.

the murderer of his brother, and said," I wonder at thee, that thou knowest not what is become of a man whom thou thyself has de

stroyed.” God however did not inflict the A DA Me and Eve had two sons fiche elde prishterent of a deafile upandhi there be accounting when interpreted, signifies a possession. The supplications to him not to be extreme in his younger was Abel wbich signifies sorrow. wrath to him ; but he made him accursed, They had also daughters. Now the two bre and threatened his posterity in the seventh thren were pleased with different courses of generation. He also cast him, together with

for Abel, the younger, was a lover of his wife, out of that land ; and when he was righteousness, and believing that God was pre- | afraid, that in wandering about he should fall sent at all his actions, he excelled in virtue, among wild beasts, and by that means perish. and his employment was that of a shepherd. God told him not to entertain such a melanBut Cain was not only very wicked in other choly suspicion, $ but to go over all the earth




* Gen. iii. 23. + Gen, iv. et, sequel.

St. John's account of the reason why God accepted the sacrifice of Abel, avd rejected that of Cain ; as also winy Cain slew Abel, on account of his acceptance with Gud is much better than this of Josephus; I mean because“ Cain was of the evil one, and slew his brother. And wherefore slew he him? Because his own works were evil and his brother's righteous." 1 John iji. 22.

Josephus's reason seems to be no better than a Pharisaical notion or tradition.

§ The punishment of Cain was doubtless a severe one, but no

more so than his aggravated guilt demanded. Referring to it, Moses represents him as saying,” My punishment is greater than I can bear," Gen. iv. 13. but as the Hebrew word signifies iniquity rather than punishment, and the verb signifies to be forgiven, as well as to bear, it


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