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also that were embroidered, there were of both || meet him; and Moses took Zipporah his wife, sorts; that is, of what were woven, and what and his children, and pleased himself with his were the ornaments of their armour and other coming : and when he had offered sacrifice, things that served for use to their family, and he made a feast for the multitude, near the for the furniture of their rooms; they got also bush he had formerly seen; every one, acthe prey of their cattle and of whatsoever uses cording to their faniilies, partaking of the to follow camps, when they remove from one festival. But Aaron, and his family, took place to another, so the Hebrews now valued Raguel, and sung hymns to God, as to him themselves upon their courage, and claimed | who had been the author and procurer of their great merit for their valour; and they perpe. deliverance, and their freedom. They also praistually inured themselves to take pains, by which | ed their conductor, as him by whose virtue it they deemed every difficulty might be sur was that all things had succeeded so well with mounted: and this was the result of the battle. them. Raguel, also, in his eucharistical oration

On the next day Moses stripped the dead to Moses, made great encomiums upon the bodies of their enemies, and gathered together whole multitude; and he could not but admire the armour of those that were fled, and gave Moses for his fortitude, and that humanity rewards to such as had signalised themselves he had shewed in the delivery of his friends. in the action, and highly commended Joshua, their general, who was attested to by all the

CHAP. IV, army, on account of the great actions he had

OF RAGUEL'S FRIENDS.Y SUGGESTIONS RESPECTING THE GÔdone; nor was any one of the Hebrews slain,

VERNMENT OF THE HEBREWS, WHICH WERE ADOPTED though the slain of the enemies' army were to en critice of thanksgiving to God, and built This next day. We a business, to for he des an altar, which he named, the Lord the con- | termined the differences of those that referred queror. He also foretold that the Amalekites || them to him, every one still going to him, should be utterly destroyed, and that hereafter and supposing they should then only obtain none of them should remain, because they l justice, if he were the arbitrator; and those fought against the Hebrews when they were that lost their causes thought it no great harm, in the wilderness, and in their distress. More- || while they thought they lost them justly, and over he refreshed the army with feasting; and not by partiality. Raguel, however, said nothus did they fight this first battle with those thing at that time, as not desirous to be any that ventured to oppose them, after they were hindrance to such as had a mind to make use gone out of Egypt. But, when Moses had of the virtue of their conductor; but afterward celebrated this festival for the victory, he per- he took Moses to himself, and when he had mitted the Hebrews to rest for a few days, and | him alone, he instructed him in what he ought then brought them out after the fight in order to do, and advised him to leave the trouble of of battle ; for they had now many soldiers in lesser causes to others, but himself to take care light armour, and going gradually on, he came of the greater, and of the people's safety, for to mount Sinai, and three months after they that others of the Hebrews might be found were removed out of Egypt, at which moun- that were fit to determine causes, but that tain, as we have before related, the vision of nobody but a Moses could take care of the the bush, and the other wonderful appearances safety of many thousands. “ Be not, therehad happened.

fore," said he,“ insensible of thine own vir CHAP. III.

tue, and what thou hast done by ministering OF RAGUEL'S ARRIVAL, AND RECEPTION BY MOSES, AT under God to the people's preservation. Leave,

therefore, the determination of common causes HEN Raguel, Moses's* father-in-law, to others: but do thou reserve thyself to the

understood in what a prosperous con- | attendance on God only, and look out for medition his 'affairs, were, he willingly came to thods of preserving the multitude from their

+ Exod. xviii. 13.




* Exod. xviii. 1.


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present distress. Make use of the method I

CHAP. V. suggest as to human affairs, and take a re

HAP view of the army, and appoint chosen rựlers over tens of thousands, and then over thou- of Moses's ASCENT TO MOUNT sinar; And Of The divine sands; and then divide them into five hundreds, and again into hundreds, and into fifties, and set rulers over each of them, who


distin FOW Moses called the multitude together, guish them into thirties, and keep them and told them that he was going unto in order, and at last number them by twen- | mount Sinai, to converse with God, to reties and by tens. And let there be one com- || ceive and to bring back with him a certain mander over each number, to be denominat- oracle. But he enjoined them to pitch their ed from the number of those over whom they tents near the mountain: and prefer the habiare rulers; but such as the whole multitude tation that was nearest to God, before one have tried, and approve * of, as being good more remote. When he had said this, he asand righteous men; and let these rulers de- cended up to mount Sinai, which is the highest cide the controversies they have one with of all the mountains,t that are in that counanother; if any great cause arise, let them | try, and is not only very difficult to be asbring the cognizance of it, before the rulers | cended by men, on account of its vast altitude, of a higher dignity; and if any great difficulty but because of the sharpness of its precipices. arise that is too hard for even their determi- || Nay, indeed, it cannot be looked at withnation let them send it to thee. By these out pain to the eyes; and besides this, it means two advantages will be gained ; that was terrible and inaccessible on account of the Hebrews will have justice done them, and a general rumor that God dwelt there. But thou wilt be able to attend constantly on the Hebrews removed the tents, as Moses had God, and procure him to be more favourable to bidden them, and took possession of the lowest the people.”

parts of the mountain; and were elevated in This was the admonition of Raguel, which their minds, in expectation that-Moses would Moses received very kindly, and acted ac- return with promises of the good things he had cording to his suggestion: nor did he conceal | proposed to them. So they feasted, and waitthe invention of this method, nor pretend to || ed for their conductor, and kept themselves it himself, but informed the multitude, who pure for three days: as he had before ordered it was that invented it; nay, he has named them to do. And they prayed to God, that Raguel in the books he wrote, as the person he would favourably receive Moses in his conwho invented the ordering of the people, as versing with him, and bestow some such gifts thinking it right to give a true testimony to upon them by which they might live well. worthy persons, although he might have ob- || They also lived more plentifully as to their tained reputation by ascribing to himself the diet; and put on their wives and children invention of other men ; whence we may learn more ornamental clothing than they usually the virtuous disposition of Moses, but of that wore. disposition we shall have occasion to speak in Two days passed in this way of feasting ; other places.

but on the third day, before sun-rise, a cloud

rinn * This manner of electing the judges and officers of the || 168, 169. The other name of it, Horeb, is never used by Israelites by the testimonies and suffrages of the people || Josephus, and perhaps was its name among the Egyptians before they were ordained by God or Moses, deserves to only, whence the Israelites were lately come, as Sinai be carefully, noted, because it was the pattern of the like was its name among the Arabians, Canaanites, and other manner of the choice and ordination of bishops, preshy- nations. Accordingly, when I Kings ix. 8. the Scripture ters, and deacons in the Christian church. See Constitút says that Elijah came to Horeb, the mount of God, JoseApost. VIII. 4. 16. 18.

phus justly says, Antiq. VIII. 13. that he came to the + Since this mountain Sinai is here said to be the high- || mountain called Sinai; and Jerome, here cited by Dr. est of all the mountains in that country, it must be that Hudson, says, that he took this mountain to have two now called St. Catherine's which is one third higher than names, Sinai and Choreb. De Nomin. Heb. page 427, that within a mile of it, now called Sinai, as Monsieur (Edit Benedict.) Theyenot informs us, Travels, Part I, chap. xxviii, page Exod. xix. 16.


spread itself over the whole camp of the He- || vernment, and is now present in the camp. J. brews; such an one as none had before seen, therefore charge you for his sake, and the and encompassed the place where they had sake of his works, and what we have done y pitched their tents. And while all the rest || his means, that you do not put a low value of the air was clear, there came strong winds on what I am going to say, because the comthat raised up large showers of rain, which be- || mands have been given by me; nor because came a mighty tempest. There was also such | it is the tongue of a man that delivers them. lightning, * as was terrible to those that saw to you. But if you have a due regard to the it; and thunder with its thunderbolts were great importance of the things themselves, sent down, and declared God to be there pre- you will understand the greatness of Him sent in a gracious way to such as Moses de- whose institutions they are; and who has not sired he should be gracious. Now as to these disdained to communicate them to me for our matters, every one of my readers may think | common advantage. For it is not to be supas he pleases; but I am under a necessity of || posed that the author of these institutions is relating this history as it is described in the barely Moses, the son of Amram and Jochesacred books. This sight, and the amazing bed, but he who obliged the Nile to run sound that came to their ears, disturbed the bloody for your sakes, and tamed the haughHebrews to a prodigious degree; for they | tiness of the Egyptians, by various sorts of were not such as they were accustomed to: judgments; he who provided a way through And then the rumor that was spread abroad | the sea for us; he who contrived a method of how God frequented that mountain, greatly sending us food from heaven, when we were astonished their minds; so they sorrowfully distressed for want of it; he who made the remained within their tents; as both sup-water to issue out of a rock, when we had posing Moses to be destroyed by the divine || very little of it before; he hy whose means wrath, and expecting the like destruction for Adam was made to partake of the fruits of themselves.

the land, and of the sea; he by whose means While they were under these apprehen- || Noah escaped the deluge; he by whose means sions, Moses appeared joyful, and greatly ex our forefather Abraham of a wandering pilalted. When they saw him, they were freed | grim was made the heir of the land of Ca. from their fear, and admitted more com- | naan ; he by whose means Jacob was adornfortable hopes as to what was to come. The ed with twelve virtuous sons; he by whose air also was become clear and pure of its means Joseph became a potent lord over the former disorders, upon the appearance of Mo- Egyptians; he it is who conveys these inses; whereupon he called the people together, structions to you by me as his interpreter, in order to their hearing what God would say And let them be to you venerable, and cons to them. And when they were assembled, he tended for more earnestly by you than your stood on an eminence, whence they might all own wives and children ; for if you will follow hear him, and said, “ God has received me || them, you will lead a happy life, you will engraciously, O Hebrews, as he has formerly. ll joy the land fruitful, the sea calm, and the done ; and has suggested a happy method of || fruit of the womb.complete, as nature requires; living for you, and an order of political go- || you will also be terrible to your enemies : for

* That fire and lightning should attend the presence || ing of mountains, this is no more than what all nations of God, is a notion so frequent in the most ancient and I suppose bave ever come to pass, upon God's manifesting oriental theology, that it might possibly give occasion to himself at any time; for it is not only the Psalmist who the worship of fire among the Chaldeans and Persians: || tells us, that the earth shook, and the heaven dropped at the to the magi, among the Cappadocians called Purrethi, || presence of God; but in the description which Virgil gives which Strabo mentions, and to the vestal fires ainong the us of the approach of Phæbus, he does in a manner tran. Greeks and Romans, as well as ancient Britons.

slate the words of Moses. «Ηνίκα βλέψης μορφής άτερ ευιερον πύρ

Tremere omnia visa repente, Δαμπόμενον σκιρτηδόν ολα καλα βένθεα Κόσμο

Luminaque, laurusque Dei; totusque moveri Κλύθι πυρος φωνήν.

Mons circun, et mugire adytis cortina reclusis.

Vide Nicholl's Conference, part 2. B. Say the Chaldaic oracles: and as for earthquakes, or shak.


I have

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I have been admitted into the presence of place: but I shall reserve most of them forg God, and been made a hearer of his incorrup- another work; and make there a' distinct extible voice; so great is his concern for the wel.plication of them. fare of your nation.

1: When matters were brought to this state, When he had said this, he brought the Moses went up again to mount Sinai, of people, with their wives and children, so near which he had told them beforehand. He the mountain, that they might hear God him- | made his ascent in their sight; but when he self speaking to them about the precepts had been absent from them forty days, fear, which they were to practise; that the energy seized upon the Hebrews, lest he should have of what should be spoken might not be hurt | come to any harm. Nor was there any thing by its utterance, by that tongue of a man that so much troubled them, as the idea, that which could but imperfectly deliver it to their Moses had perished. Now there was a vaunderstanding. And they all heard a voice riety in their sentiments about it: some saying that came from above; insomnuch that none that he was fallen among wild beasts : and of those words escaped them, which Moses | those that were of this opinion were chiefly wrote in two tables; and though it is not* | such as: were ill disposed to him: 'but others lawful for us to set them down directly, we saying, that he was departed and gone to will declare their import.

God. The wiser sort were led by their reaThe first commandment' teaches us, that son, to embrace neither of those opinions, with

but worship him only. The second, commands thing that sometimes happens to men, to fall us not to make the image of any living crea- | among wild beasts and perish that way, so it ture to The third, that we must was probable enough that he might depart not swear by God in a false matter. The and go to God, on account of his virtue; fourth, that we must keep the seventh day, they therefore were quiet, and expected the by resting from all sort of work. The fifth, || event'; though they were exceeding sorrowful that we inust honour our parents.f The upon the probability that they were deprived sixth, that we must abstain from murder of a governor, and a protector; such an one The seventh, that we must not commit adul- indeed, as they could never recover again. tery. The eighth, that we must not be guilty Nor would this suspicion give them leave to of theft. The ninth, that we must not bear expect any comfortable event about this nian: false witness. The tenth, that we must not nor could they prevent their trouble and meadmit o. the desire of any thing that is an- lancholy upon this occasion. However, the other's. I

canip durst not move all this while : beNow when the multitude had heard God cause Moses had commanded them to stay himself, giving those precepts which Moses there, had discoursed of, they rejoiced at what was When forty days and as many nights were said; and the congregation was dissolved. But expired, Moses came down; having tasted noon the following day they came to his tent, thing of food, usually appointed for the nouand desired them to bring them besides other rishment of men. His appearance filled the laws from God. Accordingly he appointed army with gladness, and he declared to them, such laws, and afterward informed them in what 'care God bad of them, and by what what manner they should' act in all cases; manner of conduct they might live happily: which laws I shall mention in their proper telling them, that daring his absence, God had

eromania • of this and another superstitious notion of the Phari same encouragement, 'saying, that such children should sees, which Josephus complied with, see note on II. 12. be dear to the gods, both living and dying. So Euripides.

It was also one of their promises, thou shalt live, long, + As disobedience to parents is, by the law of Moses, if thou nourish thy ancient parents. Whence children threatened to be punished with death, so on the contrary, are called by Xenophon répocooxo.. Patrick, in loc. B. long life is promised to the obedient; and that in their # Exod. xs. 1 to 18. own country, which God had peculiarly enriched with Ś This other work of Josephus's, here referred'to, doe's abundance of blessings. Heathens also gave ihe very not appear to have been ever published,

2 A


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suggested to him * also that he would have a || zaleel, the son of Uri, of the tribe of Judah, tabernacle built for him, into which he would | the grandson of Miriam, the sister of their descend when he came to them: and how conductor; and Aholiab the son of Ahisamach, they should carry it about with them when of the tribe of Dan.

of the tribe of Dan. Now the people went they removed: and that there would be no on with what they had undertaken with so longer any occasion for going up to mount great alacrity, thať Moses was obliged to reSinai: but that he would bimself.come and strain them, by making proclamation, that pitch his tabernacle amongst them, and be what had been brought was sufficient, as present at their prayers. As also that the ta- the artificers had informed him: so, they bernacle should be of such measures and con- fell to work upon the building of the taberstruction, as he had shewed him; and that nacle. Moses also informed them, according the work must be immediately began, and to the direction of God, both what the meaprosecuted diligently. When he had said sures were to be, and its dimensions; and this he shewed them the two tables, with | bow many vessels it ought to contain, for the the ten commandments engraven upon them, use of the sacrifices. The women also were five upon each table, and the writing was by ambitious to do their parts about the garthe hand of God.

ments of the priests, and about other things

that would be wanted in this work, both for CHAP. VI.

ornament, and for the divine service itself..

When all things were prepared, the gold, OF THE TABERNACLE WHICH MOSES BUILT IN THE WILDER

and the silver, and the brass, and what was

woven, Moses having previously appointed OW the Israelites rejoiced at what they that there should be a festival, and that sacri

fices shonld and were not wanting in diligence according one's ability, reared up the tabernacle. And to their ability, but they brought silver, and when he had: measured the open court, fifty gold, and brass, and the best sorts of wood, cubits broad, and a hundred long, he set up and such as would not at all decay by putre- brazen: pillars, five cubits high : twenty-on faction; camels hair also, and sheep-skins : each of the longer sides, and ten pillars for some of them dyed of a blue colour, and some the breadth behind. Every one of the pillars of a scarlet: some brought the flour for the also had a ring. Their chapiters were of purple color, and others for white, with wool | silver, but their bases were of brass ; they redyed by the aforementioned flours; and fine sembled the sharp ends of spears, and were of linen, and precious stones, which those that || brass ; fixed in the ground cords were also put use costly ornaments set in ouches of gold: through the rings, and were tied at the farther they brought also a great quantity of spices, ends to brass, nails, of a cubit long; which at For of these materials did Moses build the ta- every pillars were driven into the floor, and Þernacle: which did not at all differ from a would keep the tabernacle from being shaken moveable temple. Now when these things || by the violence of winds. But a curtain of were brought together with great diligence, fine soft linen went round all the piHars, and (for everyone was ambitious to further, the hung down in a flowing manner from their work, even beyond their ability,) be set ar- chapiters, and enclosed the whole space, formchitects over the works, and this, by the coming a kind of wall about it. Such was the inand of God : and indeed the very same structure of three of the sides of this inwhich the people themselves would have closure : but as for the fourth side, which was chosen, had the election been allowed to them. fifty.cubits in extent, and was the front of the Now their names are set down in writing in whole ; twenty cubits of it were for the openthe sacred books, and they were 'these, Ba-ing at the gates, wherein stood two pillars on quence'era • It is a query whether Josephus, in all his own tran- | Apis, made of wood, but covered over with cast gold scripts, omitted here the heinous sin of the Israelites, in round about it. See Isaiah xl, 19, 20. Jer. x, 3,. 4. and making and worshipping the golden calfy or the Egypiian Hab. ii. 19.


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