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each side, after the resemblance of open || six pillars made up together only nine cubits, gates;. these were made wholly of silver, and they made two other pillars, and cut them out polished all over, excepting the bases, which of one cubit; which they placed in the corners, were of brass. Now on each side of the gates, and made them equally fine with the others. there stood three pillars, which were inserted Now every one of the pillars, had rings of into the concave bases of the gates, and were gold affixed to their fronts outward, as if they suited to them; and round them was drawn had taken root in the pillars, and stood one a curtain of fine linen. But to the gates row over against another round about ; through themselves, which were twenty cubits in ex- which were inserted gilded bars, each of them. tent, and five in height, the curtain was com- five cubits long, and these bound together the posed of purple, and scarlet, and blue, and || pillars; the head of one bar running into anofine linen; and embroidered with divers sorts | ther, after the nature of one tenon inserted inof figures, excepting the figures of animals. Ito another. But for the wall behind, there Within these gates was the brazen laver, for was but one row of bars, that went through purification, having a bason beneath of the all the pillars : into which row ran the ends like matter: in which the priests might wash of the bars, on each side of the longer walls ; their hands,* and sprinkle their feet. . And and all joined so fast together, that the taberthis was the ornamental construction of the en- | nacle could not be shaken, either by the winds, closure about the court of the tabernacle, or by any other means; but remained firm, which was exposed to the
quiet, and immoveable. As to the tabernacle itself, Moses placed it As for the inside, Moses divided its length in the middle of that court, with its front to | into three partitions. At the distance of ten the east; that when the sun rose, it might cubits from the most sacred end, he placed send its first rays upon it. Its length, when | four pillars; whose workmanship was the same it was set up, was thirty cubits, and its breadth | with that of the rest, and they stood upon the was ten cubits. One of its walls was on the like bases with them; each at a small distance south, and the other was exposed to the north, from his fellow. Now the room within those and on the back part of it remained the west. pillars was the most holy place : but the rest It was necessary that its height, should be of the room was the tabernacle, which was equal to its breadth; ten cubits. There were open for the priests. However this proportion also pillars made of wood, twenty on each of the measures of the tabernacle, proved to side; they were wrought into a quadrangular be an imitation of the system of the world; figure, in breadth a cubit and a half, but the for that third part which was within the four thickness was four fingers: they had thin plates || pillars, to which the priests were not admitted, of gold, affixed to them, on both sides, in- | is, as it were, a heaven, peculiar to God; but wardly and outwardly: they had also each of the space of the twenty cubits, is, as it were, them, two silver tenons, inserted into their sea and land, on which men live: and so this bases; in each of which was a socket to re- | part is peculiar to the priests only. At the ceive the tenon. But the pillars on the wes- front, where the entrance was madë, they tern wall were six. Now all these tenons and placed seven pillars of gold, that stood on
bases sockets accurately fitted one another, inso- of brass; and they spread over the tabernacle : much that the joints were invisible; and both | veils of fine linen, and purple, and blue, and seemed to be one united wall: it was also co-scarlet colors, embroidered. The first veif vered with gold both within and without. was ten cubits every way; and this was spread The number of pillars was equal on the op- over the pillars which parted the temple, and posite sides, and there were on each part kept the most holy place concealed within : twenty; and every one had the third part of and this veil was that which made this part a span in thickness : so that the number of not visible to any. Now the whole. tenrple thirty cubits were fully made up between was called the holy place; but that part which them. But as to the wall behind, where the was within the four pillars, and to which none
* Exod. xxx. 19.
were admitted, was called the holy of holies. || exactly, that they seemed to be one entire cura This veil was very ornamental, and embroi- tain. These were spread over the temple, dered with all sorts of fine flowers; and there and covered all the top, and part of the walls, were interwoven into it a variety of ornaments, on the sides and behind, within one cubit of excepting only the forms of animals. Another the ground.
Another the ground. There were other curtains of veil, which covered the five pillars at the en- | the same breadth with these, but one more in trance, was like the former in its magnitude, number, and longer; for they were thirty texture and colour; and at the corner of every cubits long: these were woven of hair, and pillar, a ring retained it from the top down were extended loosely down to the ground, wards, half the depth of the pillars; the other appearing like a triangular front and elevation half affording an entrance for the priests, who at the gates; the eleventh curtain being used crept under it. Over this was a veil of linen, for this very purpose. There were also other of the same size with the former; it was to curtains made of skins above these, which afbe drawn this way or that way by cords, whose forded covering and protection to those that ripgs, fixed to the texture of the veil, and to were woven, both in hot weather and when it the cords also, were subservient to the draw- rained. And great was the surprize of those, ing and undrawing of the veil, and to the who viewed these curtains at distance ;' for fastening it at the corner; that it might be no they seemed not at all to differ from the color hindrance to the view of the sanctuary; espe- of the sky. But those that were made of cially on solemn days; but that on other days, hair, and of skins, reached down in the same and especially when the weather was inclined manner as did the veil at the gates, and kept to snow, it might be expanded, and afford a off the rain, and heat of the sun: and after covering to the veil of divers colours. Hence this manner was the tabernacle reared. that custom of ours is derived, of having a fine There was also an ark * made, sacred to linen veil after the temple has been built, to|| God, of wood that was naturally strong, and be drawn over the entrances. The ten other could not be corrupted. This was called Eron; curtains were four cubits in breadth, and in our own language. Its construction was twenty-eight in length, and had golden clasps, thus ; its length was five spæns,ť but its breadth which joined the one curtain to the other, so and height was each of them three spans.
* We meet with imitations of this divinely instituted em. In Lieutenant Cook's voyage round the world, pub: blem among several heathen nations, both in ancient and lished by Dr. Hawksworth, vol. ii. p. 252, we find that moderu times. Thus Tacitus (de Mor. German. cap. 40.) | the inhabitants of Huaheine, one of the islands lately
that “the inhabitants of the north of Ger discovered in the South Sea, had " a kind of chest: or many, our Saxon ancestors, in general worshipped Hert- | ark, the lid of which was nicely sewed on, and thatched hum, that is, tbe mother earth, and believed her to inter very neatly with palm-nut leaves. It was fixed uporr pose in the affairs of men, and to visit nations: that to two poles, and supported upon little arches of wood, her, within a sacred grove; in a certain island of the ocean, very neally carved: the use of the poles seemed to be a vehicle, covered with a vestment, was consecrated, and to remove it from place to place, in ihe manner of our allowed to be touched by the priest alone, who perceived || sedan chair: in one end of it was a square hole, in the when the goddess entered into this her sacred place, and middle of which was a ring touching the sides, and leavwith profound veneration attended her vehicle, which ing the angles open, so as to form a round hole within, was drawn by cows. While the goddess was on her pro a square one without. The first time Mr. Buxks saw gress, days of rejoicing were kept at every place wbich this coffer, the aperture at the end was stopped with a she vouchsafed to visit. They engaged in no war, they piece of cloth, which, lest he should give offence, he left meduled not with arms, they locked up their weapons: untouched. Probably there was then something within : peace and quietness only were then known, these only l but now the cloth was taken way, and upon looking into relished, till the same priest reconducted the goddess, it, it was found empty. The general resemblance between satiated with the conversation of mortals, to her temple. this repository, and the ark of the Lord among the Jews,
Among the Mexicans, Vitziputzli, their supreme god, is remarkable: but it is still more remarkable, that upon was represented in a human shape, sitting on a throne, enquiring of the hoy, what it was called, he said, Ew harra supported by an azure globe, which they called heaven. no Eatau, the house of God: he could, however, give no Four poles or sticks came out from two sides of this account of its signification or use." Parkhurst's Heb. Lens globe, at the ends of which serpents' heads were carved, p. 690, 41h edit. B. the whole making a litter, which the priests carried on their shoulders whenever the idol was shewn in public.” + A cubit was about twenty-one inches; and a span, Picart's Ceremonies, vol. iii. p. 146.
half a cubit.
was covered with gold, both within and with- , deal is a measure of the Hebrews, containing out; so that the wooden part was not seen.seven Athenian cotylæ. Above those loaves It had also à cover united to it, by golden were put two vials full of frankincense. Now hinges, after a wonderful manner; which co-after seven days, other loaves were brought in ver was every way evenly fitted to it, and had their stead, on the seventh day, wbich is by no eminences to hinder its exact conjunction. us called the sabbath; but for the occasion of There were also two golden' rings, belonging || this invention of placing loaves here, we will to each of the longer boards, and passing speak of it in another place. through the intire wood; and through them Over against this table, near the southern gilded bars passed along each board; that wall, was set a candlestick of cast gold, holit might thereby be moved, and carried about low within, and of the weight of one hundred as occasion should require: for it was not || pounds, which the Hebrews called cinchares : drawn in a cart by yokes of kine, but borne on which, if it be turned into the Greek language, the shoulders of the priests. Upon this cover denotes a talent. It was made with its knobs, were two images, called cherubim. They are || lilies, pomegranates, and bowls: which ornaflying creatures, but their form is not like to ments amounted to seventy in all. By this that of any of the creatures which men have means the shaft elevated itself from a single seen; though Moses said he had seen such base, and spread into as many branches as beings near the throne of God. In this ark there are planets; including the sun among he put the two tables whereon the ten com them. It terminated in seven hands, in one row, mandments were written; five upon each table; all standing parallel to each other; and these and two and a half upon each side of them : branches carried seven lamps, one by one, in and this ark he placed in the most holy place. imitation of the number of the planets: these
In the holy place he placed a table, like lamps looked to the east and the south, the those at Delphi. Its length was two cubits, || candlestick being situate obliquely. its breadth one cubit, and its height three Between this candlestick and the table, spans.
It had feet also, the lower half of which, as we said, were within the sanctuary, which were complete feet, resembling those | was the altar of incense; made of wood inwhich the Dorians put to their bedsteads; but | deed, but of incorruptible wood, and entirethe upper parts towards the table were wroughtly crusted over with a golden plate. Its into a square forin. The table bad a hollow breadth on each side was a cubit, but the towards every side, having a ledge of four height double. Upon it was a grate of gold, fingers depth, that went round about, like a above the altar, which had a golden crown spiral; both on the upper and lower part of || encompassing it round about; whereto belongthe body of the work. Upon every one of the ed i'ings and bars, by which the priests carried feet was also inserted a ring, not far from the it, when they journeyed. Before this tabercover, through which went bars of gilded pacle there was reared a brazen altar, but it wood beneath, to be taken out upon occasion; was within made of wood ; five cubits by there being a cavity where it was joined to measure on each side, but its height was but the rings: for they were not intire rings, but three; in like manner adorned with brass before they came quite round, they ended in | plates, as bright as gold. It had also a bra. acute points; one of which was inserted into zen hearth of net work ; for the ground unthe prominent part of the table, and the other derneath received the fire from the hearth, into the foot; and by these it was carried when because it had no basis to receive it. Near they journeyed. Upon this table, which was this altar lay the basons, the vials, the cenplaced on the north side of the temple, not sors, and the caldrons, made of gold; but far from the most holy place, were laid twelve the other vessels, made for the use of the saunleavened loaves of bread, six upon each heap, crifices, were all of brass. And such was one above another: they were made of two the construction of the tabernacle, and the tenth deals, of the purest four, which tenth * | vessels thereto belonging.
OF THE SACERDOTAL GARMENTS.
at offering sacrifices, and to do the appointed CHAP. VII.
service, that he may not be hindered in his operations by its motion, he throws it to the
left, and bears it on his shoulder. Moses WHERE were peculiar garments appointed calls this belt abaneth ; but we have learned
for the priests, and for all the rest, which | from the Babylonians, to call it emia. This garments they call cahanææ, or priestly gar- || vestment has no loose or hollow parts any ments, as also for the high priests, which they | where in it, but only a narrow aperture about call cahanææ rabbæ, and denote the high | the neck; and it is tied with certain strings priest's garment. Such was therefore the hanging down from the edge over the breast, habit of the rest: but when the priest ap- || and over the back; and is fastened above each proaches the sacrifices, he purifies himself || shoulder. It is called massabazanes. with the purification which the law prescribes. Upon his head he wears a cap, not brought And in the first place he puts on that which is to a conic form, nor including the entire head; called machanase, which means somewhat that but still including more than the balf of it. is fast tied. It is a girdle composed of fine | It is named masnaemphthes, or a mitre, but twined linen, into which the feet are inserted, its make is such, that it seems to be a crown. in the nature of breeches; but above half of it It is made of thick swaths, but the contexture is cut off, and it ends at the thighs, where it is is of linen, and it is doubled round many tied fast.
times, and sewed together; besides which, a Over this he wore a linen vestment, made piece of fine linen covers the whole cap, of fine flax doubled, and called chethone, for || from the upper part, and reaches down to the we call linen by the name of chethone. This forehead, and hides the seams of the swaths, vestment reaches to the feet, and sits close to which would otherwise appear indecently: the body; and has sleeves that are tied fast | this adheres closely upon the solid part of the to the arıs: it is girded to the breast a little || head, that it may not fall off during the sacred above the elbows, by a girdle often going service about the sacrifices. Such was the round, four fingers broad; but so loosely habit of the generality of the priests. woven, that it resembles the skin of a serpent. The high priest is adorned with the same It is embroidered with flowers of scarlet, pur- garments already described ; but over these ple, blue, and fine twined linen; but the warp || he puts on a vestment of a blue colour; this is nothing but fine linen. The beginning of | also is a long robe, reaching to his feet, in its circumvolution is at the breast, and when
our language it is called meeír, and is tied it has gone often round it is there tied, and round with a girdle, embroidered with the hangs loosely down to the ankles.
same colours and flowers as the former, inthis, all the time the priest is not about any | terwoven with a mixture of gold : to the botlaborious service; for in this position it ap- tom are hung fringes, in colour like pomepears in the most agreeable nianner to the granates, with golden * bells,t by a curious spectators; but when he is obliged to assist and beautiful contrivance; so that between
* The use of these golden bells at the bottom of the there might be a sound, and a noise made, that might be high priest's long garment, seems to have been this; that heard in the temple, for a memorial to the children of his by shaking his garment at the time of his offering in- | people. cense in the temple, on the great day of expiation, or at * The bell seems to have been a sacred utensil of other proper periods of his sacred ministrations on the very ancient use in Asia. Golden bells formed a part great festivals, the people might have notice of it; and of the ornaments of the ponçifical robe of the Jewish high might fall to their own prayers at the time of incense, priest, with which he invested himself upon those grand or other proper periods; and so the whole congregation and peculiar festivals, when he entered into the sancmight at once offer those common prayers jointly with tuary. That robe was very magnificent, it was ordained the high priest to the Almighty. See Luc. i. 10. Nor to be of sky-blue, and the border of it, at the bottom, was probably is the father of Sirach, to be otherwise under- || adorned with pomegranates and gold bells intermixed stood, wben he says of Aaron, the first high priest, Ec- equally, and at equal distances. The use and intent of cels, xlv. 9. God compassed Aaron with pomegranates, these bells is evident from these words : And it shall be and with many golden bells round about; that as he went upon Aaron to minister, and his sound shall be heard when