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two bells hangs à pomegranate, and between dinary size and beauty; and they were ornatwo pomegranates a bell. Now this vesturements not to be purchased by men, because was not composed of two pieces, nor was it of their immense value. These stones however sewed together upon the shoulders and the stood in three rows, by four in a row, being sides, but it was one lone vestment, so woven set in ouches of gold, and inserted in the as to have an aperture for the neck; not an | breast-plate; so that they might not fall out. oblique one, but parted all along the breast, The first three stones were, a sardonyx, a and the back; a border also was sewed to it, topaz, and an emerald; the second row conlest the aperture should look tou indecently; | tained a carhuncle, a jasper, and a sapphire'; it was also parted where the hands were to the first of the third row was a ligure, then an
amethyst, and the third an agate, being the Besides these, the high priest put on a third | ninth of the whole number ; the first of the garment, called the ephod, which resembles | fourth row was a chrysolite, the next was an the eponis of the Greeks. It was woven to onyx, and then a beryl, which was the last of the depth of a cubit, of several colours, with || all
. Now the names of all those sons of Jagold intermixed, and embroidered: but it left cob, were engraven in these stones, whom we the middle of the breast uncovered; it was esteem the heads of our tribes ; each stone also made with sleeves, and appeared like a having the honor of a name, in the order acshort coat; but in the void place of this gar- || cording to wbich they were born; and wherement, was inserted a piece of the bigness of a as the rings were too weak for themselves span, embroidered with gold, and the other to bear the weight of the stones, they made colours of the ephod; it is called essen, or the two other rings of a larger size, at the edge breast-plate, which in the Greek language sig- of that part of the breast-plate, which reachnifies the oracle. This piece exactly filled up led to the neck; and inserted it into the very the void space in the ephod, and was united | texture of the breast-plate, to receive chains to it by golden rings at every corner; and a finely wrought, which connected them with blue riband was made use of to tie them to- golden bands to the tops of the shoulders, gether by those rings; and that the interme. whose extremity turned backwards, and went diate space might not appear empty, they into the ring, on the prominent back part of contrived to fill it up with stitches of blue the ephod. And this was for the security of ribands. There were also two sardonyxes the breast-plate, that it might not fall out of its upon the ephod, at the shoulders, to fasten it place; there was also a girdle sewed to the in the nature of buttons, having each end || breast-plate, which was of the aforementioned running to the sardonyxes of gold, that they colours, intermixed with gold; which when it might be buttoned by them. On these were had gone once round, was tied again upon the engraven the names of the sons of Jacob, in seam, and hung down : there were likewise Hebrew characters, six on each of the stones, | golden loops, that admitted its fringes at each on either side ; and the elder sons' names | extremity of the girdle, and included them enwere on the right shoulder: twelve stones tirely. also were upon the breast-plate, of extraor The high priest's mitre was the same as we
he goeth in unto the holy place before the Lord, and when with the exquisite melody of their voices." (Maurice's ke cometh out, that he die not. The sound of the numerous Indian Antiquities, vol. v. p. 137.) “ The ancient kings of bells that covered the hem of his garment, gave notice Persia, who, in fact, united in their own persons the reto the assembled people that the most awful ceremony of gal and sacerdotal office, were accustomed to have the their religion had commenced. When arrayed in his fringes of their robes adorned with pomegranates and garh, he bore into the sanctuary the vessel of incense; it golden bells. The Arabian courtesans, like the Indian was the signal to prostrate themselves before the Deity, women, have little golden bells fastened round their legs, and 10 commence those fervent ejaculations which were neck, and elbows, to the sound of which they dance before to ascend with the column of that incense to the throne the king. The Arabian princesses wear golden rings on of heaven.
" One indispensable ceremony in the Indian | their fingers, to which little bells are suspended, as well as Pooja is the ringing of a small bell by the officiating in the flowing tresses of their hair, that their superior rank brahmin. The women of the idol, or dancing girls of may be known, and they themselves, in passing, receive he pagoda, have little golden bells fastened to their feet, the homage due to their exalted station.” 'Calmer's Dic-. he soft harmonious tinkling of which vibrates in unison Itionary, article Bell, B.
described before, and was wrought like that || ephielis, for so this calyx may be called, did of all the other priests: above which there not cover the forehead; but was covered with was another, with swaths of blue embroider- a * golden plate, which had inscribed upon it ed, and round it was a golden crown of three the name of God, in sacred characters; and rows, one above another: out of which arose such were the ornaments of the high priest. a cup of gold, resembling the herb which we Now here one may wonder at the ill will call saccharus, but those Greeks that are skil | which men bear to us, and which they profess ful in botany call it hyoscyamus. Now lest to be on account of our despising that Deity any one that has seen this herb, but has not which they pretend to honour; for if any one been taught its name, and is unacquainted || do but consider the fabric of the tabernacle, with its nature; or having known its name, and take a view of the garments of the high know's not the herb when he sees it, I shall priest, and of those vessels which we make give a description of it. This herb is often use of in our sacred ministration, he will find in tallness above three spans; its root is like that our legislator was a divine man, and that that of a turnip; but its leaves are like the we are unjustly reproached by others; for if leaves of mint: its branches send out a calyx, any one, without prejudice, and with judg. cleaving to the branch : and a coat encom- | ment, look upon these things, he will find passes it, which it naturally puts off when it they were every one made in imitation and is changing, in order to produce its fruit : this representation of the universe; for when calyx is of the bigness of the bone of the lit- || Moses distinguished the tabernacle into three tle finger, but in the compass of its aperture parts, † and allowed two of them to the priests, is like a cup. To render this more plain: | as a place accessible and common, he denoted suppose a sphere he divided into two parts, the land and the sea, for these are accessible round at the bottom, but having another seg- to all; but when he set apart the third diviment, that grows up to a circumference from | sion for God, it was because heaven is inacthat bottom : suppose it to become narrower cessible to me. When he ordered twelve by degrees; and that the cavity of that part | loaves to be set on the table, he denoted the grow decently smaller, and then gradually grow year, as distinguished into so many months. wider again at the brim ; such as we see in | When he made the candlestick of seventy the navel of a pomegranate, with its notches. || parts, he secretly intimated the Decani, or And indeed such a coat grows over this plant, seventy divisions of the planets; and as to the as renders it an hemisphere, and that, as one seven lamps upon the candlesticks, they remay say, turned accurately in a lathe, and hav- || ferred to the course of the planets, of which ing its notches extant above it; which, as I | that is the number ; and for the veils, which said, grow like a pomegranate, only that they were composed of four things, they declared are sharp, and end in nothing but prickles. | the four elements, for the fine linen was proper Now the fruit is preserved by this coat of the to signify the earth, because the flax grows calyx, which fruit is like the seed of the herb | out of the earth; the purple signified the sea, sideritis; it sends out a flower, that may seem || because that colour is dyed by the blood of a to resemble that of a poppy. Of this was a || shell-fish; the blue is fit to signify the air; crown made, as far as from the hinder part and the scarlet will naturally be an indication of the head, to each of the temples: but this of fire. Now the vestment of the high priest
* The reader ought to take notice, that the very Mo distinct from the holy, and the most holy places: and saic wétamov or golden plate, for the forehead of the this the rather, because in the temple afterward, there Jewish high priest, was itself preserved, not only till the was a distinct third part, which was called the porch. days of Josephus, but of Origen; and that its inscription, Otherwise Josephus would contradict his own description Holiness to the Lord, was in the Samaritan characters. of the tabernacle, which gives us a particular account of See Antiq. VIII. 3, and Reland, De Spol. Templi, page no more than two parts. 132, 183,
+ When Josephus, both here, and chap. 6. supposes These Decani, or seven times ten parts for the plathe tabernacle to have been divided into three parts, he nets, are described in Julius Firmicus Maturnus ; to whom seems to esteem the bare entrance to be a third division, | the reader is referred.