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processional order. 4 has his mantle pulled up over his chin and his head bent, as if with a sense of the solemnity of the occasion. The cow following him has got frightened, and has to be held in firmly by both the boys, as may be seen from the vigorous stride of 5 and from the attitude of 6, though the latter is now much injured, and known mainly from Carrey's drawing. There is no indication on the marble of the ropes with which the cows were led. There are no drill-holes, as frequently on the horses of the chariots and cavalcade, where they indicate harness of metal. Probably, therefore, the ropes of the cows had been merely painted on the marble.

Slab III.-Only fragments remain ; in Athens. The whole slab is, however, drawn by Carrey. On the extreme right he adds the head and shoulders of the foremost of the boys in the next group leading sheep, whose mantle is seen at the front of the next slab.

Slab IV.-From a cast in the British Museum ; the original in Athens. Three boys leading three sheep. These docile creatures need no cords. It is enough that the boys have their hands on them. Apart from the fine touch of nature in this group, we must admire also the manner in which the dress of the boys is detached from the fleece of the sheep. In the preceding groups the broad, smooth sides of the cows presented a marked and easily rendered contrast to the dress of the boys beside them. have an agreeable change in the artistic problem. The folds of the drapery in 10, 11 had to be intensified, more sharply defined, and crisper, so that the eye might easily detach them from the fleece of the sheep. On the left leg

Here we


of u is a fine contrast of nude form and drapery. At the end of this slab we have a figure 12, who is no doubt one of the marshals of the procession turning round towards the next group on Slab V.

Slab V.-The foremost figure, 13, is in the British Museum; the remaining two, 14, 15, are from Carrey. Here we have again three boys. In this instance they are carrying on their shoulders trays of fruit or cakes for the sacrifice. Their action is necessarily monotonous; yet there is in the management of their draperies that unfailing charm of diversity which characterises Greek art at its best, not only in sculpture, but almost more so on the painted vases.

Slab VI.-From a cast in the British Museum ; the original in Athens. Again a group of boys, this time carrying jars (hydriae) full of water on their shoulders. On the right is a fourth boy, partly visible, stooping eagerly to raise his jar from the ground. The attitude would be ungainly were the whole of his figure visible. The least attractive part of him is, however, hidden by the oncoming flute player. The hydriae are made to imitate metal, as we see from the handles, and probably were gilt or painted.

Slab VII.- From Carrey. Only the hands, flutes, and part of drapery of the foremost flute player, 20, are preserved on the slab of the water-carriers.

Four boys playing on Autes, followed by two other boys playing on lyres. All are heavily draped, but the fute players wear male costume, whereas the two citharists have the dress of girls. In public competitions for some reason we frequently see boys dressed as girls, e.g. driving chariots or in musical

contests, and in a public procession the same rule would apply. But why a distinction should here be made between the fute players and the citharists we know not. The head of a third citharist is given on Pl. XVI., Fig. 8.

Slab VIII.-From casts in the British Museum; the originals in Athens. We have here two more citharists, making up the number of four, as in the group of flute players. 26, turning round to the right, introduces an element of variety in the attitudes, which is welcome after the monotony of the Aute players. On the extreme right, 28, is the foremost of a large group of men which extends over the next two slabs.

Slabs IX., X.—29–33 from Carrey (see IXa. on plate); the rest from casts in the British Museum, the originals of which are in Athens. The best-preserved part of this group is the fragment of 34–37. The figures that follow, 38-43, are excessively flat in the relief and sketchy in execution in parts. This effect is intensified by the abrasion of the faces and other parts. Yet this large group, altogether, representing the manhood (evavôpía) of Athens, and supposed to be carrying branches (thallophori), presents a singular felicity in the composition. 35 is very happy in the action of the two hands and the contrast between the nude bosom and rich folds of drapery. To see how finely the slight alternations of attitude and costume operate in giving life and unity to the whole group, we have only to compare similarly large groups of processional figures in Roman bas-reliefs, e.g. on the Ara Pacis of Augustus (Petersen, Ara Pacis Augustae, Pl. 6). It is true that the children who appear in these particular Roman reliefs intro

duce a new artistic element, which lends a touch of nature to the processional figures (Petersen, p. 165), but that hardly saves the figures of the grown-up persons from dull monotony.

Slabs XI., XII.-The former from a cast in the British Museum ; the original in Athens. Carrey's drawing gives the whole of this chariot group, extending over these two slabs.

We have already called attention to the wonderful charm and beauty of Slab XI., so far as it exists now (p. 119). The chariot has come on too fast. A young man acting as marshal, 44, has rushed to the heads of the horses to stop them before they dash in among the men in front, the last of whom turn round in some alarm. His right hand catches an end of his mantle, folds show between right arm and side, rich drapery separates his shoulder from the horse's head. The legs of the horses are more deeply relieved than in any other part of the frieze, yet the surface of the relief is kept flat, and this helps to give it the appearance of a clear, smooth stream. The charioteer, chariot, and apobates are wanting. The chariots of the north frieze, except in Slab XIV., have the pin of the yoke and the gear for gathering the reins sculptured on the marble, in contrast to those of the south frieze, which had these adjuncts in metal if at all. Slab XII.- Mainly in the British Museum ; the upper part of 47 from a cast in the British Museum ; the original in Athens. Here the young man, 47, has leapt from his chariot and turned as if in the act of defending himself like a hero in battle. Consistently with his title of an apobates, he might leap up and down in the course of the procession. He is not to be supposed as defending

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