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generation, transubstantiation, intercession of saints, extreme unction, purgatory, etc., etc.

There are nine orders of clergy in the Armenian church, the six lowest of which are porters, readers, exorcists, candle-lighters, sub-deacons, and deacons. These perform the subordinate parts in all the services and ceremonies of the church. A candidate for the higher orders must first pass through all these lower, though they may all be passed in one day.

It matters little how ignorant a candidate for the priesthood may be, provided he is able to read the church service; but two things are absolutely essential to his becoming a priest, — that he discard razors, and marry a wife. As celibacy is enjoined on all the orders above the priesthood, by marrying, the priest cuts himself off from all hope of promotion. This fact, and the narrow and belittling nature of the priestly duties, tend to fill the office with an unambitious, inferior class of men, whose ignorance and indolence are only equaled by their meanness and treachery.

If the priest's wife dies, he is not permitted to marry again. He may, however, become a vartabed, and thus be thrown in the line of promotion. But it generally happens, that a priest left a widower is more anxious to break over the rules of the church and marry again than to be promoted.

The priest in the picture is seen in his bell-shaped cap, and long, broadcloth tunic, with loose sleeves, which constitute his every day street dress. While officiating in the church, his tunic and cap are removed, and over his shoulders is thrown a kind of cloak, which is pinned in front, and on his head he wears a close-fitting scull-cap- a far less tasteful arrangement than his out-door dress.

The priests are the most numerous of all the orders of ecclesiastics. They are found in large numbers in the cities, and every village has at least one, and more frequently two or three. Their support, often very meagre, is derived chiefly from fees which they receive for baptism, marriage, burial of the dead, prayers for the repose of souls, etc.

The order of vartabeds is by some reckoned collateral in rank with the priesthood, inasmuch as candidates are ordained to both, directly from the rank of deacon. By others it is made a separate order, superior to the priesthood. However this may be, it is certain the vartabeds are much more intelligent than priests, and their position is invested with far more dignity. The priests never preach ; instructing the people forms no part of their duty. This work is specially committed to the vartabeds. Perhaps at some former period they may have gone about preaching and teaching, but now they are never located in villages, and rarely visit them except to look after the revenues of the church. One, at least, is found in each of the cities, who acts as private counselor or secretary, or more likely as boon companion to the bishop; rarely preaching in the usual acceptation of that term. But the greater part of the vartabeds are gathered in monasteries, where a few of the more disinterested and thoughtful, having the real welfare of their nation at heart, engage earnestly in religious and literary studies ; and to them the nation is largely indebted for its literature. The majority of these monks, however, busy themselves in caring for the revenues of their respective monasteries, and in schemes for robbing the simpleminded pilgrims, who, lured by monstrous fables, visit their holy shrines.

Every considerable city has its bishop, whose diocese includes all the neighboring villages. He ordains all the clergy below himself, receiving a fee for each ordination, and if there be two applicants for the same place, not scrupling to give it to the highest bidder. The bishop has an important part not only in the management of the financial affairs of the church, but also in the assessment of taxes demanded by the Turkish Government, taking care that a fair margin remains in his own hands. He celebrates mass on all important occasions, and while doing so, wears a most costly mitre and magnificent silken robes, and bears in one hand a silver mace of office (seen in the picture), and in the other a silver cross.

The Patriarch (the central figure in the illustration), though by some regarded as a separate order, is more generally treated as merely a bishop with extraordinary jurisdiction and powers. For instance, the Bishop of Constantinople is called patriarch because, by virtue of his position, he is able, in great part, to control the appointment of all the bishops of the empire, and is also the recognized civil representative of the Armenian nation in Turkey, at the Sublime Porte. The crosses and stars seen on his person, as on that of the bishop, are badges of office, and decorations granted by different civil and ecclesiastical authorities.

The Catholicos is the highest of the ecclesiastical orders, and is the “ Pope” in the Armenian church, having his seat at Echmiadzin, near the Turkish border, in Russia, but having far less power than the Pope of Rome. He seems content with the honor of his position, together with its emoluments, derived from the sale of bishoprics, the monopoly of the traffic in holy oil, used in all important ceremonies of the church, and the offerings of the devout. All bishops are ordained by the Catholicos, while he, in turn, is ordained by a council of bishops.

The lack of vigor in the ecclesiastical domination of the Armenian church, the people's profound, though misdirected, veneration for the Bible, and their native intelligence and love of investigation, have contributed largely to the success which has already attended the missionary work among them; a success which we believe will, by the grace of God, become more and more striking, until the whole Armenian nation is brought back to a pure Christianity.



In a letter written from Syria last year, I made use of the following words : “ If we educate a man highly, he will not serve, except as a highly salaried and independent missionary. If we educate him moderately, his church will not have him." These words having been subjected to some adverse criticism in this country, I wish to explain them more fully.

First, however, let me allude to the well-known principles and practice of the missionaries of the American Board in the Turkish Empire - preëminently in Syria — in the matter of education. They are, to lead on education as fast as the means at their disposal allow, and the circumstances of the people make it desirable, for their welfare. Each of these conditions requires explanation. The American Board is not an institution sustained with a view to secular education. It is, therefore, limited in its power of furnishing the means for carrying forward the work of scientific instruction. What has been done in this direction, has been undertaken in connection with thorough Biblical training, with a view to fit those who are educated for the positions of preachers, teachers, printers, and distributers of evangelical truth. Those pupils have been received into our schools who gave best promise of becoming evangelists in these various departments. Some have graduated without a conviction of the truth of our religious views, and have been drawn aside into various secular pursuits. Many have become teachers and printers and colporters, in connection with our missions and those in neighboring countries, and a few have risen to the position of preachers and pastors.

Now it is a fact that our schools have been, and are, the best in the various countries where they have been located, with the exception of those in Constantinople and Cairo, where Government Universities have enjoyed an endowment which gave

them a higher scientific scope than missionary schools can have, or ought to aim at. In training our youth for the preaching of the gospel, we have actually given the best secular education which the country afforded. We were confessedly in the van of science, and the schools of other sects availed themselves of our models of instruction, and used our text-books as their chief scientific apparatus. Furthermore, the few of our pupils who chose the work of the ministry were retained longer at school, and educated through higher grades of science as well as religion, than other students ; and at this time, those who have entered into the various offices of evangelism are in general the best educated men of those whom we have trained, and stand as high among the educated men of that country as our ex-pastors and teachers among the educated men of America. Moreover, they are the only students whom we continue to train after they have entered on the duties of life which lie beyond the curriculum of school and seminary study.

So much for mission schools, their objects and achievements. But the missionaries have gone farther. When the general elevation of portions of the evangelized people has called for still higher qualifications in their pastors and teachers than mission schools, organized with reference to the average

necessities of the community, could furnish, the missionaries have inaugurated plans for collegiate institutions, — at Constantinople and Beirût, — in each case furnishing a president to the institution from their own diminished numbers, and aiding, by their counsels in the organization, and by their instructions in the successful working of the new enterprises. In the case of the College at Beirút, they constitute a large part of the Board of Management, and view the institution as a prominent means for the evangelization of the country.

It will thus be obvious that no narrow policy in reference to education influences missionaries in general, and I am happy to say that no such prejudice inspired my own words. I may add, that the Board is, I believe, in full sympathy with its missionaries in all these matters.

Having then established, as a preliminary proposition, that the principles and practice of the missions have been to lead on education as fast as the means at their disposal allow, and I might say also, to keep at the head of education in their respective fields of labor, I proceed to the principles which govern us in applying the education thus provided, and shall thus illustrate the difficulty referred to, where it is said, “ If we educate him moderately his church will not have him."

We hold that the education of individuals must depend on the general condition of the community that they are to serve, as well as on the character and circumstances of each candidate. It is here that the difficulty of the subject inheres.

It must not be forgotten, that in America education is generally acquired at. the expense of the student, his parents or guardians, or of the government to which they severally pay taxes. A gift of education from a benevolent society is exceptional, usually taking the form of a grant in aid, mostly to students preparing for the ministry, and never extending beyond the usual curriculum of the college and the seminary. Most of those who offer themselves as candidates for the ministry, make an offering of an education acquired at their own charges, and all of those entering on the foreign missionary work have become fitted for it without aid from the societies which send them out. The problem of the education of missionaries, therefore, does not concern the Missionary Boards. They have only to select, from the list of applicants for appointment, those whose gifts and piety fit them for the work, and send them forth.

Still further, the Missionary Societies employ, for the most part, men of a single grade, or class. There is, of course, that difference which obtains in every calling, in the gifts and acquirements of the various missionaries; yet they go out, mostly, with one office, and in one relation to the people whom they serve. None of them are designed to fill the pastoral office; so that, whether they be stationed in large or small cities, there is no difference in the requisition made on their learning and ability. Nay, it sometimes happens that he who resides in the smaller town has a work calling for abilities of a higher order than those who occupy the larger cities.

The case is quite different with those whom we educate in our foreign missionary fields, for the pastoral or teaching offices. They are, for the most part, beneficiaries from the beginning; taken, often, at an age when they are so undeveloped that we cannot form any idea of their subsequent bias or disposition, and often before we have evidence of their personal piety.

It will be admitted that not every man who desires to study is fitted for a student's life; and that not every man who is a good student would be a good preacher or teacher, even presupposing his piety. We must be the judges of such cases as these, and shall not be blamed for bringing to a close our course of gratuitous instruction in such cases, as soon as we have discovered unfitness for a studious career, or unfitness for either the pastoral or teaching office.

Benevolent individuals, here or in Syria, may contribute toward the education of physicians, and men in other pursuits, but missionaries cannot spend the time and money belonging to the work of evangelization, in this way.

We have thus narrowed the inquiry to those whose talents and graces we judge suitable for the ministry and teaching.

There is among every people a standard of attainments, demanded by popular taste and education, of those who would exercise these offices, especially the former, to which we more particularly refer. The wants of each congregation depend on its particular stage of culture; yet there is an average standard, demanded by the average cultivation of the whole community. The different denominations differ in the matter of this standard, and the theological institutions of each are so graded as to meet the average standard of want, and to supply the average standard of attainment in its ministers. We have not been slow to meet the wants of our missionary converts in this respect; and it has been our steady purpose so to train every candidate for the sacred office that he may satisfy the reasonable demands of his people, for superiority, in knowledge and culture, to themselves.

But on missionary ground, as elsewhere, there are some churches that require more than average ability and culture in their pastors.

Here again, the problem, so simple in America, is difficult in missionary lands. In America, a man who feels within himself the motions of genius, and a presentiment of a more than usual work, prepares himself, by his own energy, for the higher sphere, availing himself of post-graduate privileges at his college or seminary, or seeking abroad the facilities which he does not find at home. The title of any church to claim such higher qualifications must be decided by its ability to secure their possessor by a call, and provide adequately for his support. This principle is clearly understood by home missionary societies. They never think of supporting candidates for missionary labor in new, uncultivated communities in the West, or among the freedmen of the South, through post-graduate courses of more than usual study. If any church at the West or South grow until it demands such higher attainments, it then seeks for their possessor, and provides for his support; and in general, a church which cannot support a man of unusual capabilities does not need him. Doubtless the best preacher is not too good for the plainest people ; yet as the world is, we cannot waste the means of the church in educating men to more than average grades of learning, or to great superiority over those whom they are to serve.

Now there is a special reason on missionary ground why this most wise and salutary principle, which governs the action of the church at home, is difficult of application.

In the infancy of the evangelizing work, the foreign missionary has no native helpers, teachers, or preachers; and the few converts gathered about him have no pastors. He is forced, by the necessities of the case, to perform toward them the duties of a pastor. This is pleasing to them, for many reasons.

The missionary's great superiority, in education, to even the most cultivated intellects of the country, his social position, his influence with consuls and other officials, all conspire to make them prefer his services even to those of highly educated natives. But it is plain that this state of things is abnormal, and should, as soon as possible, be replaced by a permanent, native pastorate. The grade of the new pastor ought to be determined by the same principles as those which determine the case in America ; that is, adaptability on the part of the pastor to meet the reasonable call of his people for superiority to themselves in culture and piety, and ability on their part to support him. If he be inferior, or barely equal to his people, in these respects, he is not fit to be their pastor. If he be 80 much superior to them that they cannot support him, this fact alone will generally be a reason why he should not exercise that office among them. But under these circumstances, newly evangelized and partially enlightened people are not reasonable. They want a missionary. They will use fair means, and

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