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sometimes foul ones, to get him. They will object to men fitted to edify them, and whom they could support with a little self-denial, and claim men whose abilities they would not attempt to command were they in America, and whom they cannot hope to support. Is it not true, then, in practical missionary experience, that if we do not educate the pastors highly the churches will not have them? Is this the fault of our system? Or is it due to the imperfection of their knowledge and graces, and the peculiar circumstances in which they are placed?

There is a point on which I wish to make myself clearly understood. In urging churches to accept men whom we consider suitable for them, we never do it on the ground that we wish to limit their intellectual growth, or condemn them to the services of inferior men. We simply urge them to accept pastors whom they can hope to support. If they grow more intelligent and numerous, and able to give more for a more able pastor, we encourage a change that shall meet their wants. If their own pastor is susceptible of higher training, we give him every advantage in our power. Indeed, without the manifestation of any such desire on the part of the congregation, it is part of our plan to carry forward the education of pastors, after they have approved themselves faithful ministers, that they may gradually elevate the intellectual standard of their people.

Again, the policy of urging the settlement of men of limited education over such churches is not for the purpose of having under our control men of dwarfed powers, the more easily to manage them, as some have insinuated! We are living there to elevate and expand, not to depress and dwarf. No instance can be shown where we have aimed to repress talent. Our lifelong effort is to seek it out, and utilize it for the spread of Christ's kingdom. And so far as the alleged desire to keep native pastors manageable is concerned, any one who has witnessed the autonomy which we have conceded, nay, in many instances almost forced on the native churches and pastors, cannot be prejudiced by any such suspicion.

Our usual course with theological students is this. They are carried through the curriculum of the Seminary, and then, if possible, tried by a course of practical evangelism before ordination. They are then installed over churches, after due call and acceptance. If they give no promise of growing intellectually, their future training is confined to the instructions given during missionary visits, and by books and letters. If, however, the pastor give promise of intellectual progress, we are careful to foster and train his capabilities by systematic instruction, and in every way encourage him to the highest attainments, taking care, however, that his education be of the solid and useful rather than the showy kind. We believe in training pastors to work among their own people, not to go abroad to mingle with foreigners, and acquire their habits and tastes; and learn to lean upon their energy and to love their gold; and thus become unfitted for further efficiency at home.

The other remark, that "if we educate a man highly, he will not serve except as a highly salaried and independent missionary," was simply a statement of fact, and can only be objected to as such if it be not true. Now I reaffirm that it is true, as a general statement. It implies that we have educated some highly, which is true. I think that they constitute as large a proportion to the whole

number of pastors and preachers, as the highly educated and refined do in the ministry at home. Now it is true that we have been embarrassed and perplexed, and that our faith has been staggered, many times, by the fact that such exhibit less willingness to serve native churches for native pay than their less educated brethren, and exhibit a marked disposition to grasp at positions as evangelists at large, under foreign pay, and with the largest salaries. These are stubborn, painful, and injurious facts. We do not make them, nor misrepresent them. There are noble exceptions -men of faith and zeal, who believe in the permanence and growth of native churches, and who, with self-renouncing zeal have thrown themselves into the work of raising them to independence and manly strength. We honor them; and taking courage from them, gain faith to believe in the ultimate regeneration of their people, and the firm establishment of self-sustaining institutions of Christianity among them. And it is only when we hear native Christians say, as one of superior intelligence said to me, that no native pastor, however eligible, would be received while they could have a missionary from America to serve them, and see native evangelists unwilling to assume the pastoral relation, and seeking all their lives for foreign appointments and foreign accountability, that we feel that our work is in danger of being a failure.


THE death of this father among the missionaries at the Sandwich Islands, on the 11th of March last, was announced in June. Mr. Thurston was born at Fitchburg, Massachusetts, October 12, 1787. He graduated at Yale College in 1816, and at Andover Theological Seminary in 1819. Soon after leaving the Seminary he was married to Miss Lucy Goodale, of Marlborough, Massachusetts, "who has been his faithful wife and companion in all the toils, labors, and privations of his long missionary life." They embarked at Boston, with others of the company who formed the first band of missionaries sent to the Islands, October 23, 1819, Mr. Thurston having given a farewell address to the assembly in Park Street Church. In the address delivered at his funeral, at Honolulu, March 12, by Rev. Eli Corwin, it is said: "Forty-eight years ago this very month, on the 31st of March, 1820, the deceased reached the shores of Hawaii, with the pioneer missionaries sent out by the American Board, to evangelize these then benighted and barbarous islands. This day of his burial is just one month less than forty-eight years from the day when he and the still surviving companion of his earthly pilgrimage were stationed at Kailua, the ancient residence of the Hawaiian kings. And there, for more than forty years, he continued to reside and to labor as the honored pastor of a large and very important parish.

"The instructor, for a time, of both Kamehameha II. and Kamehameha III., his influence upon the conduct and disposition, especially of the latter, must have been very great. But, as is ever the case with the faithful minister, his influence was greatest and his usefulness most apparent among the masses of the common people. Never once leaving the Islands for forty years, he was hon

ored of natives and foreigners alike as a faithful, patient, persistent worker, steadfast and abiding, in one stay, far beyond the ordinary duration of missionary life. Indeed I know not that in the entire history of missions a like instance is recorded, of one remaining so long upon the field, and at a single post, during the lifetime of a whole generation, without revisiting the home of his childhood, or visiting any other land. Only when advancing age and repeated strokes of paralysis had rendered him incapable of service; only when his strong hand lost its cunning, and his tongue had begun to give a doubtful utterance, did he consent to resign his pastorate at Kailua, that he might spend the closing years of his life in this city.

"Here, how beautiful the evening time of that life.... pearance was but the truthful expression of the inward life, disturbed repose of faith; a rest in Jesus which knew no solicitude; a sublime quietude of soul which felt no fear."

He is spoken of as a man of "marvelous physical powers, perhaps unsurpassed in his day by those of any other resident upon these Islands, whether native or foreigner"; "taciturn all through life, yet hardly less remarkable for a quiet humor, which was kept in subjection to his Christian dignity"; and it is said: "Those of us who were permitted to visit him near the close of his life, cannot soon forget those more lucid intervals when, for a little, the soul reasserted its power over the tongue, and with indescribable pathos and earnestness he exclaimed, My love for Jesus is very great.""


An obituary notice in the Honolulu Friend states: "As a missionary, Mr. Thurston ever labored with great usefulness and success. His knowledge of the native language and character was most thorough, and as a preacher, he was much beloved by the native Hawaiians. In the early years of the mission, his labors as a translator were arduous and successful. In this great work, . . . associated with others, it fell to his lot to translate parts of Genesis, Numbers, and Deuteronomy, and the whole of Samuel, Second of Kings, and some other parts of the Bible." "When our departed Father arrived at the Islands, all was one wide moral, heathen waste. Idolatry was abolished, but the work of reducing the language to a written form, and the endless toil of a missionary's life, were to be entered upon. Now, how changed the moral aspect! The deceased leaves a widow and three children, and numerous grand-children, to mourn his loss. All who were acquainted with his life and labors are ready involuntarily to exclaim :

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"On the 27th ultimo, a series of earthquakes aroused the people of Kona and Kau. On the 28th, eruptions of steam and fire were seen at four points on our great volcanic Mauna Loa. The streams of molten minerals rushed rapidly down the mountain in divergent lines. The largest stream flowed nearly south, towards Kahuku, in Kau. Shocks of earthquake became more frequent and vigorous, and were felt all round the island. The fires of Kilauea raged with intense fury, surging against the walls of the great caldron, throwing down avalanches of rocks, and bursting into a lateral crater, called 'Little Kilauea.' A mighty shock now destroyed the stone church at Kahuku, and shook down the buildings of some foreign gentlemen, and of others.

"Suddenly the smoke and the volcanic fires on the mountain disappeared, the valves of the great furnace closed, and this mighty foundery of Jehovah seemed to have ceased blast. All eyes, in Hilo, Kau, and Kona, were looking to the hills, and every one inquiring, 'Where is the eruption?' Meanwhile, the jars, vibrations, and tremblings of the earth went on, almost incessantly, by day and night, until April 2d. So rapid were the shocks, that no one thought of counting them. In fact, they came in such quick succession that the ground rarely ceased to quiver between the throes, and we all felt that our island had no stable foundation. The throbbing and quivering of the earth, during the in

tervals of the shocks, was like the trembling of a ship after the discharge of a broadside, or the quivering of a boiling pot.

"On Thursday, the 2d instant, at 4 P. M., we experienced such a shock as was unknown in the history or traditions of these islands. The earth rose and sank, and its its surface rolled like the ocean in a storm. Trees swayed to and fro; shrubbery and grasses trembled; stone walls fell flat; underpinning of houses was thrown down; houses reeled, trembled, cracked; some tilted, some slid nearly off from their foundations, and a few fell. Timbers, ceilings, partitions, plastering, etc., cracked; furniture, earthen and glass ware, were shivered; book-cases, bureaus, wardrobes, cabinets, tables, etc., were started from their places, and many thrown down with violence; and all houses were filled with debris, from garret to cellar. Chimneys and smoke-stacks fell; stoves were smashed; ovens broken; baths broken up; machinery in sugar-mills disturbed; sugar-boilers and cooling vats nearly emptied; and all things on the earth's surface moved. The shock was terrific, and its violence lasted some three minutes. The earth rent, and seams and fissures, from an inch to two feet wide, opened in our streets and fields. Avalanches of rocks and earth fell from our precipices along the coast; banks caved off; watercourses ran mud; the sea rose and swept over the lower banks and barriers; and general consternation reigned among the people. The noise of the cracking earth, of the falling of thousands of feet of stone wall, of the rocking houses, breaking of timbers, boards, etc., and of the smashing of furniture and wares, was confusing. The inside of Dr. Wetmore's drug store was a scene of confused ruin. Bottles, vials, jars, cases, packages of medicine, etc., were thrown pell-mell upon the floor, and the mixing of acids filled the house with pungent gases. The marvel is, that ignition and explosion did not take place; but the compound of acids and drugs was one unknown to pharmacology and chemistry.

"One woman was killed by falling rocks, a man nearly killed, and others escaped as by a miracle. A company of children were playing under a ledge on the shore, when the great shock came. They huddled together, like a brood of frightened chickens, and prayed, the rocks meanwhile falling thick on both sides of them; but the Lord preserved them.

"Most of the people in Hilo left their houses and camped out in the night, and some have not slept in their dwellings since. Some sleep in verandas, and many do not undress at night.

"But our sorrows are light when compared with those of Kau. There, all is wreck, ruin, and death. On the day of our awful crash in Hilo, the earth rent between Reed and Richardson's ranch, at Kapapala, and Mr. F. S. Lyman's, at Keaina, and a volume of rocks, mud, and earth was projected, two to three miles long and as many wide, burying a village and thirty people, with goats, pigs, fowls, and from 500 to 600 head of cattle and horses. This was as sudden as the springing of a mine, and there was no escape for those in its range. The explosion was attended with terrific noise, and the whole atmosphere was filled with dust. What is marvelous is, that the projected earth was not heated. The depth of the flaw is from 4 to 15 feet. At this moment the houses of Reed and Co., of Mr. Lyman, of the native pastor, Kauhane, and of others, were shaken down, or so racked and damaged as to be uninhabitable. All rushed out of their shattered and falling dwellings; but the ground rocked and heaved and jerked, with such violence that no one could keep his feet. Even horses were thrown down. The noise from the explosion and the earthy eruption, and from the breaking of the earth's strata, was as if the rocky ribs and the mural walls and pillars of creation were being riven.

"Looking seaward, all was fear and consternation. The great shock had prostrated the stone church at Punalau, some six miles distant, on the shore, and all the houses for six or eight miles along the coast; and a tidal wave came in, some twenty feet high, sweeping off the wreck of all. Thus in a few moments that shore

was desolated, and all its substance destroyed. Many persons, however, escaped from the waves and reported the disaster; but so great was the confusion, that up to this day we have not the full statistics of the loss of life. I have seen a list of 47 persons who perished in the earth eruption and in the sea, but numbers more remain to be reported. Mr. Lyman and family, the pastor and family, and many others, collected on a hill, and spent that dreadful night in prayer and praise, under the open canopy of heaven, and with the earth rocking and quaking under them. On the next day, the 3d, they, and nearly all Eastern Kau, started for Hilo, where they arrived on Saturday, the 4th. The people in central and western Kau, or from Waiahinu on to Kahuku, hearing of the eruption on this side, have feared to come this way, so that we lack full and reliable information from that quarter; but it is affirmed, that the churches of Waiahinu and Kahuku (both of stone) are down, and that Brother Pogue and family are in a native hut near the station.

"The quaking still continues; but at wider intervals and with diminished force. I have been sent out of my study since commencing this letter.

"Two Hilo gentlemen, who have ventured over to Kau to look after their cattle, were driven immediately back by the shakings of the earth. They state that a great lava stream is now flowing into the sea near Waiahinu, and filling all that region with a glare of light; and that Kilauea has sunk down hundreds of feet, and looks like a vast pit of blackened ruins. The fusion has been drawn off, the superincumbent strata have gone down to dark and awful depths, and vast avalanches have been precipitated from the surrounding walls into the abyss below. Wide fissures are open along its upper rim, and the old road is intercepted. Travelers must now go up one or two miles from the crater to avoid these rents.

"Our people are excited, but there is no confusion. Inquiry is on tip-toe, with open eyes and ears. We are holding daily meetings at 4 o'clock P. M., and the people come out in crowds. All is hushed

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