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INTRODUCTION'.

ON THE ADDITIONAL MATTER IN CHRONICLES,

By S. R. DRIVER, D.D.,
REGIUS PROFESSOR OF HEBREW, AND CANON OF CHRIST Church, OXFORD.

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T does not fall within the province of the present work to examine the

except so far as may serve to illustrate the method or point of view of the compiler. The following general remarks must therefore suffice. It does not seem possible to treat the additional matter in Chronicles as strictly and literally historical. In many cases the figures are incredibly high* : in others, the scale or magnitude of the occurrences described is such that, had they really happened precisely as represented, they could hardly have been passed over by the compiler of Samuel or Kings; elsewhere, again, the description appears to be irreconcilable with that in the earlier narrative; while nearly always the speeches assigned to historical characters, and the motives attributed to them, are conceived largely from a point of view very different from that which dominates the earlier narrative, and agreeing closely with the compiler's. The peculiarities of the historical representation which prevails in the Chronicles are to be ascribed, no doubt, to the influences under which the author lived and wrote. The compiler lived in an age when the theocratic institutions, which had been placed on a new basis after the return from Babylon, had long been in full operation, and when new religious interests and a new type of piety-of course with points of contact with the old, but, at the same time, advancing beyond it—had been developed, and asserted themselves strongly. The Chronicler reflects faithfully the spirit of his age. A new mode of viewing the past history of his nation began to prevail : pre-exilic Judah was pictured as already in possession of the institutions, and governed--at least in its greater and better men—by the ideas and principles, which were dominant at a later day; the empire of David and his successors was imagined on a scale of unsurpassed power and magnificence; the past, in a word, was idealised, and its history (where necessary) rewritten accordingly. Thus the institutions of the present, which, in fact, had been developed gradually, are represented as organised in their completeness by David : the ritual of the Priest's Code is duly observed; the Passovers of Hezekiah and Josiah (the former of which is not mentioned in the Book of Kings at all, the latter only briefly) are described with an abundance of ceremonial detail, suggested no doubt by occasions which the compiler had witnessed himself; David organises a vast military force, and amasses for the Temple enormous treasures; his successors have the command of huge armies, and are victorious against forces huger even than their own. In these and similar representations there is certainly much that cannot be strictly historical : but the Chronicler must not on this account be held guilty of a deliberate perversion of history; he and his contemporaries did not question that the past was actually as they pictured it, and the Chronicler simply gives expression to this persuasion. It is not necessary to deny-on the contrary, it is highly probable—that a traditional element lies at the basis of his representations; but this element has been developed by him, and presented in a literary form, with the aim of giving expression to the ideas which he had at heart, and of inculcating the lessons which he conceived the history to teach.

1 Reprinted, by permission, from “ An Introduction to the Literature of the Old Testament” (Edinburgh, T. & T. Clark, 1891).

2 It is illegitimate to explain these as due to textual corruption; the numbers in the Chronicles are systematically higher than in other parts of the 0. T.; and no reason exists for supposing the text of these books to have been specially subject to error in transmission. Besides, numbers written in full would not be readily corrupted: the supposition that letters were used for numerals in the sacred autographs is destitute of foundation.

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PART I.

THE MONARCHY OF DAVID AND SOLOMON.

I Samuel 31. I.

I Chronicles 10. I.

31

Now the Philistines fought against Israel: and the men of Israel fled from before the Phi

listines, and fell down 'slain in 2 mount Gilboa. And the Phili

stines followed hard upon Saul and upon his sons; and the Philistines slew Jonathan, and ? Abi

nadab, and Malchi-shua, the sons 3 of Saul. And the battle went sore

against Saul, and the archers overtook him; and he was greatly dis

tressed by reason of the archers. 4 Then said Saul to his armour

bearer, Draw thy sword, and thrust me through therewith ; lest these uncircumcised come and thrust me through, and $abuse

But his armourbearer would not; for he was

sore afraid. Therefore Saul took his sword, 5 and fell upon it. And when his

armourbearer saw that Saul was

dead, he likewise fell upon his 6 sword, and died with him. So

Saul died, and his three sons, and

his armourbearer, and all his men, 7 that same day together. And

when the men of Israel that were on the other side of the valley, and they that were beyond Jordan, saw that the men of Israel fled, and that Saul and his sons were dead, they forsook the cities, and fed ; and the Philistines came and dwelt in them.

10

Now the Philistines fought against Israel: and the men of Israel fled from before the Phi

listines, and fell down 'slain in 2 mount Gilboa. And the Phili

stines followed hard after Saul and after his sons; and the Philistines slew Jonathan, and A

binadab, and Malchi-shua, the 3 sons of Saul. And the battle

went sore against Saul, and the archers overtook him; and he

was distressed by reason of the 4 archers. Then said Saul unto

his armourbearer, Draw thy sword, and thrust me through therewith; lest these uncircumcised come and "abuse me. But his armourbearer would not; for he was

sore afraid. Therefore Saul took 5 his sword, and fell upon it. And

when his armourbearer saw that

Saul was dead, he likewise fell 6 upon his sword, and died. So

Saul died, and his three sons: and all his house died together.

me.

7 And when all the men of

Israel that were in the valley saw that they fled, and that Saul and his sons were dead, they forsook their cities, and filed; and the Philistines came and dwelt in them.

1 Or, wounded 2 In ch. xiv. 49, Ishvi. 3 Or, make a mock of me

1 Or, wounded 2 Or, make a mock of me

S.

I

I

8 And it came to pass on the 8 And it came to pass on the morrow, when the Philistines

morrow, when the Philistines came to strip the slain, that they came to strip the slain, that they

found Saul and his three sons found Saul and his sons fallen in 9 fallen in mount Gilboa. And 9 mount Gilboa. And they stripped

they cut off his head, and stripped him, and took his head, and his off his armour, and sent into the armour, and sent into the land of land of the Philistines round the Philistines round about, to about, to carry the tidings unto carry the tidings unto their idols,

the house of their idols, and to Io and to the people. And they 10 the people. And they put his put his armour in the house of

armour in the house of the Ash- their gods, and fastened his head taroth: and they fastened his 11 in the house of Dagon. And

body to the wall of Beth-shan. when all Jabesh-Gilead heard all II And when the inhabitants of that the Philistines had done to

Jabesh-Gilead heard concerning 12 Saul, all the valiant men arose,

him that which the Philistines had and took away the body of Saul, 12 done to Saul, all the valiant men and the bodies of his sons, and

arose, and went all night, and brought them to Jabesh, and butook the body of Saul and the ried their bones under the 'oak bodies of his sons from the wall in Jabesh, and fasted seven days. of Beth-shan; and they came to V13 So Saul died ?for his trespass

Jabesh, and burnt them there. which he committed against the 13 And they took their bones, and LORD, because of the word of the

buried them under the tamarisk LORD, which he kept not; and tree in Jabesh, and fasted seven also for that he asked counsel of days.

one that had a familiar spirit, to 14 inquire thereby, and inquired not

of the LORD: therefore he slew him, and turned the kingdom unto David the son of Jesse.

2 Samuel 1. I.

1 And it came to pass after the death of Saul, when David was returned

from the slaughter of the Amalekites, and David had abode two days 2 in Ziklag; it came even to pass on the third day, that, behold, a man

came out of the camp from Saul with his clothes rent, and earth upon

his head : and so it was, when he came to David, that he fell to the 3 earth, and did obeisance. And David said unto him, From whence

comest thou? And he said unto him, Out of the camp of Israel am I 4 escaped. And David said unto him, How went the matter? I pray

thee, tell me. And he answered, The people are fled from the battle, and many of the people also are fallen and dead; and Saul and 5 Jonathan his son are dead also. And David said unto the young man

that told him, How knowest thou that Saul and Jonathan his son be

1

Or, terebinth

2 Or, in

13 sword.

6 dead? And the young man that told him said, As I happened by

chance upon mount Gilboa, behold, Saul leaned upon his spear; and, 7 lo, the chariots and the horsemen followed hard after him. And when

he looked behind him, he saw me, and called unto me. And I 8 answered, Here am I. And he said unto me, Who art thou ? And I 9 answered him, I am an Amalekite. And he said unto me, Stand, I

pray thee, 'beside me, and slay me, for 'anguish hath taken hold of me; 10 because my life is yet whole in me. So I stood beside him, and slew

him, because I was sure that he could not live after that he was fallen :

and I took the crown that was upon his head, and the bracelet that II was on his arm, and have brought them hither unto my lord. Then

David took hold on his clothes, and rent them; and likewise all the 12 men that were with him: and they mourned, and wept, and fasted

until even, for Saul, and for Jonathan his son, and for the people of the LORD, and for the house of Israel; because they were fallen by the

And David said unto the young man that told him, Whence art thou? And he answered, I am the son of a stranger, an Amalekite. 14 And David said unto him, How wast thou not afraid to put forth thine 15 hand to destroy the LORD's anointed? And David called one of the

young men, and said, Go near, and fall upon him. And he smote 16 him that he died. And David said unto him, Thy blood be upon thy

head; for thy mouth hath testified against thee, saying, I have slain

the LORD's anointed. 17

And David lamented with this lamentation over Saul and over 18 Jonathan his son: and he bade them teach the children of Judah the

song of the bow : behold, it is written in the book of ? Jashar. 19 * Thy glory, O Israel, is slain upon thy high places !

How are the mighty fallen !
Tell it not in Gath,
Publish it not in the streets of Ashkelon;
Lest the daughters of the Philistines rejoice,
Lest the daughters of the uncircumcised triumph.
Ye mountains of Gilboa,
Let there be no dew nor rain upon you, neither fields of offerings :
For there the shield of the mighty was 5 vilely cast away.
The shield of Saul, 6 not anointed with oil.
From the blood of the slain, from the fat of the mighty,
The bow of Jonathan turned not back,

And the sword of Saul returned not empty. 23

Saul and Jonathan were lovely and pleasant in their lives,
And in their death they were not divided ;
They were swifter than eagles,

They were stronger than lions. 24

Ye daughters of Israel, weep over Saul,
Who clothed you in scarlet ? delicately,

Who put ornaments of gold upon your apparel.
Or, over

5 Or, defiled 2 Or, giddiness

6 Or, as of one not anointed 3 Or, The Upright

7 Heb. with delights. 4 Or, T'he gazelle

20

21

22

1

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