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made on the Island of St. Helena, now more that those works which have been thought worthy of prethan 25 years ago, by Napoleon. He was speak- servation by posterity, have not always been most eagerly ing with reference to the future prospects of sought after in the life time of their authors

, while, on the

contrary, those which have commanded the largest share of France and said:

contemporary applause, have often been least able to stand “My son will reign if the popular masses are the test of Horace. Without undertaking to decide this permitted to act without control; the crown will very delicate question, we can say that we have rarely seen belong to the Duke of Orleans (Louis Philippe) any book so well calculated to take the public by storm az if those who are called Liberals gain the victory very circumstance that would seem to forbid it a long pe

the one now under consideration, and that too from the over the people ; but then sooner or later the peo- riod of existence. The very familiarity of the style will ple will discover that they have been deceived, be certain to captivate the majority of readers, who will be that the white are always white, the blue always delighted to see the stern muse of history unbend herself, blue—and that there is no guarantee for their true and condescend to tell her story with all the careless freeinterests, except under the reign of my dynasty, be- dom of a friend, when he talks to his friend in his gown

and slippers, by his own fireside. cause it is the work of their creation.”

Nearly the whole of the first volume is a preliminary disNo remark is necessary to make evident the sertation upon the history,of England, and her condition at truth of his prophecy. The son it is true died. various stages of her political existence. As the materials The revolution of 1830 verified so much of the of knowledge become more plentiful with the advance of prediction as relates to Louis Philippe. The time, the dissertation of course lakes a wider range, and remarkable fact is that it was precisely in the acquires a greater compass. We are introduced to the

Englishman of the reign of Charles II. precisely as he then mode indicated by Bonaparte that Louis Philippe was, with all his prejudices, whether Whig or Tory, town attained the throne by a victory of the Liberals or country, fresh about him. Before entering upon the over the People.

main object of his labors,-the history of England from Lafitte, the Banker, Thiers, Lafayette and the accession of James II. down to a period within the some others paused before they reached a re- make us as familiar as may be, with the point from which

recollection of persons now living,-the author wishes to public, checked the movement and, by a coup we set out in his company. He depicts the life of the d'etat, made Louis Philippe king. The people in English of those days and gives us an infinite number of 1818 found themselves deceived and have return- facts, historical and statistical, by the consideration of ed under the reign of Napoleon's dynasty. What which we become the better prepared for what is to follow.

And these facts and these statistics are replete with interevent was more improbable than this four or six

An Englishman of the present day,-or an American months ago ?

who has almost as much claim in the great men of Eng. Your Friend,

land in the olden time as the former,-naturally desires to know something of bis ancestors, besides what he can read in the narratives of battles and sieges, or the skirmishes in parliament. He desires to know how they lived-how they tilled their fields--what degree of mental or moral culture they enjoyed-what was the state of learning and religion among the masses-how they spent their time-what was

the fare, the drink and the amusements of the day--what NOTICES OF NEW WORKS.

was the condition of their houses-and a thousand other things, all relating to the domestic life of his ancestors.

The knowledge of these matters is important, in one point

of view, which is historically the most important of all. It Tae HISTORY OF ENGLAND, from the Accession of James enables us to take a general view of the progress of the the Second. By Thomas Babington Macaulay. Vol. I. world—to say whether or not the condition of man has been New York: Harper & Brothers.

advancing, - lo decide whether we are better off than our

ancestors or the reverse, and thus to know how far we The first volume of this long expected work has, in the shall persevere in pressing forward, or when it will be wise course of three weeks, run through two editions, and found

to think about receding. perhaps a larger circle of readers among a people whom the

As we conceive this to be one of the greatest, if not the author has never seen, that it can possibly find at home, even should it be sent out in the cheapest form of publica very greatest, of the objects of history, we must concede tion, that has ever issued from the English press. Written to the work of Mr. Macaulay a very high character. From in a style, which may be regarded by some as rather too other works on the same subject

, did we not know better, farniliar for history, it is yet full of instruction, derived we should imagine that the whole population spent their

lime from an infinite variety of sources, inaccessible to the gen. never suppose that there were millions, both in the towns

plotting, in debating and in fighting. We should eral reader, and rendered, probably, the more popular by and in the country, who kept the noiseless tenor of their that very absence of dignity which has generally been re- way onward, and that these men unknown and unheard of garded as one of the incidents essential to historical narrative. Whether it will survive the hundred years, conside the history, which we are most anxious to learn, and theirs

are the ancestors of the great British nations. Theirs is ered by Horace as absolotely necessary to test the true is precisely the history, of which books called the “ Hismerits of an author,* we regard as questionable ; it is a fact not less remarkable for its singularity than for its notorietytory of England” can give us no conception. Yet it is, in

truth, the history of England; the history of the rise, proge

ress, and condition of that vast multitude, which, progress* Est vetus atque probus centum qui perficit annos. ing from age to age, constitutes at this moment the power


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ful kingdom of Great Britain, whose dominions have no | Authors of America.” This is a book of which any critic setting sun and

in the country might well have been proud, without reser.

ence to the mere industry and research manisested in its Whose flag has braved a thousand years

compilation. These are truly remarkable ;- but the rigor The battle and the breeze.*

of comment and force of style are not less so; while more

independence and self-reliance are manifested than in any The accounts of parliamentary intrigues-of plots in the other of the series. There is not a weak paper in the book; palace-of the personal habits of this king or of that of and some of the articles are able in all respects. The truth his quarrels with the Lords and Commons-of his wars is that Mr. Griswold's intellect is more at home in Prose foreign or domestic-even of revolutions, make but a small than Poetry. He is a better judge of fact than of fancy , part of the history of a great nation. That can never be not that he has not shown himself quite competent to the written, it is true ; but when a historian undertakes to give task undertaken in “ The Poets and Poetry of America," or us an account of the political changes of a country, he of England, or in the work now especially before us. In ought to give us some idea of the state of the society in this latter, he has done no less credit to himself than to the which they occur.

numerous lady-poets whom he discusses-and many of In order to affect as much as possible, in this department whom he now first introduces to the public. We are glad, of his historical labors, Mr. Macaulay has extended his re- for Mr. Griswold's sake, as well as for the interests of our searches into every thing which promised the least degree literature generally, to perceive that he has been at the pains of light. Nothing has been to minute to escape his obser- of doing what Northern critics seem to be at great pains; vation; nothing too voluminous or obscure to balle his never lo do-that is to say, he has been at the trouble of scrutiny. The letters of Barillon, and the editorials of doing justice, in great measure, to several poetesses who Roger L'Estrange receive an equal degree of attention from have not had the good fortune to be born in the North. The him. The most obscure pamphlets, the least remembered notices of the Misses Carey, of the Misses Fuller, of the lampoons, the slightest records of the turf, the memoranda sisters Mrs. Warfield and Mrs. Lee, of Mrs. Nichols, of Mise of overseers of parishes and of roads have been carefully Welby, and of Miss Susan Archer Talley, reflect credit upon investigated, whenever he has thought they might shed light Mr. Griswold and show him to be a man not more of taste upon his subject.

than-shall we say it?-of courage. Let our readers be as. The last chapter alone of the volume before us, can be sured that, (as matters are managed among the four or five properly said to be the beginning of his history. The rest different cliques who control our whole literature in controllis merely preliminary. He relates in this chapter, with ing the larger portion of our critical journals,) it requires no many additional circumstances, the invasion of Scotland small amount of courage, in an author whose subsistence by Argyle, of England by Monmouth, the death of those lies in his pen, to hint, even, that any thing good, in a littwo chieftains and the atrocious persecutions which fol- erary way, can, by any possibility, exist out of the limits of lowed.

a certain narrow territory. We repeat that Mr. Griswold We look for the second volume with great interest. deserves our thanks, under such circumstances, for the corThe first is for sale by A. Morris.

diality with which he has recognized the poetical claims of the ladies mentioned above. He has not, however, done

one or two of them thal full justice which, ere long, the The FEMALE Poets Of America. By Rufus Wilmot

public will take upon itself the task of rendering them. We Griswold. Philadelphia : Carey & Hart.

allude especially to the case of Miss Talley, (the “Susan" This is a large volume, to match “The Poets and Poetry of our own Messenger.) Mr. Griswold praises her highly; of America,” “ The Prose Authors of America,” and “The and we would admit that it would be expecting of him too Poets and Poetry of England"-previous compilations of much, just at present, to hope for his avowing, of Miss TalMr. Griswold-all of which have been eminently and justly ley, what we think of her, and what one of our best known successful. “Compilations,” however, is not precisely the critics has distinctly avowed—that she ranks already with word; for these works have indisputable claims upon pub- the best of American poetesses, and in time will surpass lic attention as critical summaries, at least, of literary merit them all-that her demerits are those of inexperience and and demerit. Their great and most obvious value, as afford. excessive sensibility, (betraying her, unconsciously, into ing data or material for criticism--as mere collections of the imitation,) while her ments are those of unmistakeable gebest specimens in each department and as records of fact, in nius. We are proud to be able to say, moreover, in respect relation not more to books than to their authors-has in some to another of the ladies reserred to above, that one of her measure overshadowed the more important merit of the seri- poems is decidedly the noblest poem in the collection-although es: for these works have often, and in fact very generally, the the most distinguished poetesses in the land have here inpositive merits of discriminative criticism, and of honesty- cluded their most praise worthy compositions. Our allusioa always the more negative merit of strong common sense. is to Miss Alice Carey's “ Pictures of Memory." Let our The best of the series is, beyond all question, " The Prose readers see it and judge for themselves. We speak delib

erately :--in all the higher elements of poetry-in true

imagination-in the power of exciting the only real poeti. * The introduction of this well-known couplet from Mr. cal effect-elevation of the soul, in contradistinction from Campbell's famous lyric affords us an opportunity of ac- mere excitement of the intellect or heart—the poem is knowledging a graceful compliment to America, from an question is the noblest in the book. English officer, at a recent banquet given by the authorities “ The Female Poets of America" includes ninety-fire of Southampton on the occasion of the visit of the U. S. names--commencing with Ann Bradstreet, the contempofrigate St. Lawrence to that port. It is indeed a gratifying rary of the once world-renowned Du Bartaz-bim of the evidence of increasing good-will between the citizens of “ nonsense-verses"—the poet who was in the habit of sty. the two countries. The officer proposed the sentiment, ling the sun the “Grand Duke of Candles"- and ending

with “Helen Irving"-a nom de plume of Miss Anna H. " Columbia need no bulwarks,

Phillips. Mr. Griswold gives most space to Mrs. Maria No lowers along the steep,

Brooks, (Maria del Occidente,) not, we hope and believe, Her march is on the mountain wave,

merely because Southey has happened to commend her, The Her home is on the deep."

claims of this lady we have not yet examined so thorough.

ly as we could wish, and we will speak more fully of her that “the tailor and milliner have less to do with the formabereafter, perhaps. In point of actual meril-that is to say lion of society than is generally imagined,” they certainly of actual accomplishment, without reference to mere indi- have a good deal to do with "the body. form and pressure of cations of the ability to accomplish-we would rank the the times," and are frequently left by the upper ten" to first dozen or so in this order-(leaving out Mrs. Brooks for take the measure of an unpaid bill. In a technical sense, the present.) Mrs. Osgood-very decidedly first-then Mrs there are no people who have more to do with the “ formaWelby, Miss Carey, (or the Misses Carey,) Miss Talley, tion" of society than the tailor and the milliner-for it is Mrs. Whilman, Miss Lynch, Miss Frances Fuller, Miss their “ imagination" which "bodies forth” to beau and belle Lucy Hooper, Mrs. Oakes Smith, Mrs. Ellet, Mrs. Hewitt, “ the forms of things unknown.” Miss Clarke, Mrs. Lewis, Mrs. Nichols, Mrs. Warfield, But we must not forget the first part of the title of this (with ber sister, Mrs. Lee,) Mrs. Eames and Mrs. Sigour. volume---Etiquette at Washington. Under this head we ney. If Miss Lynch had as much imagination as energy of are instructed as to the best manner of approaching the expression and artistic power, we would place her next to great functionaries at the Federal Metropolis ; and the humDirs. Osgool. The next skilful merely, of those just men ble visiter is warned not to become impatient or irritated poned, are Mrs. Osgood, Miss Lynch and Mrs. Sigourney. al being left to cool his heels in thc ante-room of the White The most imaginative are Miss Carey, Mrs. Osgood, Miss House while more important personages are admitted to Tailey and Miss Fuller. The most accomplished are Mrs. The presence of the President. An invitation to dine with Eilet, Mrs. Eames, Mrs. Lewis, Mrs. Whitman and Mrs. ihe President must be treated as Mr. Lowndes said of the Oakes Sroith. The most popular are Mrs. Osgood, Mrs. office itself, and be " neither sought nor refused"—the latOakes Smith and Miss Hooper. The most glaring omis. ter half of the maxim being more rigidly obeyed than the sions are those of Mrs. C. F. Orne and Miss Mary Wells. first. We hope no slur is intended upon the Secretary of

the Treasury in the sentence, “there is no place in the

United States where less attention is paid to mere money ETIQUETTE AT WASHINGTON, Together with the Customs than at the seat of government.” Whether this be true or adopted by Polite Society in the other Cities of the Uni- not, we venture to say “there is no place in the United ted States. By a Citizen of Washington. Baltimore : States” more visited for the sake of money, and the author J. Murphy. 1848.

of this work would have accommodated a very large class

in the community, and have secured a better sale of his This is a modest little volume, purporting to be the ora- book if he had devoted a chapter to office seekers. dle of fashion and good-breeding, in which one may learn lake Sheridan's heroine, 10“ start by rule and blush by ex. ample"—to take wine with grace-eat with ease-enter a OratorS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION. By E. L room with dignity-sustain one's self with all possible sang Mngoon. New York. Baker and Scribner. froid under the most trying circumstances—and finally to PROVERBS for the People. By E. L. Magoon. Boston. be buned according to the strictest notions of propriety.

Gould, Kendall & Lincoln. This book must be esteemed a valuable acquisition by those a bo bold a solecism in taste as worse than a crime, and more

Mr. Magoon is fast overstepping his well-acquired same readily pardon the neglect of a bill, than a failure to an.

as a popular and eloquent, though somewhat eccentric diswer an invitation to dinner. Nothing escapes the atten. vine, in the many literary enterprises with which he has ton of the writer. We have every thing from the busi

recently been engaged. Nor do we regret that this is the ness of a knife," (the duty of a sork, and the office of a

case, for in widening the field of his operations, he will be spoon !) to the proprieties of a funeral, where we are told able to accomplish more in the way of instruction, and * furs, if in season are appropriate”—especially we sup- of Boston and New York, than from the desks of all the

surely he can address a greater number through the presses pose sable garments. Under the head of funerals we no lecture-rooms in the Atlantic cities. In taking to type, how. uce an exquisite gradation in grief in the fact that “in Washington those who go in their own carriages accom

ever, Mr. Magoon deserts not, by any means, his ministerial pany the procession until it reaches Capitol Hill, when duties; as a belles-lettres clergyman, of less industry than they leave it, or continue at their option." This reminds

he, would have done long since. us of the mourning houses in London, where different de.

The Orators of the American Revolution" is a work, grees in distress are typified by the color of the garments tions which have appeared from time to time in the best

comprising among many original sketches several contribusold, and the clerk who retails “sober greys" lo all who " do not mourn as those without hope," sends on the mem.

magazines of the country. Those of our readers who purbers of an “inconsolable family" to the darker shades of chase the volume and we hope many will do so) will not

fail to recognize one or two of the articles as old acquainThe author seems to have rather an amusing idea of * Proverbs for the People” his latest production, is an un

lances, introduced to their notice through the Messenger. chasteness. He says “a lady should be particular to select her dress with an eye to chasteness. Silky and plig. for the most part, of illustrations of practical wisdom drawn

pretending, though most attractive little volume, consisting, ble materials which show the graceful contours of the female from the Sacred Scriptures. The style of Mr. Magoon, in form are more desirable than barsh unyielding ones." We certainly agree with the writer that a lavish display of envinent degree, to fix the attention of the reader, though

his more sustained and aspiring efforts, is calculated, in an jewelry, especially of a cheap kind, is improper. objection holds also, we can tell him, against that pinch perhaps it might be better were it less ornate, and would beck morality with which forms are every thing and kneel. certainly conform more strictly to established models with ng is religion. It was under such a code as this no doubt fewer of those mere fripperies of rhetoric, which a writer, that a gentleman with pious politeness left his card upon

bomlazine and crape.

so thoughtful as Mr. Magoon, does not at all need for the

proper transmission of his meaning. It must be peculiarly edifying to the happy owner of one

These books are for sale by A. Morris. suit of " seedy black” to be told that "there are dresses appropriate for the house, street and carriage," and that Ruymes of Travel, Ballads and Poems by BAYARD " gloves should always be worn at church and other public

TAYLOR. New York. G. P. Putnam. assemblies." Whether it be true, as this writer affirms, There is genuine poetry in this tasteful volume, and this

the altar!


we consider no light praise. The author won for himself nient edition of the Constitution is within the reach of the sympathy and estimation of a large class of readers by all who desire to make themselves acquainted with the pehis “Views-a-Foot.” His gallant feats of pedestrianism culiar features of the French Republic. in Europe, and the powers of just observation manifested In connection with this subject it may not be amiss to in the record of them which he gave to the world, suggest say a word with reference to the Courier des Etats Unis, an adventurous and enthusiastic mind. In the poems now under the spirited management of M. Paul Arpin. We recollected we have these qualities in a more deliberate and gard it as one of the most agreeable pablications that we artistic form). We have read most of the volume with receive, embodying as it does in the best style of the feuillegreat satisfaction. There is a lyric flow, a continuation of ton the latest continental gossip and putting forth in the tone and expression, and, above all, an earnestness of feel- Semaine Litteraire some of the most delightful specimens of ing in Taylor's poetry that we recognize with sincere de- French Literature, such as, with all our abhorrence for Delight. His sense of beauty is vivid, his insight, as a lover mas and his school, we can generally approve. Comte Alof nature and man, keen and sympathetic; and his tone of fred De Vigny's novel of Cing Mars, which suggested to sentiment elevated and firm. Thus he possesses both as- Bulwer the play of Richelieu, was published in this manpiration and tenderness-two of the essential instincts of ner and at the present time, the sheets of Chateaubriand's the poet. We are struck also with the spirited character great posthumous work,“ Memoires d'outre Tumbe," (a of his verse. The “ Rhymes of Travel" are beautiful me- fragment of which our Paris correspondent so agreeably morials of the impressions of a young American on the translates for the present number of the Messenger) are hallowed ground of Europe. The “California Ballads" passing through the same press, · met with eminent success when first published, and will be cordially welcomed in a collected form. We are not

surprised to hear that the first edition of this volume is al.
ready exhausted.

We receive with very commendable punciuality, through

Messrs. Nash and Woodhouse, the Richmond Agents, the
History of ALEXANDER THE Great. By Jacob Abbott. Foreign Reviews republished by Messrs. Leonard
With Engravings. New York. Harper & Brothers.

and Co. of New York. To the enterprise of these This is another volume of the series of historical com- gentlemen, the American reader is indebted for an arrange. positions, which Mr. Abbott has been engaged in preparing. ment, by which Blackwood is sent out regularly during the Though designed for the young, they present a vast deal of early part of the month of its publication in England. To information which has slipped away from the memory of effect this, they have had to pay the most liberal sums for admany a deep reader of history and may therefore be looked vance sheets by the steamers, so that the mouth of Maga itself over with profit by all classes. Mr. Abbott's style is very is stopped, pro tanto, on the subject of Yankee piracy on the simple and perspicuous, and on that account singularly high sea of literature. well adapted to the narration of past events. The hand- The old Reviews fully maintain the high reputation they some appearance which the Harpers have given to these have acquired under the regime of Lockhart, Brougbam, little volumes will commend them to an extensive sale,- Jeffrey and Mackintosh, although we incline to the opinioa good paper, large round type and spirited illustrations, with that the North British, (the “infant phenomenon" of criti. an illuminated title-page, constituting a most worthy dress cism) is carrying off the honors of the “buff and blue" and for the author's composition.

fairly outstripping the Tory oryan in polish and acumen.

The number besore us contains a truly delightful article on BENJAMIN FRANKLIN : His Autobiography: With a nar.

Charles Lamlı, embodying a letter of humorous reminis. rative of his Public Life and Services. By Rev. H. cences concerning his social character, which is underHastings Weld. With numerous designs by J. G. Chap

stood to be from the pen of De Quincey. There is also a man. To be completed in eight Parts. Part I. New curious speculation on the vexed question of the authorship

of Junius. Blackwood contains, among other attractive York: Harper & Brothers.

Since the publication of the Pictorial Bible, we have articles, a continuation of " The Caxtons," Mr. Bulwer's seen no wood engravings at all comparable for softness and novel, which has awakened such decided interest evers. finish with those in the present work; and the name of

where. We do not think a larger supply of excellent readChapman as the author of the designs furnishes an ample as ing can be obtained, on the same terms, ihan is furnished surance that the subsequent members will be quite as exqui- by Messrs. Leonard Scott & Co. sitely embellished. The typography is also very luxurious. of the text itself nearly one half will consist of Franklin's

INTERNATIONAL ART.UNION. autobiography and the remainder (275 pages) of a narrative

We have received a Prospectus of this laudable enter of his public life and services from the pen of the Rev. Mr. prise, together with a catalogue of the works of art now Weld, at one time editor of the New World, and most sa. upon exhibition at their Gallery, No. 289 Broadway, New vorably known as a man of fine literary taste.

York. The claims of the institution upon those who would For sale by George M. West.

promote the Fine Arts in America are very strong, and

when it is generally known that one of the objects wbich CONSTITUTION OF THE French Republic. 1848. New it contemplates, is to send one American Artist anaually

York. P. Arpin, Publisher. Office of the Courier des abroad to improve himself in the continental schools, we Etats Unis. 1848.

are satisfied that the number of subscribers will be very This is a neat publication in pamphlet sorm, containing large. The plan otherwise is similar to that of the other French and English versions of the Constitution of the excellent institutions of this character already in exista new Republic of France. We have no space here, nor ence,-a handsome engraving being surnished to each sub does it belong to our province to submit any reflections of scriber and a yearly distribution of prizes being made by a political nature with regard to this plan of Government, lot. Among the names of the " Committee of Resereace,'' which was brought into existence under ihe auspices of the we find Mr. Washington Irving, Mr Durand, the great land. enlightened and sagacious De Tocqueville; our desire is scape painter, and the poet Willis. Messrs. Goupil, Viber simply to call attention to the fact that a cheap and conve.'& Co. are the Managers.




NO. 3.

Europe ; and finally, in the glare of Moscow's GLIMPSES AT EUROPE DURING 1848. burning, here also was fought that great battle

which liberated Europe from the universality of THE GERMAN PARLIAMENT.

Napoleon's iron sway.

And once more is Germany called upon to be The Continent of Europe in the moral and in- the great battle-field on which some of the most tellectual life of its nations has, with few excep-momentous questions of our day are to be detions, been an almost unknown land to the proud, cided. Her plains will again be crimsoned, her insular Englishman and consequently also to us. cities burnt, her fair fields abandoned and her It was one of those blessings which short-sighted sons slain, that the great principle of Liberty buman philosophy rarely perceives but when may rise triumphantly from the midst of the looking back upon the Past, that the Continental flames, as when centuries ago she paid with the Wars brought for the first time armies of Eng- blood of her children for the rich blessings which lish soldiers and of English travellers to invade the Reformation brought to the whole Christian countries which, although within a few hundred world. The struggle is come once more, fearful ID p, had been farther from London than most are the throes of the sufferer and sad is the prosof we distant colonies. Since then new discove-pect before us; but not in vain has the land of ries have been made from year to year; Italy has the Saxon ever been foremost in the strife against been annually overrun by its hundred thousand darkness and oppression, and the banner of true * Mylords,” British Statesmen have spent their Liberty, borne by the gallant sons of Germany, vacations in French villas, and German Philoso- will yet wave vietoriously and be loudly cheered pby and German Science have become known by all the nations of the earth that love Freedom and respected. The History of the Germans, a ard Independence. people so vearly related to the Anglo-Saxon, and For here also the struggle is one for Libertyyet so different in all its outward forms, was the great watch-word that has at last crossed found to be not without its special interest, until the broad Atlantic, reached the shores of wellthe great historian, judging Germany both by her guarded Europe and found an echo in the hearts central geographical position and by her histori- of its noblest nations. Germany, we must not cal importance, called her the Heart of Europe. forget, has sent nearly a million of her sons to

She is the heart of Europe, and as such has the Land of the Free, and the enthusiasm of the been most lacerated of all the fair countries of young has at last aroused the old mother-counthe Old World. It is bere that in all times have try. originated those mighty movements which have Germany, once a great and glorious Empire, swayed the destinies of Europe.

has been slowly declining ever since the disastrous Herrman, by his victory over the proud legions thirty-years' war. The immediate result of the of Varus, in the Westphalian forests, was the Westphalian treaty was the dissolution of the first to show to the astonished world that Roman national unity and the independence of the Gerfasces and axes were vain when employed to man princes of the Empire, which thenceforth bend men inspired by the inflexible sense of presented no longer one great idea, though, in freedom. Germany was the first great camp of mere form, it continued to exist for nearly a hunthose who crushed the colossus of Roman power dred and fifty years after that peace. The exafter its spirit had passed away. From Germany tinction of the race of Charlemagne, the fatal Charlemagne sent forth his armies to prevent effects of the elective principle, tben adopted, the the Saracens from destroying European culture selfish and destruetive policy of the house of and Christianity. In the centre of Germany, on Austria, the rise and independence of Prussia those extensive plains where the Empire of the had all gradually reduced the once powerful EmEuropean world has so often been decided, Henry pire to such insignificance that the abdication of the First withstood the attaek of the Avares and the last Roman Emperor in 1806'was little more Hungarians, by which, but for him, Europe must than the final act-a formal recognition of an have become the prey of fierce barbarians and evident and uncontested fact. savage Pagans. On these same ensanguined Since then Germany has had but one moment plains the noble King of Sweden died, not only when she might have become once more a united, for the political but for the religious liberty of great Empiro; but only one moment, for His. •

Vol XV-17

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