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tory grants none of her favors twice, and he teen representatives as a permanent committe whom the favor of the moment finds hesitating for ordinary matters of business, whilst a "ple and doubtful, loses the opportunity for ever and num” of sixty-nine was to be called together i falls the more rapidly. Such was the case when, cases of extraordinary emergency. This Die after the first German Revolution in 1813, the of which it seems both Sovereigns and peopl Emperor Francis entered Paris in triumph, at became thoroughly ashamed, was in fact nothin the head of the allied armies. If he had then more than a mere machine to register ordinance placed the crown of Charlemagne in old Notre- and to carry out the resolutions of Austria or th Dame on his anointed head, Germany might strongest portion of the German princes, check have once more risen to a splendor equal to that ing every free movement, disregarded and a which was hers, when, a thousand years before, most unknown by foreign powers, hated by th her great sovereign crowned himself in St. Peter's, people and set aside by the Sovereigns them at Rome. Francis was at that time the most selves, whenever their interest demanded it, a popular man in Europe ; the German nation hon- when Prussia formed her own custom-league ored in him the hero of many a battle and loved thus taking the earliest step in her career toward in him the father of his people. Even the other a hegemony of Germany. sovereigns would then bave eagerly consented, Both the Federal Act and the nature of th for the envy, hatred and jealousy of the smaller Diet were slightly changed in 1820 in conse princes of Germany--that mean and yet so fear- quence of a general dissatisfaction pervading ib ful source of that country's weakness—had been whole German nation, and more thoroughly a drowned in their common hatred against a com- tered, though little improved after the Frene mon oppressor, while Prussia's modest king would Revolution of 1830, since which the Diet wage for no price have exchanged for the Roman- an inexorable warfare against the public pres German crown his simple foraging-cap or for the right of petition and addresses, against rep the purple of the Cæsars his gray camp-cloak, resentative chambers and especially against tri in which he passed through the ranks of his colored cockades. army and his people, silent and unobserved, but Thus an institution, originally, we think, we beloved and revered as seldom prince has been. intended and certainly capable of being dere Nor would the masters of foreign countries have oped and improved, became a disgrace and opposed themselves to such a regeneration of Ger- curse to the nation. Instead of preserving the in many. England formally assented and Alexan- ternal security of Germany, State was arrage der of Russia urged it with an enthusiasm not a against State and Austria’s solemn veto put upo little heightened by the prospect of thus gaining every liberal measure the King of Prussia migh Poland. But Francis was found wanting when propose in one of his attacks of liberalism. In the hour came; he remained what he was, Em- stead of seeing German interests properly repre peror of Austria, and never became what he had sented and respected abroad, there were Breme been, Emperor of Germany.

flags crossing the Atlantic and Bavarian diplo Thus the first German Revolution remained a mats known to the cabinets of France : bu transient and episodical event, since which Ger- who ever heard of a German fleet or of Germai many has in reality been in a constant state of Politics? anarchy, divided as she was into a number of in- And yet the people as such nourished a sens dependent, exclusive States, which ought to have of their common nationality. For, with the ex been, by their geographical position as well as by ception of the Slaves in Bohemia and the Wende their unity of race and language, one Germany, in Prussia, were they not all of the same blood States left without a common head, without thoroughly, exclusively German, less mixed tha common laws, or even a common administration any other nation of the earth ? Had not the of Justice, and connected by extremely ill-defined classical language helped to cast the minds of a and unintelligible relations of alliance under the in one mould and their numerous and efficier name of a Germanic Confederation. In a lan- universities powerfully aided in developing th guage as general as undefined, the so-called Fed- national spirit? Had they not all riseu like on eral Act of the 8th of June, 1815, speaks of a man when they were called upon to fight fo union of sovereign independent States by means God and Liberty, and why should not they, forty of an international league for the purpose of five millions of Germans, form one people an maintaining the internal (!) and external secu- one family ? rity of Germany. The only outward form in This was the question they asked each othe which this league ever appeared was the Federal at every great crisis in Europe. They nevi Diot, a body of diplomats, appointed by the did more, however. For the German's mind, 1 thirty-four sovereigns and strictly bound by their powerful when once roused and the German instruotions. It commonly consisted of govon-lenthusiasm so glowing when once kindled,

both difficult to excite. Thus when the old tinction, equal political rights and privileges in Ulysses in the Tuileries, the first and probably return for the blood spilt for the independence of the last of the merchant-kings of Europe, was the crowns of their sovereigns. But the nation first threatened, Germany rejoiced in her heart soon found that they had freed themselves of a and castles were built of wonderful hues and foreign master only to secure the rule of their forms. And when old, considerate Guizot, who own masters. Germany was gradually reconbad been so careful in preserving and restoring quered by her numerous sovereigns and an unthat he forgot all progress, was overthrown, Ger- remitting warfare waged against all reform and many rejoiced again and even ventured to ap- progress. For this purpose all means were conprove of it in the seclusion of her studies and the sidered fair and none was more powerful and sanctuary of her homes. But when the men of none more disgraceful to the parties employing progress profited by this change of cabinet and it, than the phantom of Teutonism which the an almost accidental street-revolution, and sent monarchs conjured up to lull the restless peothe old Ulysses away, appointing a regency, Ger-ple to sleep. A jesuitic reaction was regularly many was in raptures, her papers learnedly dis- organized in Science and State against the threateussed the cut of the State robes of the future ening spirit of modern times; the arts were turnRegents according to models of antiquity, and ed aside from their legitimate purpose and mado incidentally spoke of a possible change in the instruments of oppression and the sublimely abform of the French government. More, how- surd idea conceived of arresting the human mind ever, was done in Paris. By a most skilful leger- by a “ romantic” school of painting and the resde-main the regency was stolen, and with it mon- toration of medieval cathedrals. Whilst Louis archy; a small number of conspirators took hold of Bavaria thus desecrated the art of Raphael of the central points of Paris, the Chamber of and Phidias, Prussia’s fantastic king bent even Deputies and the Hôtel de Ville, and proclaimed the severer sciences, theology and philosophy, to the Republic so suddenly and unexpectedly that the execution of his designs, and assembling the even the National Guards, those genuine chil choicest spirits of the nation around his throne, dren of Paris, stood aghast and the provinces endeavored to make the Past so attractive that protested aloud against such egregious deception. his people might forget the Future. And for a

With the establishment of a Republic in France while at least they did forget it, for his Prætorians, the old régime in Germany became impossible. the élite of German scholars, poets and authors, A sudden, silent movement went through all the preached the doctrine that the Law of the FuStates of the Empire ; then the tocsin sounded ture was to be found in the traditions of the midfrom city to city, bonfires sent the joyful news dle ages alone, and that no greater blessing could from mountain to mountain, and province after be bestowed upon the nation than a restoration province rose, until Metternich fell almost as a of the State and of the Church as they were under matter of course, and the black, red and gold the action of the Feudal System and the rule of banner of Germany waved high above the colors the Holy Empire. With indefatigable perseverof the local governments from Vistula to Rhine ance this historical" school labored to resusciand from the Baltic to the Adriatic. It now be- tate the traditions of by-gone times, and stopped came the standard of Liberty-for national unity not until they had gone back to the darkness of was even then not the first thought of the peo- the very first centuries, until Arininius and Totila, ple, and it was evident that Liberty was more Otho and Barbarossa became the idols of a nation popular than Unity, and Revolution counted more which had had a Luther and a Frederick the Great. adherents than Reform. From the first, there- They succeeded in producing an indescribable fore, there were two distinct war-cries raised in confusion of ideas, most favorable for the cause Germany; Liberty and Equality, if possible, un- of the princes but fatal to the people, and weakder a republican form of government, was the ening the minds even of the strongest. Thus seWatch-word of the Revolutionizers; Liberty and cured by the very weakness of their subjects, the National Unity, if possible, under a monarchical sovereigns succeeded in holding the press in abgovernment, was the motto of the Reformers- solute subjection, and by the aid of their enora party division of vital importance, little heeded mous, admirably organized armies maintained abroad and unfortunately but too much disre- an undisputed sway.

But the whole skilful garded by the German Parliament.

scheme fell in one short month; a few weeks For we must not forget that the question of after the flight of Louis Philippe, Berlin, Munich, German Voity had never been raised since 1813. Stuttgart, Hanover, Baden and Hessen were seen Then, it is true, during the so-called Liberty-wars, busily engaged in democratic reforms, and as kings and people had sworn in solemn oath to soon as the different states had secured a partial maintain a strict unity, and after the victory there emancipation, their minds for years filled with had been promised to all Germans, without dis-l but one idea, returned to the long cherished plas


of forming one Germany, of creating for them-tria were compelled to join the movement after selves a powerful authority, a great European a brief hesitation. Power at home and abroad.

This call of the Heidelberg Committee was Thus the revolution in Germany, although joyfully responded to by the whole nation, and at first essentially political, soon partook of the on the twenty-eighth of March five hundred delcharacter of all European revolutions of the egates met in the old Imperial city of Frankyear 1848, and by asking rights and privileges furth. It was an animated scene and a strange which the German populations derive from their sight to see the venerable town which had crowncommon origin, became eminently a national ed the Roman Emperors of Germany for centu

ries, now inaugurate with a different, but not less It was the privilege of the most liberal State solemn pomp, the modern era of Unity and Libof Germany first of all to raise the banner oferty. Once more, as of old, did the black, red Liberty and Unity. In Baden, in the South-west and gold banner wave from the lofty steeples and of Germany, where the stubborn peasants dis- towers; but in the ancient hall of the Roemer, on cussed the rights of man long before the Repub- which a long succession of ages had imprinted licans of France, and whence, since the time of lofty lessons, the symbols of a new age filled the the peasants’ war that followed the Reformation, place between the portraits of the old Empeall republican movements have originated, a Rep- rors, and its time-honored walls, echoing once resentative in the Legislative Chamber, Basser- more with the voices of a deliberative assembly, mann, first moved for the formation of "a body saw, for the first time since the Christian era, representing the various elective Legislatures of Jew sit peaceably by Christian and humble cititheir common country with a view to impart zen by proud nobleman. In the streets all was unity to the legislation and the institutions of Ger- bustle, joy and excitement. Here stages came, many." This motion, taking all by surprise, was filled to the very roof with old, faithful men, who made at an auspicious time, when Bohemia was had left wives and children in distant lands to help in revolt, and the Baden Press indignantata most in the final realization of the ideal of their youth; disgraceful treatment recently inflicted,—when fugitives from foreign shores met at the corner of the Turn-Vereius, politico-gymnastic associations the street, or recognized the care-worn face in a dating from the Liberty-wars, claimed the right passing carriage and shook hands for the first of assembling, and when Lola Montes drove the time after they had parted last in prison, young Jesuits from their last stronghold and cost Louis and full of hope. Hither they came from France, the Poet-king his crown. There was a gen- from England, from far-off America; they had eral excitement prevailing through the broad grown older and wiser; but they had grown men land of Germany and when Heinrich von Gagern under a thousand various influences, and doubthad made a similar motion in Hesse-Darmstadt, ingly they asked themselves--are we still the meetings were held in every city, riots broke out same and can we yet be one? In the streets in all directions, Berlin was in revolution, and groups of young men who had come to witness throughout the German States the right of popu- the regeneration of old Germany, stood debating lar representation and the emancipation of the grave questions, or cheering crowds of working press were demanded by the revolting people. men who, arm in arm, and half-joyful, half-threat

It was under such circumstances that there as- ening, sang revolutionary songs and serenaded sembled on the first of March fifty-one Germans the most liberal delegates. There was a mild of high standing in the ancient capital of the spring sun shining upon the gay, excited city, in Palatinate, the beautiful city of Heidelberg. They which as yet warm brotherly love was the premet not by appointment from their sovereigns vailing sentiment, and but one feeling common nor by election from the people; nothing but the to all was in the hearts of all--the great Future love of liberty and their country had brought of their country. them together. With no other authority they A preparatory meeting was held on the evenappointed seven of their own number a commit- ing of that day in the large hall of the gigantic tee to prepare the draft of a National Assembly Weidenbush-Hotel, for it was considered desiand a Constitution for Germany, and to adopt rable, before entering upon the great business itmeasures for assembling in Frankfurth represen- self, to see the symptoms of the majority. As tatives from all States as a constituent body. yet there were no divisions existing, no parties

Such was the spirit at that moment prevailing known,-in fact, nothing determined upon-not all over Germany, such the force of public opin- even the Diet itself. The meeting began repubion and the hold these "men of confidence," lican enough; a red banner was seen here and as they were called, had on the public mind, that, there ; French phrases frequently interrupted the without a show of resistance, the minor Sove-slower German, and Socialism and Communism reigns yielded at once, and even Prussia and Aus- I were openly preached. With every hour, how.

ever, the crowd became larger, and the meeting| most passionate discussion, his ultra-measures itself assumed a more German aspect: French were rejected : let us hope it was also this rashcommon-places gradually disappeared, and all ness alone which caused the death of the old allusion to "father Cabet” were received with General, who was treacherously murdered at unequivocal signs of disapprobation. From sun- Kandern by the troops under Hecker's comset till late after midnight speech followed speech; mand. His friends absolved him, but the nation the red republicans keeping in the foreground, de- waited in vain for his own exculpation : he would claring themselves most openly and most vehe- not or he could not free himself, and thus he fell mently, while the more moderate reformers qui- forever. May his residence in this country so etly listened, waiting for their time. No motions purify his sincere patriotism as to make him yet were as yet made, but one idea returned at the con- what he deserves to be, the honored servant of clusion of every speech, and was equally cheered a great nation. by all—that the government of Germany was How different in appearance was his colbad, thoroughly bad, and that a reform was need- league, Struve, who rose with him and failed like ed, a thorough reform.

him when attempting to revolutionize Germany Soon, however, the tournament began. An by the aid of foreign troops and foreign money! orator rose, and without any introductory word An indefatigable journalist and excellent orator, he declared that he would not admonish his coun- he had often been called the monk of German trymen to revolutionize, "for we are in the midst Republicans, a name which his dry, lean figure, of the revolution now!” The applause was im- his thin hair and parchment brow, his small, dull mense and Hecker's name shook the very house. eyes and lymphatic complexion, his abstinence For it was Hecker, the great champion of Ba- from animal food, and his great self-control and den, the idol of all republicans. First and fore- utter abhorrence of all luxury, even that of most among the Apostles of Liberty, he was the thought, may easily have won for him. Well representative of the youth of Southern Germa- trained to public speaking, he rose quietly to ocny, who adore the goddess poetically and love cupy the tribune, and waited immovable until her, but love her unrestrained and lawless. Al- the storm had abated : then his clear, ringing though for years a successful advocate and a dis- voice rose high above all other sounds and preachtinguished member of the Baden Chamber, he ed, with more calculation than boldness, the doclooked yet the “student” of Heidelberg, and his trines of Rousseau and Robespierre. Without careless but kind manner,-bis rich hair, which, any mental superiority, poor in thoughts and poor with a light brown beard, encircled a manly, well- in imagination, he still exercised a powerful incut face-his simple dress hanging loosely round Muence over the most exalted of the red repubthe full

, strong form of the tall, muscular man— licans; his ultra views, however, soon made him the bold and free movements of his arm when no longer admissible to the Diet, and since his speaking, and his independent carriage made him mad and lawless insurrectionary movement, he naturally the hero of the young, and gave him, has been almost forgotten, even by his own folaided as he was by an uncommonly fine, deep lowers. barytone-voice, a powerful hold on the undecided. These two were the principal orators that evenThus cheers would greet him whenever he rose ing, and theirs were the doctrines of ultra-repuband, shaking his long hair from his face, pro- licanism at any price. The more moderate party claimed some of those paradoxes which are almost waited in silence; only two of their leaders spoke. irresistible to the mass, or spoke with glowing One was Welcker, the statesman, one of the enthusiasm of the greatness and fame of old first men of Germany, renowned as a scholar, Germany. There, however, his influence end-successful as a minister and beloved as a patriot. ed; he exhibited neither a peculiar strength of Few cheers greeted the thin, elderly man with thought nor uncommon talents, much less that the whitish-gray hair when he first rose, for the superiority of character so indispensable for the masses knew him not; but his large light-blue great leader of a nation ; his ideas of the State eye, as brilliant though not as piercing as that of were but half matured ; his talent of speaking the great Frederick, commanded attention, while respectable, but not without a certain rudeness, his free, independent carriage, and the safe conand entirely wanting when he attempted to enter fidence playing round his half-opened lips, gained more deeply into any of the important subjects him the hearts of his audience. The other was before the meeting. That he was brave, frank Raveaux of Cologne, whose fine limbs and pale, and honest, no one could have doubted; but even delicate features, with the short, dark hair and these advantages lost much by his uncontrollable black eyes, would have bespoken the Frenchimpetuosity, without genuine enthusiasm or sa-man, but for the mild expression of his eye and cred faith. It was this rashness which induced the gentle heartiness in his somewhat husky him to withdraw from the Diet, when, after al voice, which are not to be found in men of Romanic blood. Eloquent as few Germans are, (Permanent Committee. They hoped thus to although plain and natural in his language, he won lay the popular ferment, and to leave the power the good opinion of the mass, not less by his of reform in the hands of the Diet, or at least of amiability than by the consciousness of his in- a Congress appointed by themselves. But here trinsic strength and firm conviction. A most also those ominous words were heard-It is too distinguished member of the present Parliament, late ! The Vor-Parliament, as the five hundred he has been less successful in his capacity as Im- were called, declared themselves “ morally" perperial Minister, and has recently returned to his manent; the Diet was de facto powerless, and parliamentary career.

dethroned by this improvised body, a force far The conviction with which the assembled del- more powerful than bayonets. The Vor-Parliaegates went home that night, was one so tho- ment sat only for a few days in deliberation, but roughly German, that nothing could be more resolved and decided in the name of the German characteristic of their political education at nation, that it belonged to a National Assembly least. The general impression, repeatedly and alone to give a constitution to Germany—that loudly proclaimed was, that if the revolution al- this National Assembly was to be elected by uniready really existed, as they had been repeatedly versal suffrage, and that every German should told, it was perhaps as well as not; at all events be allowed to represent every part of Germany. they would not be to blame for it!

To this first manifestation of the principle of UniMany, however, were the speeches yet made ty were added other resolutions, some of which that night—it was so new and so delightful to be referred to the position of the Federal Diet, and allowed to speak! From the balconies and from one of the most interesting scenes of those mothe windows, from roofs and tables men poured mentous days was the appearance of the Presiout their long pent-up feelings. There was one dent of the Diet of Princes before the men of large bay-window of the Weidenbush-Hotel open the nation, banding over his authority to a simand the red light of torches, held by a dozen stur- ple professor, Mittermeier, the President of the dy men, shone through the dark night upon a sea Diet of the People! of eager uplifted faces. Within stood a small, The Vor-Parliament then dissolved againthin man, and with a hoarse voice proclaimed delegating their power to a Committee of Fifty, that the Republic was already within and with who were to watch over the interests of Germaout. All the wealth of the earth was to be pour- ny until the meeting of the National Assembly ed into the lap of Germany. All the magnifi- and to direct the measures for the general eleccence of worldly splendor was to be hers ; noth- tion of Delegates. These fifty appointed again ing but infamy was left to the sovereigns; noth- seventeen of their own number as an executive ing but glory waiting for the heroes of the day; board, among whom were found men like Dahlwages would be high, food abundant, trade brisk mann, one of the seven exiles of Goettingen, and all happy! And in this strain the priest now professor at Bonn, and as renowned in the went on--for a priest he was, though he forgot literary world by his historical writings as he is that the Christian's faith is one that first demands endeared to the hearts of all Germans by his obedience before it promises ; that his religion is early and constant efforts to advance the progone of resignation and self-sacrifice, that loves to ress of constitutional principles in that country, give more than to take, and lets him only win At his side were Gervinus, Professor at Heidelthe world who loses himself. It was Johannes berg, a man of great weight and authority, and Ronge, the reformer of the church, now reform- Uhland the poet, than whom few are more poping the State, and this was the last time he was ular among their enthusiastic countrymen. These heard in public.

seventeen were from March till May the supreme On the following day five hundred deputies authority ruling all Germany-certainly an houmet in a self-constituted Diet, without regular orable trust, well bestowed and well executed. powers from their constituents and without offi- In the meantime the sovereigns yielded with cial convocation, but so imposing was this man-tolerably good grace, and preferred issuing themifestation of the will of the nation in its peace- selves the orders for the election of Delegates, ful majesty, that people and sovereigns by accla- rather than see their own authority entirely dismation acknowledged their authority, and by si- regarded and superseded by the will of the peolent assent conferred upon them the supreme ple. This was, however, not all they gained ; power in Germany. The princes made a last following the example of Prussia's crafty politiattempt to save at least the appearance of their cians, they caused the elections to be made in authority, and instructed the Federal Diet to re- the terms of their proclamations, " for a Diet, solve that seventeen men who enjoyed the con- meeting in the name of the people and the sovfidence of their fellow-citizens, should be admit- ereigns as a Constituent Assembly.” Thus they ted to its councils and have each one vote in the reserved to themselves the right of seceding from

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