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Old Man. “The one which they shall receive |Philosophy cannot prevent a man from being a from • Science,' if they can reach her in safety.”\•Drunkard,' and a •Debauchee,' or keep him Stranger. “What is it?"

from avarice, injustice, treachery, or any act of Old Man. • The true knowledge of every a disordered mind.” thing fit and proper, which is a safe, sure, and Stranger. “ 'Tis true, we see many such unchangeable gift. To this, he tells them to fly cases." quickly. And when they come to those women, Old Man. "What superior advantages therewho I told you before were called • Intemper-fore has education been to them, in the way of ance' and Voluptuousness,' he bids them hurry making them better men ?" past them, and place no confidence in them, but 35. Stranger. Evidently pone, on your to proceed until they come to · False Science,' premises. But why do they spend any time in and to tarry awhile with her, and get from her the second circle, just as they are drawing near what they may want to assist them on their jour- to • True Science ?" pey, and then to go on by the shortest route to Old Man. “ And what good does their delay * True Science. Such are the directions which do them ? when we can frequently see people the Guardian Genius' gives. And whatever un- who pass these learned men and proceed at once fortunate creature transgresses or disobeys them, from •Intemperance and the oth vice we menperishes miserably. (33.) Such is the interpre- tioned, in the first circle to the third circle to tation of the myth contained in this painting. If • True Science. Have they, then, any superior you wish to enquire more particularly about any advantages ? Nay, they become either more obportion of it, do not hesitate to do so, for I will stinate or more unteachable." gladly explain it to you."

Stranger. “Pray, How ?" Stranger. “You are very kind. Pray, what Old Man. “Because if nothing else, these does the “Genius' tell to them get from “False second circle men pretend to know that of which Science ?"

they are profoundly ignorant. Now as long as Old Man. “Any thing that may be useful." this is the case, they must necessarily be incapa

Stranger. “What has she that would be use- ble of being roused to the pursuit of True Sciful."

ence.

Then, there is another thing, do you not Old Man. “ The Rudiments of learning, and see that the..Opinions' of the first circle accomas much of other branches of knowledge as may pany them as well as the others ? Thus they serve—to use the language of Plato—as a bridle are in no respect better than they, unless • Refor youth, to keep them from being drawn off to pentance should come to them and convince other matters."

them that they are not with True,' but •False Stranger. “Is it necessary for all who would Science, by whom they have been deceived ; reach True Science' to acquire these ?" and that living in this manner, they never can

Old Man. “Not absolutely necessary, by any be safe. And it behooves you, strangers, to means, but highly advantageous. For these dwell upon and practice what you have been told things do not contribute anything to their becom- until these lessons become familiar and habitual ing better men.”

to you; to this end you must frequently and unStranger. “Do you say they contribute noth- ceasingly think upon them, considering all else ing towards making them better men ?” as of secondary importance: but if you do not

Old Man. “ Not a whit. They can become act thus, all you have now heard will be utterly better without them; still they are not useless. worthless." Thus, for example, although we can, by means 36. Stranger. “We will do so. But explain of an interpreter, understand any thing that is to us how it is that the things which men resaid, yet it would he better, if when a confer-ceive from Fortune are not blessings; such for ence should take place we ourselves had a tol- instance as life, health, riches, fame, children, erably accurate knowledge of the language used. success, and the like ? or on the contrary, how So there is nothing to prevent a man from be- their opposites are not evils ? For your lancoming better without the aid of these branches guage does appear to us to be paradoxical and of learning."

improbable." 34. Stranger. “Do those learned men, there- Old Man. “Well then, will you try to give fore, possess no advantage over others in the way me your opinion on the questions which I am of moral improvement ?"

about to ask ?" Old Man. “How can they, when it is evi- Stranger. “Certainly I will." dent that they are as much deceived as others Old Man. “If a man is leading a life of about Good' and · Evil,' and are still the slaves wretchedness and misery, is existence a blessing of all manner of vice? Indeed the knowledge to him ?" of language, and the mastery of all Science and Stranger. “I think not, but rather a curse."

VOL. X1_69

Old Man. “ How then can life be a blessing consist, if it does not assist its possessor to bein the abstract, if in this case it is a curse ?" come a better man?"

Stranger. “It is a curse to those who live Stranger. “I don't know." badly; but a blessing to those who live well.” Old Man. “So then it would better for some

Old Man. “Do you tell me, then, that life is men not to be rich, since they do not know how both a blessing and a curse ?"

to use their wealth." Stranger. “I do."

Stranger. “That is my opinion." 37. Old Man. "Do not make such incredi- Old Man. “How therefore can any one come ble statements; for it is impossible that the same to the conclusion that the very thing which it is frething can be both bad and good. Thus, a thing quently better not to possess, is a blessing ?" might be both profitable and injurious, right to Stranger. “They are wrong altogether." be chosen and proper to be shunned at the same Old Man. "If therefore a man has knowledge time."

enough to enable him to make a proper and pruStranger. “That is impossible. Yet, if a life dent use of money, he can live well; but without of misery is an evil thing to him who leads it, this, he will live badly." how is it that existence is not a curse ?"

Stranger. “ Your whole reasoning seems to Old Man. “Is it not obvious that to live and be very true.” to live miserably are not synonymous ?"

40. Old Man.. “In short, the honoring of these Stranger. “Yes, that is evident.”

things as blessings, or the despising and degradOld Man. “A life of misery therefore is an ing of them as evils, is the cause of trouble and evil, but life itself is not. Because if it were, injury to men; when they are honored, and then evil has befallen those who live well and thought to be happy solely on their account, happily, inasmuch as life, which according to they, as a matter of course, do anything, even your statement, is an evil, belongs to them." the most unrighteous act, for the sake of obtain

Stranger. “Your argument seems to be a ing them. All this results from their ignorance very good one."

of what is good, for they do not know that good 38. Old Man. “As therefore existence is the never proceeds from evil: but it is easy to see portion both of those who live well and of those many men who have acquired their wealth by who live badly, it cannot be said to be either a vicious and disgraceful acts, such as treachery, blessing or a curse; for as the application of the robbery, murder, slander, fraud, and other many knife or the cautery to the diseased is neither and horrible deeds." healthy nor unhealthy, so is it regarding life." Stranger. “This is very obvious," Stranger. “I grant that.”

41. Old Man. “If, therefore, good never can Old Man. Then think; whether would you proceed from evil, as is true; and if wealth does rather live wretchedly or die honorably and proceed from crime; then it follows as a necesbravely ?"

sary consequence that wealth is not a blessing." Stranger. “Die honorably by all means." Stranger. The conclusion is inevitable from

Old Man. Therefore neither is death an evil, your premises." since it is often preferred to life.”

Old Man. “But neither wisdom nor justice Stranger. “I grant that.”

can be obtained from wicked works; nor on the Old Man. “The same mode of reasoning other hand, do folly and injustice spring from holds good regarding sickness and health ; for it good works; nor can they subsist at the same is frequently better not to be well, but the oppo- time in the same individual. But as to wealth, site, according to circumstances."

and fame, and success, and the rest, there is noStranger. “Your reasoning is good.” thing to prevent them from being joined in all

39. Old Man. Let us go on now and exam- kinds of vice in any one. So, therefore, these ine the subject of wealth. It is easy to see- —for things are neither blessings nor evils ; but wisdem the instances are numerous—a man in the pos- is the only good, and folly the only evil." session of riches, living in misery and affliction."

Stranger. “That is sufficient. Your explaStranger. · Yes, truly many a one."

nation has been full and satisfactory." Old Man. " Then wealth contributes nothing to a good and happy life ?"

Stranger. “So it appears; for these men are worthless." Old Man. “It is not money, therefore, that

EPIGRAM makes a man good, but Learning or Science.”

What better reason can you guess Stranger. "Yes, according to your reason

Why men are poor, and ladies binnering."

But thousands now for dinner dress, Old Man. "Wherein does the good of wealth Till nothing's left to dress for dinner,

The first inquiry that presents itself is this : THE INSTINCT OF IMMORTALITY.

What was the nature of the papal sway at Rome,

and when and how did it originate ? In the quickening dawn of youth,

This question fortunately is easily answeredI wept my destined lot,

History-papal and protestant-pours a flood of And murmured ost in tones of ruth

light upon it; and Machiavelli, and Sismondi, To die, and be forgot!

Ranke, and Du Pin, are harmonious in the stateTo perish like the things of earth,

ment of the most important historical facts. Pass like the zephyr's sigh,

It is conceded on all hands that originally the Yet feel wilbin, the thrilling birth,

Bishop of Rome presided simply as a churchOf thoughts that cannot die.

man over his diocese. Catholics themselves adThe patriot's deed our life blood starts,

mit that his temporal power was an acquisition The poet's cherished name

of subsequent times. Enshrined within ten thousand hearts

Machiavelli, in his Florentine Histories, gives That were the bliss of fame.

the clearest and most authentic account of the Such yearning is to sew unknown,

temporal power of the Pope. This instinct of our kind,

“ About the year 578," he says,

" the Pontiffs of To link in common with our own,

Rome began to assume a greater degree of auThe universal mind.

thority than ever before. The first successors of

St. Peter had been venerated for the sanctity of
It only soars to reason's height,
When fixed beyond the tomb;

their lives and the miracles they wrought; and Where, bathed in streams of fadeless light, their examples gave such credit to the Christian The heart's affections bloom.

religion, that many princes were forced to acThere only is immortal fame,

knowledge it to put an end to the distractions In blest communion found,

that reigned throughout the world. The EmAnd there the new, the wondrous name, peror of Rome having embraced the Christian Lives the eternal round.

L. faith, and established his throne at Constantino

ple, the Roman empire hastened to its fall, while the Church of Rome rapidly extended her dominion. But as all Italy till the invasion of the

Lombards was subject to the dominion either of the ROME: PAPAL AND REPUBLICAN. Emperors or Kings, the Pontiffs assumed no other

authority, than reverence for their virtue and learnRepublicans, not less than monarchists, per- ing won for them. In civil affairs they were still ceive and recognize a distinction between Rev- subject to those princes, who made them their minolution and Rebellion ; and Americans estimate isters, and sometimes put them to death for malas fully as Europeans can do, the blessings of administration. The resolution of Theoderic, social order, and are quite as conversant with king of the Goths, to remove the seat of his govthe real grounds of difference between the blind erument to Ravenna, augmented their influence fury of a mob, and the righteous revolt of an op- in the affairs of Italy; for as Rome was thereby pressed people. In order therefore to determine left destitute of a prince, the Romans were obliwhat should be the conduct and sentiments of ged for their own safety to yield obedience to the Americans, with respect to the present conflict Pope.”—(1 vol. Florentine Histories, p. 32.) between Rome Papal, and Rome Republican, it Sismondi, in his History of the Italian Repubmust first be decided whether Pius IX. has been lics, p. 17, gives substantially the same account expelled from his seat of government by the ma- of the origin of the papal sway. Rome," he chinations of treason, or by the impulses of pat- says, “ had never made part of the monarchy riotism.

of the Lombards. This ancient capital of the But before this question can be determined, it world, with the territory appertaining to it, had is obviously necessary to know by what tenure since the conquest of Alboin, formed a Dukethe Pope held his temporal sceptre, from whom dom, governed by a Patrician or Greek Duke, he derived his power, and to whom he was res- sent from Constantinople. The Bishop of Rome ponsible for its exercise.

however had much more authority over his flock In entering upon this inquiry, we shall avoid as than this foreign magistrate, and when in the much as possible all theological discussion, and year 717, an Iconoclast, or breaker of images, shall confine our remarks within what may be filled the throne of Constantinople, the popes called lay limit; believing as we do that all ap- under the pretence of Heresy rejected his authority peals to prejudices, whether personal or religious, altogether.tend to obscure truth and aid error.

Such was the origin of the Pope's authority in the City of Rome : not derived from any le-| At page 42, in his Flo. Hist., he observes :gitimate source, but taking its rise in usurpation. “ After the death of Urban, Pascal II. was Let us now trace it to its full extent, and show made Pontiff, and Henry IV. succeeded to the in what manner his other acquisitions of tempo- Empire. He went to Rome and feigning friendral power were obtained.

ship for the Pope, sent him and all his clergy to The next temporality which fell into the hands prison ; nor would be set him at liberty, till be of the Pope, was the Exarchate of Ravenna, had conceded to him the right of disposing of all and the territories appertaining to it. Machia- the churches of Germany as he pleased. About velli gives the following account of this transac- this time, the Countess Matilda died, and left all tion.

her possessions to the church." Gregory III. being advanced to the papacy, And this is the meagre account he has left us and Adolphus to the throne of the Lombards, of this most important affair. It is therefore lethe latter in violation of the clearest stipulations, cessary to resort elsewhere to ascertain what seized upon Ravenna, and made war upon the these territories were-who the Countess wasPope. Gregory seeing the Emperor of Con- and what right she had to dispose of, by will, a stantinople so reduced, by the above-mentioned territory embracing seventeen thousand square miles Josses, lookod for no assistance from that quar- and two millions of inhabitants. ter; and resolving no longer to trust the Lom- In Lardner's “Outlines of History," (page bards, who had so often broken faith with him, 236,) he informs us of what these states consisted. he had recourse to Pepin II., king of France. The Countess Matilda, the great friend of Pepin readily pronsised him assistance, but ex- Gregory VII., had left the reversion of her large pressed a desire of first seeing him to pay his possessions to the holy See. These were the duty to him in person. Gregory set out for imperial fiefs of Tuscany, Mantua, and Modena

, France, and passed through the quarters of his of which she had certainly no right to dispose." enemies, the Lombards, without any molesta- The Countess was the wife of Godfrey and tion,—such was the veneration men felt for reli- the daughter of Beatrice, who was the sister of gion in those times. Gregory arrived in France, the Emperor Henry II. She held what is now was honored by that Prince, and sent back to called the Patrimony of the Church of her uncle, Italy with his troops, who beseiged the Lombard Henry, as imperial fiefs, and yet at her death was at Pavia. Astolphus was obliged to accept the induced by Hildebrand (Pope Gregory VII.) terms granted him by the French. But Pepin's the most ambitious, arbitrary and powerful of all army had no sooner returned to France than he the Roman Pontiffs, to bequeathe to the Church refused to perform his engagement. The Pope what never belonged to her ; but which afforded made a second application to Pepin, who sent a pretext for their usurpation. This was all be another army into Italy, overcame the Lombards, desired. How well he devised his schemes the took Ravenna, and in opposition to the will of the history of papal rule for eight hundred and sevGreek emperor, gave it to the Pope, with all the enty-five years affords the best commentary. territories appertaining to the Exarchate, and Since the time of Gregory VII., (1073.

) the the country of Urbino and Marca. No more ex- Papacy had made but one or two insignificant archs were sent from Constantinople to Raven- acquisitions of territory—if we except the erona na, which was afterwards governed by the will bitant and ridiculous claim of Alexander V. of the Pope."-(Flo. Hist., p. 34.)

who, it will be remembered, portioned off the Thus, we perceive that the second territorial wide domain lying between the North and the acquisition of His Holiness, like the first, was South poles, and West of the Azores, between based upon usurpation-only with this difference, Spain and Portugal. As his Holiness, however, that this title was strengthened by two additional never took absolute possession, or received livery links—Conquest of the people themselves, and of seisin, of any of his Western dominions, it is Donation from a barbarian king, who had no hardly worth while to enumerate them as comright to bestow.

ing under his sceptre. Charlemagne, the son of Pepin—"the great- The Romagna, which towards the end of the est man that Barbarism ever produced," –says fifteenth century was overrun by Cæsar Borgia, Sismondi,-confirmed these grants and added and erected into a principality, after his fight others to the dominion of the Pope ; but by far and ruin, was seized upon by Pope Julius, when the largest portion of the papal territory was it will be remembered, sword in hand, was the conferred upon the Church, by the last will and first to mount the breastworks of Mirandola. testament of the Countess Matilda.

Paul III. seized on Perugia ; and Citta di CasMachiavelli is very brief in his account of this tello was conquered by Julius 111. in 1550. CE affair. Being a staunch Catholic, he may have ment VIII. usurped the Duchy of Ferrara in 1546. thought that the less he said about it the better. And the Duchy of Urbino was seized in the ser

enteenth century-which was the last territorial | tor, consensu, urbis et orbis, of the modern Babyacquisition in the long series of papal usurpa- lon, and the Patrimony of the Church. tions.

Now in order to test the validity of this arguThus we have before us, the whole Patrimony ment, it is necessary to inquire into the form and of St. Peter: not one foot of which the Pope mode of his election. For surely no one in these can claim by any legitimate title. As a tempo- times, with his eyes open and his reason sound, ral prince, the Roman Pontiff has always been will question this great political truth, that a govthe most despotic in Europe; for as he held his ernment in order to be rightly founded, must be whole domaiu by acts of usurpation, fraud, and based either on the silent consent, or the expressed bloodshed, his subjects have embraced every op- will of the people over whose destinies it preportunity to revolt from his government, and he sides. The most abject Don Cossack in the has been compelled to practice all the black arts Czar's dominions would laugh in the face of the of despotism to maintain his sway.

Emperor himself, were Nicholas to affirm that A writer in the London Quarterly Review for he ruled by divine right. The world has outJanuary, 1848, speaking of the papal govern- grown its swaddling-clothes, and has not yet been ment, uses the following language : “ It should forced into its straight-jacket. The Roman Ponbe borne in mind that the Roman government tiff can exercise no prerogatives of government has hitherto been equally despotic in form and over the states of the Church, consonantly with principle ; that no provincial or municipal assem- right and justice, unless the people of those states, blies eristed to form the nucleus of a great council. by silent acquiescence or by public approval, exNo national spirit or character pervades the he- press their willingness to be subject to his sway. terogeneous realm-made up of possessions, to We have seen by what gradual and stealthy hardly one of which, anything like a decent title progress, the tiara was extended over the terrican be shown. The donation of Constantine to tories of the Italian people ; let us now trace the St. Sylvester, though ridiculed by satirists, and course of that same tiara over their rights and Iropped by the papal jurists, is the only charter liberties. hat can be adduced for the possession of Rome From the period that Rome was deserted by tself, and the Patrimony of St. Peter. The her Emperors, and the seat of Empire changed Agro Romano, and the Commarca, may be said to Byzantium, (which took place in the year 330, to come within the same category. The remo- under the reign of Constantine,) down to the er provinces of the church, though claimed in year 800, she was successively conquered by barright of donations and bequests, were all in fact barians from almost every quarter of the world. icquired by conquest and usurpation, by the spo- For nearly five hundred years she was plundered iation of princes, and governors, and in direct and ravaged by hordes of the Heruli, Ostrogoths lefiance of the known wishes of the people ;- and Lombards; and during the same period she or no government was less popular in the mid- never once exercised the right of choosing her lle ages than that of the church-none was ex- own ruler. It seemed as if posed to more frequent rebellions, and in these epeated struggles, all popular rights were tram

“Fate would rigidly her dues regain," oled on by the victors.”

by allowing every people and tribe on whose It need hardly be said that the London Quar. neck her yoke had been once securely rivetted, erly Review is the most rabid journal in Europe now to oppress her with the same bondage. 1 its defence of royalty, and the staunchest advo

In the eighth century, however, as we have ate of hereditary rights, and the corruptions already seen, a happy combination of circumpringing from the Feudal System in the old stances enabled the pope, who had become a porld. A system of arbitrary government, then, temporal prince, to assume something like indeihich finds not a champion, but an assailant, in pendence, both of the barbarian and eastern je London Quarterly Review, must indeed be

emperors. otten.

Shortly afterwards Rome advanced one step But it may be argued with some plausibility, further towards nationality, and in the year 800 hat Pope Pius IX., is not responsible for the il- again rose triumphant from her long servitude, -gal and disgraceful acts of his predecessors— and exercised the right of choosing her own sovhat when he was clothed in the snowy robes and ereign. Sismondi in his history of the Italian owned with the dazzling tiara,—when he was Republics, (page 11) thus describes her resurrecrept along the broad aisles and beneath the tion. fty dome of St. Peter's to the State Hall of the

For more than twenty years the Popes or atican, that he was then constitutionally in- Bishops of Rome had been in the habit of opneted into the office of arbitrary sovereign of posing the kings of France to the monarchs a Roman people, and was thenceforth impera-Tof Lombardy who were odious to them, first

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