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as pagans and afterwards as heretics. Chief Popes were to be chosen by the Cardinal Bishof the clergy of the ancient capital, where ops, those whose sees were near Rome, and ap the power of the Emperors of Constantino- proved of by the Cardinal priests and deacons ple had been nominally established but never (ministers of the parish churches at Rome) and felt, they confounded their pretensions with those the people, and then presented for confirmation of the Empire, and the Lombards having re- to the Emperor. Hildebrand, archdeacon of cently conquered the exarchate of Ravenna and Rome, was the author of this plan, the object of the Pentapolis, they demanded that these prov- which was gradually to free the papacy from inces should be restored to Rome. The Frank imperial control. On the death of Nicholas be kings made themselves the champions of this had Alexander II. chosen and consecrated with. quarrel, which gave them an opportunity of con-out waiting for the imperial sanction, and ca quering the Lombard monarchy. But Charles, the death of Alexander, he was himself raised w the king who accomplished this conquest, and the Pontificate, under the title of Gregory VII." who was the greatest man that Barbarism ever How this ambitious and arbitrary Pontiff exerproduced in treating with Rome, in subjugating cised his power the world has not yet forgottenItaly, comprehended all the beauty of a civiliza- for it still feels and suffers from its effects. tion which his predecessors had seen only to In the language of Sismondi—“In the anidestroy. He conceived the lofty idea of profit- verse he saw but God, the priest, bis sole minising by the Barbarian force at his disposal, to put ter, and mankind obedient. Finally concentrahimself at the head of the civilization which he ting all the power of the church in the Pope, he labored to restore. In concert with Pope Leo taught the priests to consider him as an unerring III, he reëstablished the monarchy of the con- being, who became holy by his election—who quered as a Western Roman Empire. He re- could alone name and depose bishops-assemceived from the same pope and from the same ble, preside over, and dissolve councils. He Roman people, on Christmas day in the year 800, was, he said, in short, a God upon earth-atthe title of Roman Emperor and the name of solute master of all princes who were bound to Charlemagne, or Charles the great, which no one kiss his feet, and whom he could depose at will, before him had so well deserved.” *** “From by releasing their subjects from their oaths of that period Rome became once more the capital fidelity. Hildebrand accomplished, at least for of the Empire. At Rome the chiefs of the Em- a time, the immense revolution he had underpire were henceforth to receive the golden crown taken. He compelled Henry V. to do pevance from the hands of the Pope, after having re- before him in the open court of Canosa, whilst ceived the silver one of the kingdom of Germa- the ground was covered with snow; he obliged ny at Aix-la-Chapalle, and the iron crown of him to remain three days and three nights in the Lombardy at Milan.”
habit of a penitent, barefooted and fasting before Such was Rome at the commencement of the he would grant him absolution." ninth century, restored to her imperial rank, Having in this manner freed the papacy from victorious over all her enemies, and most of all the confirmation of the Emperors the next step triumphant in having redeemed from barbarism of the Pontiff was gradually to deprive the peoand elevated to a throne so brave a warrior and ple themselves of all power in the election, 80 wise a man as the Emperor Charlemagne. Before doing this, however, it was thought ad
According to Lardner (page 187) when the visable first to deprive them of the right of choosPope first became a temporal prince, his election ing their Emperors: a right wbich bad beer erwas entirely republican. He says:
ercised ever since the time of Charlemague. “ The Pope exercised at Rome the power pos- We are told by Machiavelli (page 37) that sessed by the Dukes in the other cities. He was “under the Emperor Otho III. Pope Gregory chosen by the clergy and the people, and the choice V. was driven out by the Romans, but Othe enconfirmed by the Emperor."
tered Italy (just as Francis Joseph is now doing The first step towards absolute despotism and reinstated him in Rome; and the Pope ta which the Roman Pontiff could take was evi- revenge himself upon the Romans took free dently to throw off the right of confirmation them the power of nominating emperors and which was still vested in the Emperor even after vested it in six princes of Germany-three his the separation of the Eastern and Western Em-lops, of Munster, Treves and Cologne, and thres pires. Accordingly we find that Hildebrand, mere temporal princes-of Brandenburg, the whilst he was Archdeacon of Rome, effected a Palatine and Saxony. This happened in the slight change in the election of the Pope. Origi- year 1002." nally the entire clergy were allowed to vote. There was but one step now wanting to ex
" In the pontificate of Nicholas II.," says slave the Roman people as effectually as the bal Lardner, " it was established in a synod that the been, under the reigns of Nero or Heliogabals
This was to deprive them of the right of con- Jed by the single question, apnounced at the outrming the Popes, after they had been elected set, whence did the Pope derive his power, and y the Roman clergy, and this was effected a few to whom was he responsible for its exercise ? ears afterwards. Machiavelli thus records it: For upon this, at last, must rest the defence of
" While the Pontiffs were making all the West the Roman people. That question has now cremble with their censures they could not keep been answered, and answered in such a manner Cheir own subjects from rebellion. Accordingly that Roman Catholics themselves must admit when Nicholas II. was raised to the Pontificate the truth of the reply or deny the authority of ike Gregory V. who had taken from the Romans their own historians. the power of choosing their Emperors, he de- There have been of late inflammatory appeals priced them of their right of confirming the Popes made to the religious prejudices of a portion of and confined their election to the Cardinals. Not our population. They have been told that it content with this he entered into a treaty with was a part of their religious duty to succor, in as the princes who governed Puglia and Calabria, far as their means would permit, the cause of aad for reasons to be presently explained, obliged the Roman Pontiff and the necessities of the all the magistrates, sent by the Romans into first bishops of their church. Many have even places under their jurisdiction, to render obedience affirmed that it would be justifiable for them to to the Pope, and some be deprived of their embark in a crusade to restore the Pope to his places."
dominions and reërect his throne upon an unwilWe have now reached that point in the his- ling people; and upon the specious ground that tory of papal supremacy at Rome where we temporal power is absolutely necessary to mainmight with confidence lay down the pen, and tain his spiritual authority and independence. with reason ask, why have not the Roman peo- Unfortunately the History of the Church does ple the right to escape from a thraldom so de- not bear them out in this assertion. On the conbasing as that of papal rule? But there is still trary every good christian, Catholic or Protesanother depth in their abyss of degradation. tant, must look back to the early ages as the peThe Pontiff's not satisfied with rendering them riod when christianity was most prosperous and subservient to themselves have made them the pure. Peter held no sceptre, and his successors slaves of the whole world.
for seven hundred years after him wore no glitNot the priesthood of Rome alone govern tering tiara. Yet was the Roman church perRome, but Austria, France, Spain and Portugal ectly independent, and what is more, it rose in have each the right to veto one nomination of glory amid the ruins, and shone in splendor amid she holy conclave, and by the mouths of their the gloom of the darkest ages of the world. imbassadors to decide who shall sit astride the Let Pius IX. accede to the propositions of neeks of Romans, oppress them with tyrannical the Roman Republic; let him return to the city aws and rob them by a burdensome taxation of he desired to free from many of the oppressions he hard earned fruits of their labors.
of his predecessors, and acquiesce in, if he canIt has been owing entirely to the misconduct not lead and direct, the reforms imperatively deof the Pontiffs, that these foreigners have more manded by the misrule of a thousand years ; let privileges in Rome than her own citizens. him cast aside forever the empty sheen of earth's
“ Thus it will appear,” indignantly exclaims baubles and devote every energy of his nature to Machiavelli, “ that all the wars foreigners after- the purification and regeneration of the Catholic wards made upon Italy were caused principally world, and though no imperial purple wrap bis 'g the Roman Pontiffs. Most of the Barbarians form and no triple crown adorn bis brows, though hat poured themselves into the peninsula came
no subject millions look up to him as their prince ut their instigation : and what is still more lam- and chief magistrate, and no hungry officials ntable, is practised in our own times—the fawn upon and flatter bim as the source of their 'opes, first by their ecclesiastical censures, then misused power, still when he shall lie down in y the union of temporal and spiritual power, his last sleep, with the great and the good who nd lastly by indulgences contrived to excite the have gone before him, in the opinions of mileneration and terror of mankind : but by mak-lions who now distrust him, he will rest, ng an ill use of that terror and reverence they ave entirely lost the one, and lie at the discre
“ Pure as the holiest in the long array, jon of the world for the other."
or booded, mitred, or tiaraed clay." It is not the design of this essay to pursue this ubject any further. Indeed the notoriety of the te occurrences at Rome renders it unnecessary.
W. H. R. he whole scope of our investigations was bound
language of Charles II., was best calculated Lays of the Scottish Cavaliers.* " to send him on his travels again.” Accord
ingly, the Convention met as above mentioned The extent and bearing of the Jacobite feel- under circumstances extremely unfavorable to ing that pervaded Scotland during the last cen- his cause. Many of the warmest Cavaliers retury, can be appreciated only with extreme dif- fused to attend; some denying the authority of ficulty on this side of the Atlantic. The very the Prince of Orange to convoke the Estates nature of our institutions renders to us absurd others apprehensive of the safety of their perthe notion of a whole people almost worshipping, sons in an assembly that was, to their eyes, in in the intensity of their loyalty, a child whom its very nature illegal and treasonable, compriperhaps they had never seen, of whose natural sing so many committed to the extremest courses temper and talents they had no certain guage, of hostility towards their party ; while, perhaps, and whose sole claim to their affection consisted in the breasts of the greater portion there exin the fortune of his birth. Children of the isted a decided feeling of discontent and dissatsoil, we accord to our mother earth that loyalty isfaction at the conduct of their royal leader, which other nations content themselves in ex- and of no great reluctance to permit him to pending upon idols of their own creation. But taste the fruits of his own pertinacious folly. the feeling of patriotism and that of loyalty He has sown the wind, they argued, let him reap spring from the same source, though diverted the wbirlwind. When such were the sentiments oftentimes into widely diverging channels: their of so many of the Tories, it is not strange that origin and infancy are the same, however much the partisans of William constituted a decided their after lives may vary. And though we may though wavering majority of the Convention. be unable to sympathize with, or rightly measure
It must not be supposed, however, that James the purity and constancy of their enthusiasm for was entirely abandoned in that body. A nuthe line of their ancient kings, we can at least merous and bitter minority supported his cause form some estimate of the extent to which the with a desperation worthy of better success. Scotch carried their generous self-devotion. Headed by one of the most remarkable characWhen, in 1689, the Convention of the Estates ters that the world has ever seen, John Graof the Kingdom of Scotland, by command or hame of Claverhouse, Viscount Dundee, they request of the Prince of Orange, was held in would undoubtedly have prevailed, had sufficient Edinburgh, in order that some action might be time been allowed them to recruit their ranks taken on the respective claims of himself and from that sluggish body of friends who as yet King James VII. to the throne, there is little held aloof from the Parliament House. But doubt but that the supporters of the Stuart dy- finding that matters were coming rapidly to a Dasty were in a decided preponderance in the crisis, and wishing to lose none of the moral force realm, whether as regards numbers, quality, in- of such a movement, Dundee denounced their fluence, or fortune. In the west alone, the further proceedings as illegal, and at the head of Whigs and Conventiclers-who were more akin his men, left the city in arms for King James. to the fierce Republicans of Cromwell’s iron days than any other party-were capable of seriously To the Lords of Convention 'twas Claver’se u ho spoke, embarrassing the royal party in sustaining the con
“Ere the King's crown go down, there are crowns lo be
broke, stituted authorities, and Bothwell-brig had taught So let each Cavalier who loves honor and me, them such a lesson, that a firm and undaunted Come follow the bonnet of bonny Dundee.” front would perhaps have cowed them for a season at least. But fortunately for William, the The result of the struggle we will not dwell upon; Tory party of that day was chiefly composed as for its actors, many of them sleep well beneath of the worst of all enemies—lukewarm friends the heather, where “honour” comes “to deck to James VII. The best commentary on the the turf that wraps their clay." But the feeling foreign and domestic policy of that king, is the their deeds and cause awakened died not with the trite quotation-often used, but rarely right- them; and the course of the succeeding sovly-Quem Deus vult perdere, prius dementat. ereigns-William and Mary-and even of Anne
At all events, it will not be now denied by any to a considerable extent, and above all, of the one, that of all courses of conduct in the world, two first Georges, effectually prevented anything James adopted the one, that, in the admonitory like a cordial acquiescence of the Scottish na
tion in their governments.
The massacre of *LaYs of the Scottish Cavaliers AND Other PoGlencoe-the Darien affair—the act of UnionEMS, BY William EDMONDSTOUNE AYtoun, Prosessor of Rhetoric and Belles Letties in the University of Edinburgh.
each strongly operated to confirm the affections Edinburgh and London, William Blackwood and Sons, 1849 of a great portion of the people for the Stuart line, One vol., 8vo., pp. 282.
and while they were never sparing of their blood
and treasure in that cause they omitted no occa-| feeling its truth. We turn now to the volume sion of giving their zeal vent in the most inspiring itself. series of poetical effusions ever called forth by In one of the old French romances of Anthoany political occasion. Lingering in the hearts ny Hamilton, may be found a wise word of adof the veterans of the Fifteen and the Forty-five, vice very applicable to our present occupation. these sentiments were readily caught up by their Moulinot the Giant, to Belier the Great Ramchildren ; and the strains martially chaunted by “ Belier, mon amy, si tu voudroy me fayre eng the quivering lips of a grandsire, in whose mem- grande playsir, commencez, je vous prie, paar ke ory
the glories of Killiecrankie and of Preston, commencement.” Let us begin then at the beand the youthful form of fair-haired " bonnie ginning, and open our pack with a glance at the Prince Charlie's still shone with a lustre the more dedication-"to Archibald William Hamilton precious because only seen in the far-away vista Montgomerie, Earl of Eglinton and Winton." of the past, through eyes dimmed with the tear- There is something very appropriate in this indrops of regret, found an enthusiastic response scription. To the humble strain of an Ayrshire from the lips of childhood. With what a magic ploughman, a former lord of Eglinton owes more thrill must not her youthful auditors have listened celebrity than to all his own achievements, or to an aged Highland widow, when, beside the those of the whole series of belted earls and flickering light of a dying flame, she should croon barons bold through whom he traces his descett. out some such accents as these
So long as the face of nature shall remain us
changed; so long as
The banks and braes and streams around
The Castle o' Montgomerie
shall continue to gladden the eye, so long, like a Nor were these the empty and unmeaning fly in amber, will the name of that castle's lord words of a courtly rhymster. They breathed exist. It can never die while the name of Highthe genuine spirit of a great, a gallant and a chi- land Mary lives in the heart, or lingers on the valrous nation. Well and truly says Lord Ma- tongue-wbile the sweetest and most impassiehon, of the Chevalier’s farewell to the land of ed of Burns's lays charms the willing ear. The his heart: “Ile went, but not with him depart- memory of all the throats cut-the villages hared his remembrance from the Highlanders. For ried—the broad acres, won by the sword or lost years and years did his name continue enshrin- by the dicebox—the lofty towers that pierced ed in their hearts and familiar to their tongues,
the skies and seem to laugh to scorn the grasp of their plaintive ditties resounding with his exploits
Time himself-may soon perish—while the fact and inviting his return. Again, in these strains, that one of the old lords was lucky enough to do they declare themselves ready to risk life and have engaged as a domestic servant in his house fortune for his cause; and even maternal fond-hold, the world-renowned Mary Campbell, wil ness—the strongest, perhaps, of all human feel- suffice to give his whole race an immortality that ings-yields to the passionate devotion to Prince she, poor soul! never dreamed of. Charlie."
The opening poem of the volume entided With this historical episode, we introduce the " Edinburgh after Flodden," is one of the most volume before us to our readers. Mr. Aytoun, thrilling ballads that we have seen for years. It the author, is as yet comparatively unknown to exhibits the state of the city on the first recep the world, although thousands are familiar with tion of the news of that fatal day, his sportive effusions in Fraser's Magazine, over
When broken was fair Scotia's spear, the nom de plume of Bon Gaultier. With these
And shivered was her shieldlyrics we have at present nothing to do, save to regret that so much talent should be wasted on when ten thousand of her best and noblest soes such trivial objects. In the pages of Blackwood, lay stretched cold upon the earth around the over the initials of W. E. A., his muse has fre- body of her king-when, in the expressive larquently essayed a loftier flight, and to its efforts guage of the maidens of Ettrickwe now call attention. It is in such lays as these
“The flowers o' the Forest were a' wede awae. before us, that we are reminded of the spirit that impelled the souls of the Highland Chiefs and It represents the citizens ignorant of the rese Minstrels in their palmy days of glory; and it is of a battle that they knew to have been fought only by an allusion to those days that we can ac- on which the fate of their sovereign, the salva count for the enthusiastic ardor that fires the tion of the realm, the desting of the nation were imagination of our author, and causes every pending-eagerly and most intensely excited as word to impart to us earnest conviction of his to its event. Crowds of anxious turghers, da