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and Chapman. By selling their portions of the Mary College, and commenced the study of the small patrimony derived from their father, they law, to which he applied himself with untiring raised the means of sending their eldest brother zeal and perseverance. Thus engaged he passed to William and Mary College. Their exertions, a year, to which he often referred in after times their sacrifices, were not in vain: they succeeded as one of the happiest of his life. It was here in detaching him from the dissipated courses to that he became acquainted with the Tucker famwhich he was inclined, and in fitting him, by a ily, and formed a strong and enduring attachcompetent education, to make his way in the ment for them. Here also he first met with Mr. struggle of life. Thus early did the subject of Leigh : and their acquaintance, slight in its bethis sketch begin to exhibit towards his relations ginning, strengthened in the course of this brief and connexions a generous regard, which through- year, into the warm and devoted friendship, out his life allowed no occasion for its exercise to which ever after bound them to one another. pass by unimproved. Indeed, the benevolence In the course of the following year, being then of his disposition, not only to them, but to all twenty-three years old, Mr. Johnson left William who sought his aid, was almost a fault: for it and Mary and came to Richmond, where he accustomed him to forget the extent of his own shortly after obtained a license to practice law. resources, in his desire to supply their wants and At first he thought of commencing the practice promote their interests.
in Richmond; but Mr. Wirt, who was then ChanNot long after their father's death, the broth-cellor in the Williamsburg district, having strongly ers had returned to live upon the farm; and when recommended Staunton as a place where he would Chapman had sold his interest in it as already find a better opening than any where else, he mentioned, he still continued to work upon it for went to settle in that place in the same year, 1802. regular wages. By the aid of these earnings he He did not escape the anxieties and disappointwas enabled, at the age of nineteen, to enter the ments which fall to the lot of almost all young school of the Rev. Peter Nelson, * of Louisa practitioners, and by which so many of them are county, with whom he continued for nearly two disheartened and defeated. Even his resolute years. During this period, he studied with an spirit was half discouraged, and he thought seardor and diligence peculiarly his own, and laid riously of going to set up a school in Lexington, the solid foundations, upon which his labor in after until he was dissuaded by the kind advice of one years built a massive superstructure. He always of his warmest personal friends. This was the cherished a respectful and kindly attachment for late Judge Coalter, of the Court of Appeals, bis old teacher, together with some humorous re- who lived at that time near Staunton, at a pretty collections of his odd habits and quaint expres- rural spot called “The Grove.” In Mr. Johnsions.
son's own words, -"I should certainly have left Mr. Johnson, about this time also, derived con- Staunton, despairing as I was of success, had siderable benefit from an intimate association not Coalter-God bless him !-advised me to with Mr. Patrick Michie, who had married one wait, and have patience. I did—I perseveredof his sisters, and who, after living some time in and in reward, succeeded." The following exSouth Carolina, had returned to Louisa county, tract from a letter, written to a friend in 1806, Virginia, and settled on a farm adjoining the old portrays as well the despondency which clouded homestead. Mr. Michie's collegiate education, the first years of his practice, as the joy with and acquaintance with the world, made his so- which he hailed the brightening prospect that ciety at once both agreeable and instructive to succeeded. “In truth, my friend, I have of late his young relatives; while his influence encoura- experienced pleasure in a higher degree, and seen ged them in the efforts they were making to im- perfect happiness in a nearer prospect, than at prove themselves.
any other period of my life. And no doubt, but In 1801, Mr. Johnson went to William and that the unusual depression which my spirits
have suffered for the greater part of the last two * This gentleman, under the more familiar title of “Old years—indeed, for almost the last four years, Parson Nelson" is well recollected by many now living in has given them an additional elasticity, which Richmond, where he afterwards taught. He was a singu. has made the height of their ascent in some mealar compound of shrewdness and simplicity: an upright sure proportioned to the depth from which they man, a good scholar-but, although by no means sparing of the rod, ill calculated to manage a company of unruly boys.
arose. While I was at Williamsburg, I was reHis pupils will never forget the pranks they played, nor the marked for my equanimity and uniform cheerpunisbments he inflicted. He often referred with pride to fulness; since I have been in Staunton, I have Mr. Johnson, in whose fame and success he felt himself in been frequently observed to be gloomy, somesome sort a participant ; and more than once the pretex: times irritable. While in Williamsburg, I was House, procured a holyday for the boys, when that gentle permitted to pursue those occupations which my man was actually attending court in a distant county.
ljudgment approved, to enjoy such society as my own wishes would have chosen, to indulge the sary to form a profound and accomplished jurist, feelings which were most grateful to my heart, he superadded to them an energy and vigor of and to taste of most of those pleasures which thought, a clearness and force of expression, and are agreeable to my palate. There, none of the an earnest. warm sympathy with the feelings of cares of life interrupted the tranquil •noiseless his fellow men, which won him an easy entrance tenor of my way.' In Staunton, my situation into their hearts, and secured him an extraordihas been very different. However, the day is nary power over their convictions. To the traite gone (I hope) when I have any cause of accu- we have ascribed to him—if not implied in wbat sation against Staunton : for now I see in it the has been already said—must be added the perscene of all my future happiness.” Nor was he fect truth, rectitude, and simplicity of his chardeceived in his anticipations. The lapse of more acter; which, in every scene of his exertions, than forty years served only to draw more tightly whether in the Senate, the Courts, or in the bumthe bond of mutual attachment, which united him bler questions of municipal and social concera, to his old friends and neighbors. The warmth of disarmed his hearers of all personal prejudice, his regard for them was never abated : and no and prepared them to listen with candor and conwhere was his loss more sincerely felt and la- fidence. meuted, than in the society of Staunton. But the busy avocations of civil life did not
Long before the date of the letter just quoted, make him unmindful of other duties, which someMr. Johnson's amiable disposition and gentle times devolve upon the peaceful citizen. [pos manners had attracted the regard, while his tal- two occasions, during the war of 1812, when it ents and integrity had acquired for him the es- was apprehended that the British would make teem, of a large circle of friends and acquaint- an attempt upon the city of Richmond, Mr. Joboance. In his association with the more inti- son marched thither at the head of a company, mate of these, and in his consciousness of innate to take part in its defence. The alarm was given energy and uprightness, he found resources, which in Staunton, at one of these times, by an express often dispelled his gloomy thoughts, and revived from the Governor, which arrived about the midhis natural cheerfulness. And in the course of dle of the day on Sunday. Mr. Johnson was the year 1806 he realized his hopes of domestic the first man to volunteer: and the next day, the happiness, in a marriage with Miss Mary Ann whole company were mounted, and upon the Nicolson, the estimable lady who has survived road to Richmond. Happily, the state of prehim. Her fair and delicate beauty was the least paration and activity, throughout the State, deof her attractions: her open, artless disposition, terred the enemy from the meditated attack. gentle demeanor, warm and generous feelings, The limits of this sketch will not permit us to and guileless simplicity of character, won the follow him, year by year, through the course of hearts of those who knew her then, and con- his long and useful life. In the Senate of Virtinue still to rivet the affections of all who come ginia, he represented for many years the Augusta within the sphere of her influence. From the district, to the entire satisfaction of his constitutime of his marriage, Mr. Johnson fixed his resi- ents, and with great and acknowledged adrandence in Staunton, until the year 1824, when (for tage to the legislation and jurisprudence of the reasons to be hereafter adverted to) he determin- whole State. He retired from it, when his ined to remove to Richmond.
creasing practice in the Court of Appeals and On the first of May, 1805, he was admitted to the Chancery Court at Richmond, together with practise at the bar of the Court of Appeals, and the long absences from his family thus occasionbegun that career of forensic distinction, which ed, induced him, as has been already stated, to in a few years elevated him to the highest rank remove to the capital. From that period until bis in his profession. In this country, the progress death he continued to reside here; but his social of a rising lawyer not being marked (as in Eng- relations with his old neighbors were never w bolly land) by his advance from one grade to another, interrupted. He never failed to pass a portion his standing can be estimated only by the opin- of the summer and fall at his farm in the vicinity ion which is entertained of him, either on the of Staunton; seasons of relaxation from his lapart of his professional brethren of the Bench bors, which were happily spent in the renewal and Bar, or on that of the community in general. of old intimacies and hereditary friendships, and These tribunals not unfrequently differ in their in the quiet enjoyments of domestic life. judgments; and the merit of an individual is Nor were his energies altogether withdravo highly estimated by one of them, while his rep- from the public service. Though no longer ocutation with the other is comparatively inferior. cupying a public station, his advice and assistIt was the peculiar good fortune of Mr. John-ance were often sought on occasions of great putson to combine in his favor the suffrages of both. lic interest; and there were few measures, inPossessing, in a rare degree, the qualities neces-Ivolving the general welfare of the State, wbica
did not derive some aid from the resources of his ( midnight, and then suspend them only to be remind, and the weight of his influence. With the sumed at early dawn : while the hours more commodesty which was characteristic of him, how-monly appropriated to business were filled up ever, he neither sought nor desired notoriety: with tasks no less continued and severe. As and was content, without show or display on his early as the year 1837, he began to feel the effects own part, to contribute all that lay in his power, of over exertion in occasional attacks of vertigo towards the success of every effort for the com- and uncomfortable affections of the head, which mon good.
from time to time compelled him to abstain from When the convention was called in 1829, to labor. But he always yielded with reluctance ; revise the Constitution of Virginia, Mr. Johnson and returned to his usual avocations the first mowas summoned by the general voice of his old ment he felt capable of doing so, without allowconstituents to represent them in that body. Em-ing himself time to recruit his strength. The bracing, as it did, some of the most illustrious habits of industry, which had in truth become his and venerable men of the generation then pass- second nature, denied their usual exercise in the ing away, and almost all the distinguished states- quiet and confinement of the sick room, produced men of Virginia, who were at that period in their a depression of his generally cheerful spirits, and prime, it presented an array of wisdom, learning impelled him to escape as soon as possible from and dignity, not osten paralleled in history. The this condition of inactivity. Such vicissitudes as pithy saging of John Randolph of Roanoke, that these naturally and inevitably resulted in the it was " the grave of local reputations,” was no gradual decay of his physical powers. For sevless true than sarcastic. Few men came out of eral years prior to his death, he was seldom able the intellectual conflicts of that arena, without to appear in court, or to engage in the active dulosing something of the prestige derived from for- ties of his profession : and the burden devolved mer victories: still fewer, with an increase of upon his eldest son, who had been for some the celebrity they had previously enjoyed. But, years associated with him in practice. During among these select few, nevertheless, Mr. Johnson the last twelve months of his life, his decline and Mr. Leigh were conspicuous. Ranked upon was more marked and rapid than before; and at opposite sides of some important questions, which length, on the 12th July, 1849, the light, which were long and warmly debated, the collision of had for some time flickered in its socket, was mind served only to surround with greater lustre finally extinguished. the names of both statesmen, while it was not We have hitherto spoken of Mr. Johnson chiefpermitted to disturb the harmony of their per- ly as a public man : as an eminent lawyer, and a sonal relations. To the mutual regard which sub- distinguished statesman. We feel that our atsisted between them, and between others simi- tempt has failed to do him justice, even in these larly circumstanced, was to be ascribed in no aspects of his character, the most obvious and small degree, the compromise that was effected intelligible to the common eye. How shall we of sectional interests and jealousies, and the hope to depict the singular and attractive beauty agreement upon that scheme of government which of his private life, which no one can well apwas ultimately adopted.
preciate, who has not enjoyed the privilege of But these employments were only occasional. knowing such a man at his own fireside ? The reThe regular business of his life was the practice collection of his genius, his fame, his learning, of his profession: and he so pursued it, as to his influence, was speedily lost in the contemleave an example to his successors in the courts plation of qualities more endearing,-admiration worthy of all imitation. His zeal, his persever- of his greatness was forgotten in the affectionate ance, his high sense of duty, his liberality of sen- reverence, inspired by his goodness. Through timent, and his urbanity of manner, commanded, every relation of life, from those of husband and as they merited, the admiration of his contempora- father, to the remote connexions of casual acries. Those who heard it will not soon forget the quaintance or common humanity, his loving and heart-felt and affectionate tribute to his virtues, generous spirit made its influence felt, in due pronounced by one who had known him from the proportion, but in abundant measure. It was beginning of his career, and who has since fol- his fortune to survive all his brothers and sisters. lowed him to the tomb, the venerable Judge Ni-Several of these left children, young and slencholas. His high character and consummate derly provided for. One after another, they were ability could not fail to secure a very extensive taken by him to his own house, placed at schools practice; and he devoted himself to it with an of his providing, or otherwise assisted and cared intense and unremitting labor, which in the end for according to their respective wants. He proved too much even for his vigorous and manly reared and educated them as his own children, frame. He has been often known, for weeks to- and to him they looked up with the filial regard, gether, to prolong his studies several hours after which he so well deserved. With his immediate family, his intercourse was not only affectionate by his high talents, pure character, assiduous and tender, but sportive and familiar, tempered labor, and by the universal confidence reposed in by a gentle dignity, which operated insensibly his knowledge, wisdom, and integrity, attained to restrain the exuberance of youthful spirits an influence unequalled by any man of bis day; within just bounds. In the larger circle of his and has left the impress of his mind and charaefriends and acquaintance, though always unassu- ter on the legislation of this State. ming in deineanor, he was easy and cheerful in “ After his retirement from legislative life, a conversation, and entered with alacrity and relish large portion of Mr. Johnson's time was directed into the amusements and diversions of those to schemes for the advancement of the interest around him. In short, had his abilities and pub- of his native State ; and in all such schemes his lic honors been less than they were, he must still sound judgment, extensive knowledge, and enhave won the admiration and esteem of his fel- larged scope of thought, made him an invalulow citizens by the purity of bis life, and the able counsellor. social excellence of his character.
“ At the bar he was distinguished for an extent This sketch might be considered incomplete, of knowledge, fertility of thought, ingenuity, without some notice of the religious sentiments ability, and force of argument, which placed him of Mr. Johnson. It is true, that the uniform in a position, in which he had few compeers. tenor of such a life affords evidence of the bigh- “ In private and social life, Mr. Johnson comest character to show that it was regulated by bined all the qualities which make a man bethe dictates of piety and morality: men do not loved and honored, and he has left, to his friends, gather grapes of thorns, or figs of thistles. It the recollection of a life in which there is no aet is true also, that, beyond this outward proof, to regret, and a character without stain." the fallible judgment of mortals can never pene- We are sensible, that no words of ours can trate: it is for God alone to read the secret heart. add anything to what has been said. We adopt, But it may be gratifying to many to know, that, in concluding, those of another, whose solemn several years before his death, he openly professed and beautiful thoughts are worthy of application his faith in the religion of Jesus Christ, and here :united himself with the Protestant Episcopal
“ Peace to the just man's memory ;– let it grow Church; thus adding his express and solemn tos
Greener with years, and blessom through the flight timony of belief to the practical illustrations of
or agcs; let the mimic canvass show it afforded by his conduct.
His calm benevolent features ; let the light The intelligence of Mr. Johnson's death was Stream on his deeds of lore, tbat ahunned the sight everywhere received with emotions, that sought
Of all but heaven; and in the book of same
The glorious record of his virtues write, expression in private letters of condolence, and
And hold it up to men, and bid them claim public tributes of respect for his memory. From A palm like his, and catch from him the hallowed fame." among these, we select for quotation the preamble of the resolutions, adopted at a meeting of Judges, and members of the bar, and officers, of the Supreme Court of Appeals of Virginia, then
GLEANINGS. in session at Lewisburg; as well on account of the high authority, by which the eulogy is pro
Sir Edward Coke, in Queen Elizabeth's time, nounced, as of the feeling and eloquent language, estimated the population of England at 900,000 in which it is expressed.
of all sorts. Harrison makes the men fit for ser“ The exalted position which Chapman John- vice 1,172,674, while Guicciardini makes the son occupied, at the bar, in the seuate, and in population two millions. the general estimation of his fellow citizens, demand some notice of his death. “ As a man, Mr. Johnson, through a long life,
The following explains the origin of the term was distinguished for lofty integrity and purity,
• grog." to which was added the most disinterested be
“ Admiral Vernon usually wore a grogram nevolence.
cloak in bad weather, from which the sailors • His influence over the minds and charac- called him “old Grog.' Hence the name in honor ters, not only of those who associated with him, of him was transferred to the spirit and water, but of the community in general, was much because he was the first officer who ordered it greater than ordinarily falls to the lot of distin- in this manner on board his Majesty's ships." guished public men; and this influence was al
Scot's Mag. Vol. 52, p. 38 in note. ways promotive of virtue, patriotism, and benevolence.
The smoky haze of the Indian summer has bs “As a senator of his native State, Mr. Johnson, some been attributed to the burning of the woods
and grass at that season, but that notion has been lake Michigan) and Huron. He says that great exploded. However, there is no doubt those con- ships may go up the Mississippi to the Illinois flagrations enhance the natural haziness of the river. Fort Pensacola (in New Mexico as then atmosphere. Indian summer was in old colo-styled, lat. 29, long. 91,) the best harbor in St. nial times associated with images of savage in- Louis' Bay (the Gulf of Mexico) was taken cursions and massacre. It is a period when the from the Spaniards by the French in 1719. St. lover of nature and poetry wanders with delight Austin (Augustine) and St. Matthew he menthrough the forests of frost-dyed foliage, orange, tions as situated on the Bahama canal. New gold and crimson, as if painted with the rainbow. Mexico he divides into Apalacho on the North, Especially amid the primitive woods of the moun- Corsa West, Tegeste or Florida proper East, tain, afar from dust and turmoil, how sweetly en- and the Bay of St. Louis South. In shape New chanting is it to roam, lulled by the scene and the Mexico is likened to the sleeve of a coat. It balmy lazy air into a sort of voluptuous repose was in lat. 25 to 39, long. 83 to 107, extended and reverie, a pleasing languor, bathed in an at- 1000 miles from East to West and 900 miles mosphere of poetry--a half-oblivious, pensive en- from North to South. chantment, somnambulistic, in a land of dreamy beauty.
The site of Philadelphia in Indian was called
Kùequenaku, i. e. “the grove of the long pino In the Athenian republic (so called) there
trees." 84,000 free citizens, 40,000 aliens, 400,000 slaves, or more than four slaves to one freeman.
Schenectady-German“ a pine barren." slaves were either freedmen or absolute bondsmen. The slave-trade was carried on then as
“I am like one of those boxes I have seen now. The condition of the Athenian slaves enclosing several other boxes of similar form appears to have been in some points better than though lessening size. The person with whom that of ours, in others-worse.
I have least congeniality sees only the outer
most; another person has something more inSome writers have intimated that the title of teresting in his character, he sees the next box; Lord Sterling (Major General in the American another sees still an inner one : but the friend of army during the revolutionary war) assumed by my heart alone with whom I have a full sympahim was never recognized as valid by the legal thy sees disclosed the innermost of all.” authorities of Great Britain. But the following
John Foster. advertisement is to be found in the Scots Magazine for 1759 p. 212. “ William Alexander Esq. “When I recall to mind at last, after so many of New Jersey was proved March 1759, by an dark ages wherein the huge overshadowing train inquest before the sheriffs of Edinburgh, to be of error had almost swept all the stars out of the lineal male representative of the Earl of the firmament of the church, how the bright Sterling."
and blissful reformation by divine power shook
through the black and settled night of ignorance The distances of some of the fixed stars have and anti-christian tyranny—methinks a soverbeen estimated at from 986,000 to 224,500,000 eign and reviving joy must needs rush into the times the length of the radius of the earth's orbit bosom of him that reads or hears; and the sweet or its distance from the sun, which is 95,000,000 odor of the returning gospel imbathe his soul miles. The number of stars in the whole celes- with the fragrancy of heaven.”—Milton.
as seen by Sir W. Herschel's 20 ft. telescope was upwards of 20 millions.
Truth is a naked open daylight that doth not
show the masques and mummeries and triumphs The increase of twenty principal cities of the of the world half so stately and daintily as canUnited States between 1830 and 1840 was 55 dle light.—Bacon. per centum, while that of the whole country was less than 34 per centum.
Some French writer has illustrated Christian
humility thus : "the emptiest heads of wheat are Niagara-O-ni-aw-ga-rah, “the thunder of carried the highest, but when they become filled water."
with grain they bend modestly down."
an old writer, mentions three lakes The Yeardly Oak in Buckinghamshire, Engin North America—Superior, Illinois, (probably land, was said to have
been coëval with the time