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electrify the audience, was suddenly stopped short at the sion from a book professing to present to us the end of the fourth act, and meeting with Mr. Bunn, he was Living Authors of England.” What though compelled by the necessity of his case, and unable longer he draws occasionally upon an old and forgotten to contain the supprest energy, to discharge the entire fifth act of Richard III. on the unfortunate head of Mr. Bunn. author, one Solomon, for his proverbs and upon

“I feel quite sure that you will not punish my friend later and better-remembered essayists for his Mr. Macready for the wonderful power which the immor- philosophy-what though he tal Shakspere has over his votaries and admirers.'

Breaks into blank the Gospel of St. Luke “ He then closed his speech, and the actor got

And boldly pilfers from the Pentateuch, off with tolerable damages.”

And, undisturbed by conscientious qualms,

Perverts the Prophets and purloins the Psalms We come now to notice what strikes us as quite the most remarkable piece of cockney im- we say, what of all this—is he not a “living aupudence we have seen for a long time. Mr. thor" of England ? Where too is Thackeray, bePowell gives a few pages under the caption of yond all question, next to Dickens, the first masJohn Forster. We were naturally eager to learn ter of pathos in the English tongue? Where is something more than we already knew of this Professor Aytoun, the Bon Gaultier of the monthly acute and philosophical writer. He enjoys a magazines ? Where is Elliott, the artisan-poet, high and well-deserved reputation wherever his whose rhymes convey to the stern, sad heart of “Lives of the Statesmen of the Commonwealth" Euglish toil the sense, the dream, the hope has reached. Thinking that we should be fur- of a larger and better liberty, of a new and nished with some pleasant memoranda of his enduring social reform? Where are the Howitts, private history, we turned to that part of the man and wife, whose efforts, though sometimes book at once. Judge our surprise and mortif- misdirected, are always exerted in behalf of bucation to find instead an attack of a most vitupe- manity ? They may perhaps move in a less shirative character on Washington Irving who is ning orbit than many of Mr. Powell's celebrities, charged with having stolen the whole of his they go not to dine in Belgravia, and their dames “Life of Oliver Goldsmith” from the English are seen in La Belle Assemblée, but Biographer. Not content with this, our author are they not authors of England, aye, and liaassails the long established fame of Geoffrey ing authors in the fullest sense of the word ! Crayon, who occupies “a false position in Amer- Some too are omitted, among the privileged ican literature" and we are told that it is “fal- few whose volumes glitter on the rosewood lacy" to consider him any thing beyond an tables of "the twice three hundred for whom agreeable essayist, and a very successful imita- earth was made.” Lady Georgiana Fullertor of the level style of Addison and Pope."|ton has claims to be ranked among English His volume on Goldsmith is asserted to be a authors, and what shall we say for the negcompend of "faded piracy, tame sentimentalism, lect of the “wondrous boy that wrote Alroy" and common-place suavity." Oh, cruel Mr. and Mr. G. P. R. James? We might multiply Powell! Oh, luckless Mr. Irving! How facile is examples of Mr. Powell's sins of omission, we the destruction of fame! Conjured up by petty might refer to D. M. Moir, the “A” of Blackmalice, how easily a cloud envelops Sunnyside wood (who, we think, is still alive) and Simand shuts out forever the author of the Sketch-mops, his successor in lyric effusions, and the Book.

Bells of Jane Eyre notoriety, and others, to the We have not yet done with Mr. Powell; for extent of a page. But we have said enough. there are sins of omission as well as of com- Our author promises a companion to the present mission, and he has fallen upon them. Henry volume in the " Living Authors of America," Taylor and Philip J. Bailey are men of whom shortly to be published in which we shall probawe would fain know something, and yet Mr.

bly see Mr. Cornelius Mathews magnified into Powell mentions them only to introduce flat the great Mogul of western literature. For that critiques on Philip Van Arteveldt” and “ Fes- work we wait with exemplary patience. tus.” One would suppose too that a work which gives a niche to writers as little known as Ernest Jones, Coventry Patmore, Thomas Burbidge and

EPIGRAM. Arthur A. Clough might mention, if only in a single paragraph, the names of other authors whose To Flavia's shrine two suitors run

And woo the fair at once ; works are familiar to the American reader.

A needy fortune-hunter one Where is Martin Farquhar Tupper whose Pro

And one a wealthy dunce. verbial Philosophy has passed through one hundred editions in the United States ? The ad

How, thus twin-courted, she'll behave

Depends upon this rulemirers of that writer (we confess we are not of If she's a fool she'll wed the knave the number) may justly complain of his exclu

Aud if a knave the fool.

and more especially with the bisulphite of lime. FROM OUR PARIS CORRESPONDENT. The abundant sulphurous acid which these bodies

contain prevents all fermentation while their base Paris, October, 1849.

neutralizes the sulphuric acid, as soon as it pro

duced. It remained to be proved whether by In one of my late letters I spoke of a recent themselves, or by their very abundant sulphudiscovery of M. Melsens, Professor of Agricul- rous acid, they did or did not affect, and how, the ture and Veterinary Medicine at Brussels, which sugar in process of manufacture. To this end at the time was attracting much attention, and various experiments were made, in all of which was supposed to interest, in the highest degree, it was observed that the sugar crystallized toall who were concerned, here or elsewhere, in tally, readily and without any appearance of mo the production of sugar. The discovery was lasses. “I was allowed then to hope," said M. then known only by its marvellous effects. The Melsens, “that the bisulphite of lime employed as product was to be doubled, and the manufac- a prompt absorbent of oxygen, and as an antiture simplified, expedited, and cheapened in an septic, exerted no deleterious action upon the equal degree. The scientific and practical ex- sugar, if it were poured cold upon the rasping periments which were officially ordered to test the machine of the beetroot, or the rolling mill of value of the discovery have taken place. The the cane, so as to mix immediately with the juice results have not been so favorable as was hoped ; at the very moment of the rupture of the cells but were far from being decisive against the dis- containing it. I was allowed to hope that the coverer. It is admitted that before the value of sugar would undergo, in its presence, and withthe new procedures can be authoritatively pro- out injury, the action of the heat indispensable nounced upon, their application to the coming in the process of refining. In this operation, crop must be witnessed. In the mean time M. supposing it to be conducted in the usual manMelsens has himself torn off the veil of secresy ner, the lime employed would neutralize the biand published a work, in which his discovery is sulphite, and would leave the juice prepared for freely given to the world with scientific and prac- evaporation without loss of sugar, purified from tical instructions for its application. I must re- the ferments and from all matters capable of prodeem my promise by giving a short account of it. ducing them." which may prove sufficient for the information of M. Melsens soon perceived that the bisulphite the generality of readers. Such as would have of lime was possessed of other properties of great a more intimate knowledge must apply to the value in the manufacture of sugar. It was a poworiginal work of M. Melsens. It will probably erful clarifier. Experiments had established the soon be translated in the United States. fact that the substance in question separates all

Neither the cane nor the beet root, said M. the azotic matter existing in the cane and beetMelsens, contains any sugar that is not capable root, with a loss of sugar estimated at about one of crystallization. The formation of molasses, or two hundredth parts of the mass. The bisulor treacle, is caused by the ferments which they phite of lime removes too almost completely, contain, and which are developed upon coming and promptly, the colored matters existing in in contact with air and water, in the course of the cane and beet root; and it prevents the forthe operations necessary in the manufacture of mation of such other colored matters as are prosugar by the usual mode. To be sure, by the use duced by the contact of the air with the pulp of alcohol instead of water, as a dissolving agent, and during evaporation; and especially of such the sugar is separated from the ferments and pro- as require the concurrence of air and a free altected from all alteration. But alcohol is too kali. To sum up in the words of M. Melsens costly to be generally used with advantage, and bimself—the bisulphite of lime is useful in the the employment greatly increases the danger manufacture of sugar, from fire. M. Melsens therefore directed his re- “1st. As eminently antiseptic, preventing the searches to the discovery of some cheap and con- production and the action of all ferments. venient substitute for alcohol-a liquid which rap- ** 2nd. As an absorbent of oxygen, preventing idly absorbing oxygen, would form with it an acid, those changes in the juices which the presence of which without injuring the sugar, would precipi- oxygen would otherwise produce. tate the ferments and the substances which pro- " 3rd. As a purifying agent, which at 100 deduce them. He subjected to a variety of expe- grees, clarifies the juices and rids them of all alriments three substances known to possess the buminous and coagulable matter. properties desired, binoxide of azote, sulphurous " 4th. As a substance removing pre-existing acid, and aldehyde. For different reasons, these colors. were successively abandoned, and a course of “ 5th. As an anti-colorant eminently efficient experiments commenced with the acid sulphites, in preventing the formation of colored matter.

66

"6th. As an agent neutralizing all injurious solution of bisulphite of lime, applied to the juice acids which may exist, or be produced in the alone, is to increase this yield to about 12 lbs. juices, by substituting an acid almost inert, sul- white sugar: and if applied to both juice and phurous acid, in their place."

pulp the yield will be 17 or 18 per cent. In what quantities, in what manner, is the bi- The late experiments signalize an unpleasant sulphite of lime to be applied to the cane and sulphurous taste in the sugar manufactured after beetroot in the manufacture of sugar ?

the Melsens method. The discoverer replies to What are the disadvantages or inconvenien- this objection, that the taste of sulpbur may be ces accompanying the application of the new made to disappear from the sugar in three ways. processes ?

1st. Break up the sugar and leave it for a M. Dumas, the celebrated Parisian chemist, while exposed to the air. The sulphite is conprocured from the sugar plantations of Murcia, verted into a tasteless sulphate. in Spain, several hundred weight of sugar-cane 2nd. Exposed to the action of an ammoniacal and handed them over to M. Melsens to be made atmosphere the sugar loses the savour of sulphur the subject of his experiments. He proceeded and acquires a highly agreeable vanilla flavor. thus :

But in this case it is sometimes colored a little. The cane was broken up by means of a beet- 3rd. If the sugar is subjected to the process of root rasping machine: the pulp resulting from clarification (la clairce) so that it be made to lose the operation, being sprinkled with a solution of about 10 per cent. of its weight, the result will the bisulphite of lime. The pulp was then sub- be a sugar comparable with the purest and whijected to a press and the juice extracted. This test made by the ordinary methods. This opejuice was boiled, filtered, placed in pans over a ration regenerates, by means of evaporation, fire and evaporated to a density of about one- such sugars as the above. third for the cold syrup. Filtered again and left So much for the sugar cane. for slow crystallization, this syrup, in a few days, As for the beet-root its manufacture into sugar gave a mass of candy from which it was impos- is much more advanced than that of the cane. sible to extract any molasses.

It is nearly perfect. Science, it is well estabThe pulp, moistened with water, and subjected lished, cannot do much more for it. The beetto another pressure, furnished a second juice root contains sugar to the amount of 10 per 100 equally rich. It was treated like the first, and of its weight. By the methods already in use yielded the same results. If need be, this ope- an average of 6 per 100 is actually obtained. M. ration may be again repeated. M. Melsens em- Melsens anticipates from the adoption of his imployed of a bisulphite of lime, marking 10 de- provement, an average yield of 8 per 100. The grees of the areometer of Baumé, a quantity remaining 2 per 100 may be set down as uoatequal to about one per cent. of the weight of the tainable; the juice of the beet-root containing

The whole of the sugar bad been extract- many salts opposing the crystallization of sugar ed and was there before him in solid form. All and which the bisulphite of lime is powerless to this, says M. Melsens, is effected without the ex- counteract. action of any special attention or study. The In his experiments, M. Melsens sprinkled the workmen employed in the operation are not hur- beet-root, at the moment of rasping it, with his ried and pressed. So long as an appreciable solution of the bisulphite of lime. The solution amount of the bisulphite exists in the liquid it used, marked, as in the case of the cane, 10 deprevents alteration. This discovery will, it is grees by the areometer of Baumé : but the quanboped by M. Melsens, facilitate the domestic tity employed, instead of being 1 per 100 of the manufacture of sugar in large quantities for fami- weight of the root, was now equal to 24 per 100. ly use. Powerful rolling mills to crush the cane On watering the pulp from which the juices are by no means necessary. A root-cutter, a bad been extracted, adding a little of the bisulrasp suffice; for nothing hinders the operation phite, the crystallized masses which were the by washing. The use of bisulphite of lime ren- result always contained unaltered sugar to the dering all fermentation impossible, the direct amount indicated by previous analysis. At the washing of the cane cut into small pieces, or same time it is admitted that the product was not rudely torn and broken up, suffices for its exhaus- so beautiful as in the experiments on the cane, tion.

and the crystallization was often confused. If the statements of the discoverer are to be “If,” says M. Melsens, “ the employment of relied upon, the application of his new process the bisulphite of lime is adopted, the new condiwill be attended with the most brilliant results. tions which it will introduce will open a large The average yield, he says, with the methods field for invention, which I am quite unable to hitherto employed, is from 6 to 7 lbs. brown scan. But it appears to me that the use of the sugar, (raw or muscovado,) for 100 lbs. cane. His rasping machines will be necessary until pro

cane.

found study and observation shall have de- crops : and the laborer himself will reap the hymonstrated the effects produced by the bisul- gienic advantages, hitherto unknown to him, of phite upon the slices produced by the root-cutter an increased consumption of sugar. While in and subjected to systematic washing. It has ap- England the consumption of sugar amounts to peared to me that the saccharine liquids obtained an average of 22 lbs. per head per annum, upon by maceration or levigation are operated upon the continent the average consumption of each with more facility than the natural juices derived individual does not reach 54 lbs. per annum." directly from the action of the rasping machine

I have had occasion, I think, in former letters to and rolling mill.

allude to the backwardness of the French Gov“I dare not assert that the presses now in use ernment, not less evinced under the republican will be retained even if rasps should be. They than under the monarchical regime, to frankly are constructed with a special view to a quick adopt the grand invention of the nineteenth cendespatch of work. But under the new system, tury, the electric telegraph, and submit to the the pulp once rendered unalterable, presses of new conditions of social, commercial and politislow action, operating upon large masses, econo- cal progress which that invention imposes. A mizing labor, dispensing with the bags and hur- nation daily boasting, with more or less reason, dles, may offer certain advantages and justly ob- to be at the head of civilization, to be the greattain the preference.

est, the most enlightened, the most generous peo“Boilers of the kind now in use will be indis- ple on the face of the earth, the most progressive pensable in the process of refining the sugar.

too, (God save the mark !) and yet materially • Taylor's filters, or others similar to them, will and intellectually so far behindhand as not to be employed under the new as under the old sys- need the electric telegraph! as not to see and tem; unless, which is quite probable, it may be comprehend its sublime results, its beneficent deemed preferable to operate by deposition. uses! as to shrink with fear from its application !

“ The apparatus for evaporation by fire cannot Glory to the Anglo-Saxon who invented, combe used in the beginning of the concentration of prehends, and dares to apply the electric telethe juices : but towards the end recourse must be graph-fearlessly accepting all its consequences. had either to rapid evaporation in boilers heated Glory to the Anglo-Saxon which alone among by steam, or to a slow crystallization effected in nations is socially and politically up to the electric stoves. I have ascertained that in this operation telegraph! If France were, as she claims to bo, one may employ at pleasure vessels made of at the head of nations, the steamboat, the locosheet-iron, cast-iron, tinned copper, and very motive, and the electric telegraph might perhaps probably of wood or of bricks cemented. The be in existence, but the world, the living, moving, use of animal charcoal may be retained, dimin-active world would know nothing of them. They ished, or quite suppressed, according to the qual- would not have told upon humanity as they have ity of the sugar, raw or refined, which it is in- told, and are every day telling. Beautiful mintended to manufacture."

iature models might be seen, however, at the M. Melsens thus concludes the valuable and Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers, No. interesting work of the contents of which I have Martin. Once a month, in summer, the boat given only a concise summary.

would be exhibited to the admiration of the pub“ If, contrary to all expectation, the manufac- lic upon the grand basin in the garden of the turers of indigenous sugar should not find it to Tuileries : the locomotive would occasionally their advantage to adopt my process, I cannot make the tour of the Louvre before a select combelieve but that it is still destined to exert a great pany of distinguished strangers and invited guests. influence upon the production of the sugar proper As for the electric telegraph it would be estabto our climates. When nothing but a root-cutter, lished in one of the longest salles at the Garden one or two casks, a washer-woman's boiling ket- of Plants. Periodically like the great watertle, and a few earthen vessels are all that is ne- works at Versailles and St. Cloud, and like them cessary to conveniently extract the sugar from a advertised in the papers four or five days in adcouple of thousand lbs. of beet-root, obtaining it vance, the marvellous telegraph would be made by the very first operation whiter than the most to play. On nous annonce que le telégraphe beautiful muscovado brought from the colonies, électrique ce saississant et merveilleux produit de la may we not hope that the demands of a con- science Francaise, jouera dimanche prochain, à stantly increasing consumption of this article trois heures précises.” A Savant would be at will henceforth render its manufacture popular hand to explain to the curious spectators how throughout the country, making general the ben- there was no doubt that if the wires were exefits which belong to the cultivation of the beet-tended across the city of Paris, from the Arch of root? Agriculture will be benefitted by the de- Triumph to the Barrière du Trone, the commusirable facilities it will afford for the rotation of nication would be equally prompt and sure as

- rue St.

VOL. XV-95

across the room. Indeed it was almost certain, a finger in the pie, nor a whole hand, bat both that the most distant extremities of France might hands)-government seems now to be seriously by possibility be thus brought into instant com- taking hold of the matter. Three pew lines it munication with each other! Perhaps if left to is now ordered shall be added to the two already herself France might, about the year 1949, after existing. 1st. From Rouen to Havre about 57 amusing herself for a century with the scientific miles, thus completing the line from Paris to play-thing, and glorifying herself for its invention, Havre-estimated cost $23.205. 2nd. From actually put Marseilles and Paris in instant Paris to Tonnerre, on the Marseilles rail-road, communication with each other by this means. 60 miles—at an estimated cost of $40.152. 3rd. Thanks, however, to the United States and Eng- From Paris to Angers on the road to Bordeausland leading the way, France is already conside- to cost $73.776. These telegraphic lines, put rably advanced in the practical application of up at government expense and controlled by steamboats and locomotives. Thanks to Eng- government exclusively, will prove of but very land and the United States pushing, shaming, little service to the public generally. They are almost kicking her on, she is about to venture, not meant to serve the public but to serve the nearly a century before her time, upon some prac- government. They will put the minister of the tical experiment of the electric telegraph. See interior within a few hours of the most distant how timidly she talks even with the example of prefects—they will maintain-they are meant to England and the United States before her eyes, maintain-the curse of France-centralization, of establishing two or three lines radiating from the predominance of Paris over the departments, Paris and delivering them to the use of the rail the pernicious rule of the capital, the subjection road companies and the public. It is the repub- of thirty-four millions to one million. lican minister of the interior, in the year 1849,

W. W. M. who thus expresses himself in an exposé recently published.

“We believe that the inconveniences apprehended from the delivering to public use the electric telegraphs have been much exaggerated; and we think that with all the guaranties which

NERVOUS FEARS; the administration will take care to establish, re

OR, serving to itself for instance the exclusive privilege of transmitting despatches, and the right of A NIGHT IN THE HAUNTED CHAMBER. even totally suspending the use of the telegraph under circumstances when its use would seem to

A LESSON FOR THE CREDULOUS. jeopard the public order and security, the ad- It was past midnight, and a taper light mission of private persons to the use of the elec- Gleamed fitfully on the hearth, tric telegraph will not be attended with greater All around was hushed, save the blast which rushed danger than the admission of the same persons

And roared like the sea in its wrath. to the use of rail-roads and the other means and instruments of progress in general. We will add

'Twas an awful gale! and at times would wail

Like a mourner o'er the dead, that the transmission of all despatches will be the windows would shake, as if an earthquake subjected to tariffs which will, we hope, produce Began its havoc to spread. sums sufficiently important to compensate the state at least in part for the outlays it will make In this trying state, at an hour so late, for the construction of these lines and keeping with bitter regret, I lamented the bet

Alone in the haunted room? them in repair."

I had made to brave its gloom.
There exist at present in France two lines of At length the wind ceased, —my terror decreased,
telegraphic communication; one from Paris to Aud I closed my eyes to sleep ;
Rouen, the other from Paris to Valenciennes and But the nap I sought was not to be caught,
Lille composing an aggregate length of 310 miles. For wide awake did I keep.
The public has never been admitted to the use of

Feeling so dreary, restless and weary, them at all, and the rail-road companies undersuch

Oh, how I wished for the dawn! embarrassing restrictions that the use was aban- The minutes seemed hours, winged by wicked powers

, doned by them. They are of but little service So heavily they moved on. to government itself, and much of the time are out of repair. But government-(yes, there's the The lamp would glimmer,-burn dimmer and dimmer, clog and the curse to Industry and Enterprise in a shade on the wall, resembled a pall,

Then shed a blue light around! France! the government must have not merely' Its fringes trailing the ground.

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