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rested, the peaceful moonlight scenery had so favourable an effect on his spirits that he conversed with much composure on the subject of Thomson's Seasons, and the circumstances under which they were probably written.

At the close of the following year, Cowper's · Mary' obtained a relief from the sorrows and infirmities of mortality; but Cowper's sensations were no longer so acute as to render this loss an insupportable event. In the dusk of the evening, when only an indistinct view of the body could be obtained, Cowper, attended by his kinsipan, visited the chamber of his departed friend. After looking at the corpse for a few moments, he suddenly started away with a vehement but unfinished sentence of passionate sorrow, and thenceforth never again mentioned Mrs. Unwin's name.

Homer had still power at intervals to arrest his thoughts, and to employ bis leisure. He completed the revision of his translation in March, 1799. After leaving Weston, he wrote but three or four letters to his friends, all expressive of his own misery. One of them addressed to Mr. Buchanan, of Weston, begins thus : 'I will forget for a moment that to whomsoever "I may address myself, a letter from me can no otherwise be

welcome, than as a curiosity. When visited by the Dowager Lady Spencer, Sir John Throckmorton, and Mr. Rose, he declined conversing with them. The last effort of his mind in original composition, was “The Cast away,” in which the most pathetic allusion is made to that unutterable distress under which it was composed. In January, 1800, he was seized with dropsical symptoms.

On the 19th of April the weakness of this truly pitiable sufferer had so much increased, that his kinsman apprehended his death to be

Adverting, therefore, to the affliction, as well of body as of mind, which his beloved inmate was then enduring, he ventured to speak of his approaching dissolution as the signal of his deliverance from both these miseries. After a pause of a few moments, which was less interrupted by the objections of his desponding relative than he had dared to hope, he proceeded to an observation more consolatory still ; namely, that in the world to which he was hastening, a merciful Redeemer had prepared unspeakable happiness for all his children—and therefore for him.' To the first part of this sentence he had listened with composure, but the concluding words were no sooner uttered, than his passionately expressed entreaties that his companion would desist from any further observations of a similar kind, clearly proved, that though it was on the eve of being invested with angelic light, the darkness of delusion still veiled his spirit.'* pp. lxxxvii, lxxxviii.

*.0, spare me! spare, me!' was his expression, "You know, you know it to be false!'


The last words he was heard to utter, were to Miss Perowne, on her offering him a cordial : he declined it, saying, "What can • it signify?'

Early on the 25th of April,' a deadly change' was observed to have taken place, and after remaining for about twelve hours in an insensible state, he ceased to breathe. In so mild and gentle a manner, we are informed, did his spirit take its flight, that the precise moment of his departure was unobserved by the very friends whose eyes were fixed on his dying countenance.

From this mournful period,' adds Dr. Johnson, in concluding the very interesting Sketch we have so frequently adverted to, till the features of his deceased friend were closed from his view, the expression which the kinsman of Cowper observed in them, and which he was affectionately delighted to suppose an index of the last thoughts and enjoyments of his soul in its gradual escape from the depths of despondence, was that of calmness and

that of calmness and composure, mingled, as it were, with holy surprise !

It was a most legitimate gratification of the feelings, to cherish this imagination, since it comported so well with the real circumstances in which the departing spirit would be placed by the first glimmerings of consciousness. Had Cowper's piety been of a less decided character, there would have been room for regret that ere he died he gave no sign;' but it should seem, that his physical powers were too exhausted to admit of that transient illumination of the faculties; which in cases of derangement, is generally the presage of death. It is, however, a consideration of small moment, on which side the river the vision of the open gate of heaven' burst upon the soul. That dark passage once effected, every doubt was over. And if the state of separate consciousness admits of the perception of the ubjects of sense, it must have been with a peculiar emotion of exultation that his spirit surveyed the breathless form in which it had been entombed, and adopted the triumphant challenge to the last enemy, “O Death, where is thy sting?"

Might we but imagine its detention for a while near the scene of its former sufferings, it would be to represent to ourselves the solemn joy with which it would contemplate the deposite of that poor corruptible frame in the dust, as seed cast into the furrow, anticipating, as the last act of faith, that moment, when the universal chorus shall arise, “ O Grave, where is thy victory?"

Our object in pursuing to its close this melancholy but interesting narrative, has been principally to dissociate, if possible, in the minds of our readers, the real character of Cowper from the morbid despondency by which, under the influence of bodily disorder, it was obscured, and to exhibit the distinct course of

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that disorder, under its occasional variations, to its catastrophe. There is reason to regret that any of his biographers should have fallen into the use of a phraseology calculated to favour in some degree the erroneous impressions which have been entertained with respect to the true nature of his afflictive malady. The anonymous author of the “ Memoirs" edited by the Rev. Mr. Greatheed, speaks of his spiritual recovery,' of his being deprived of religious comfort,' and of his not being able to advert to spiritual subjects without approximating the source of his

distress ;' as if religious defection, instead of insanity, had led to his despair. It excites no surprise to find writers, who have apparently little knowledge of Christianity, falling into this error. Thus, the author of the Article Cowper, in the Edinburgh Encyclopædia, edited by Dr. Brewster, tells us that his distemper was religious madness, and that his intimacy with some 'well-meaning enthusiasts' at Huntingdon, certainly contributed to deepen the shade of that religious melancholy which had sprung up in his mind since his

recovery. He informs us further, that 'the society of Mr. - Newton' at Olney, a person of the same principles as the Unwins, contributed to fix his mind, without variety or relief, on those awful subjects, which, however proper to be recalled to the careless and insensible, are most dangerous to a diseased mind like Cowper's.' A most unfortunate

fault of his poetry,' this critic subsequently remarks, 'is, that the highest fire of his enthusiasm is so frequently mixed

with the clouds, of methodism and mysticism.' The Article in the Encyclopædia Britannica, although free from the irreligious ignorance displayed in the above citation, is extremely inaccurate. It speaks of the theory of Christian justification ;' and states that from the system Cowper had adopted, a deep consideration of his religious state excited the most alarming

and distressful apprehensions;' his mind being, as this writer adds, fitted by natural disposition to receive all the horrors,

without the consolations of his faith. The account of Cowper in Rees's Cyclopædia is, we are happy to state, unexceptionable. The writer has evidently been at the pains of consulting the best sources of information which were open to bim, and he has maintained a very commendable reserve with regard to the morbid features of his character. Some persons have regretted that Hayley's Memoirs do not contain a more explicit account of the true nature and source of Cowper's malady; but it should be remembered, that the biographer had a task of peculiar delicacy to execute; and when the avowed difference of his religious sentiments from those of his friend are taken into the account, it would be injustice to deny that the performance

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is, as a whole, highly creditable to his feelings and judgement. At the same time, we must frankly confess that we have always lamented that the materials committed to Mr. Hayley, did not fall into the hands of a person competent to do justice in all respects to Cowper's character. The present publications shew what an opportunity was thus lost of setting at rest every injurious conjecture respecting the causes of his insanity, and of superseding those painful disclosures for which a plausible pretext has now been brought forward, founded on the misrepresentations made by the enemies of Christianity.

We trust that the publication of the details of Cowper's early life, much as on some accounts it is to be deprecated, will have its use.

The document is invaluable for the purpose of appealing to Cowper's own testimony in evidence of certain facts. In every other respect, we care not how soon it is forgotten. The Life of Cowper will after all appear to persons in general a melancholy history. The very subject of insanity is one from which the mind shrinks back with horror, as if scarcely trusting itself to indulge the feeling of sympathy. But is this a healthful symptom? Jeremy Taylor, after enumerating a variety of horrible and disgusting sounds, adds, “The

groans' of a man in a fit of the stone are worse than all

these; and the distractions of a troubled conscience are worse • than those groans : and yet a careless merry sinner is worse

than all that.'

Art. II. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, for the Year 1815. Parts I. and II. (Chemical and Physiological

Papers) 4to. London. G. and W. Nicol, Pall Mall. On an ebbing and flowing Stream discovered by boring

in the Harbour of Bridlington. By John Storer, M. D. THE operations which led to the formation of this Stream

or fountain, were commenced with a view to some improvements in the Harbour. The strata bored through, were twentyeight feet of solid clay, and fifteen of a flinty and calcareous gravel; below this was solid rock. No water bad been observed during the operations, but some hours after they had been abandoned, in consequence of the auger striking upon the rock, the bore was observed to overflow with water perfectly limpid and fresh. The quality of the water led to the bore being properly secured, and the following phenomena have since occurred with perfect uniformity. As soon as the flowing tide has risen to the level of forty-nine or fifty inches lower than the top of the bore, the water begins to flow from it in a stream equal to its calibre, and with a force which increases as the tide advances. It continues to flow about four or five bours; or until the tide in receding has fallen to the same level, at which the bore began to overflow; it then ceases completely until the next flood tide shall have regained the same elevation, when the same series of phenomena recur. The hypothesis formed by Mr. Miloe, the Collector of the Customs at the port, appears to us to be satisfactory. He supposes the stratum of clay to extend as far as the Smithwick sand, about four miles from the harbour, and which rests upon a ledge of rock, that is perfectly perpendicular towards the sea, and of considerable depth Here he supposes the water of this spring to have its natural outlet, and consequently, the altitude at which it flows from the artificial opening in the harbour, will depend on the relative specific gravity of the respective columns of sea and spring water, and the velocity of the spring compared with the resistance it has to overcome. Experiments made with a Vien to ascertain the Principle

on which the Action of the Heart depends, and the Řelation which subsists between that Organ and the Nervous System. By A. P. Wilson Philip, Physician in Worcester.

This paper contains an account of twenty-three experiments, and as the conclusions to which they lead are chiefly important, we shall transcribe the inferences which Dr. W. P. has bimself deduced from them.

1. That the muscles of involuntary motion obey the same laws with those of voluntary motion.

2. That the apparent difference in the nature of these muscles, arises from their being under the influence of different stimuli.

3. That they are both capable of being stimulated through the nervous system.

4. That the power of both is independent of the nervous system.

5. That what is called the nervous system, consists of two parts, whose existence is not immediately dependent on each other; the one performing the sensorial functions, the other conveying impressions to and from the sensorium, and, without bestowing any power on the muscular system, acting as a stimulus to it.

6. That there is therefore in the most perfect animals, a combination of three distinct vital powers, not immediately depending on each other; one of the muscular system, one of the nervous system properly so called, and one of the sensorial system.

7. That the muscular system, though independent of the nervous system, is so influenced by it, that the power of the former may even be destroyed through the nervous system.

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