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L'état!c'est moi!

The state!-it is I!
Attributed to Louis XIV of France. DULAURE

-History of Paris. P. 387. See CHÉRUEL
Histoire de l'Administration Monarchique en

France. II. 32. 3

That is the best government which desires to make the people happy, and knows how to make them happy. MACAULAY-On Mitford's History of Greece,


The Commons, faithful to their system, remained in a wise and masterly inactivity. SIR JAMES MACKINTOSH–Vindiciae Gallicæ.

Sec. I.

Nescis, mi fili, quantilla sapientia regitur mundus.

Learn, my son, with how little wisdom the world is governed. Attributed to AXEL VON OXENSTIERNA.

BÜCHMANN—Geflügelte Wörte, attributes it
as likely to POPE JULIUS III, also to OR-
SELAER, tutor to the sons of a Markgraf of
Baden. LORD CHATHAM claims it for POPE
ALEXANDER VI, JULES or Leo, in Letter to
VON BENNINGTON, Dutch Statesman, also
given credit. Quoted by DR. ARBUTHNOT
Letter to Swift, 1732–3.

(See also BEAN, SELDEN)



There is what I call the American idea. * This idea demands, as the proximate organizaation thereof, a democracy,--that is, a government of all the people, by all the people, for all the people; of course, a government of the principles of eternal justice,

the unchanging law of God; for shortness' sake I will call it the idea of Freedom. THEODORE PARKER—Speech at the N. E. Anti

Slavery Convention. Boston, May 29, 1850.



The government of the Union, then, is emphatically and truly a government of the people. In form and in substance it emanates from them. Its powers are granted by them, and are to be exercised directly on them and for their benefit. CHIEF JUSTICE MARSHALL. Case of McCulloch

vs. Maryland. 1819. 4. Wheaton. 316. The all-men power; government over all, by all, and for the sake of all. CHIEF JUSTICE MARSHALL. Pamphlet. The

Relation of Slavery to a Republican Form of Government. Speech delivered at the New England Anti-Slavery Convention, May 26, 1858. Pamphlet used by Lincoln when pre paring speeches. This phrase was underlined

by him. (See also LINCOLN) To make a bank, was a great plot of state; Invent a shovel, and be a magistrate.

ANDREW MARVELLThe Character of Holland. States are not made, nor patched; they grow: Grow slow through centuries of pain, And grow correctly in the main; But only grow by certain laws, Of certain bits in certain jaws.

MASEFIELD-Everlasting Mercy. St. 60.

Hope nothing from foreign governments. They will never be really willing to aid you until you have sbown that you are strong enough to conquer without them.

MAZZINILife and Writings. Young Italy. If the prince of a State love benevolence, he will have no opponent in all the empire.

MENCIUS-Works. Bk. IV. Pt. I. Ch. 7.

11 Unearned increment. JOHN STUART MILL-Political Economy. Bk.

V. Ch. II. Sec. 5. Phrase used in the land agitation of 1870–71. Undoubtedly original with Mill.

First there is the democratic idea: that all men are endowed by their creator with certain natural rights; that these rights are alienable only by the possessor thereof; that they are equal in men; that government is to organize these natural, unalienable and equal rights into institutions designed for the good of the governed, and therefore government is to be of all the people, by all the people, and for all the people. Here government is development, not exploitation THEODORE PARKER-Speech in Boston. May

31, 1854.



Democracy is direct self-government, over all the people, for

all the people, by all the people. THEODORE PARKER. Sermon. Delivered at

Music Hall, Boston, July 4, 1858. On the
Effect of Slavery on the American People.
P.5. (Read and underlined by Lincoln.)


Slavery is in flagrant violation of the institutions of America direct government-over all the people, by all the people, for all the people. THEODORE PARKER. Sermon. Delivered at Music Hall, Boston. July 4, 1858. P. 14. (Read and underlined by Lincoln.)

(See also LINCOLN)

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Themistocles said, “The Athenians govern the Greeks; I govern the Athenians; you, my wife, govern me; your son governs you."

PLUTARCH-Life of Cato the Censor.


The government will take the fairest of names, but the worst of realities-mob rule.



The right divine of kings to govern wrong.
POPE-Dunciad. Bk. IV. L. 188. (In quota-

tion marks, but probably his own.)

Men who prefer any load of infamy, however great, to any pressure of taxation,

however light. SYDNEY SMITH-On American Debts. 18

The schoolboy whips his taxed top, the beardless youth manages his taxed horse, with a taxed bridle, on a taxed road; and the dying Englishman, pouring his medicine, which has paid seven per cent., flings himself back on his chintz bed, which has paid twenty-two per cent., and expires in the arms of an apothecary who has paid a license of a hundred pounds for the privilege of putting him to death. SYDNEY SMITH-Review of Seybert's Annals.

United States.


For forms of government let fools contest; Whate'er is best administer'd is best.

POPE—Essay on Man. Ep. III. L. 303.


He shall rule them with a rod of iron.

Revelations. II. 27.


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Ill can he rule the great that cannot reach the

small. SPENSER-Faerie Queene. Bk. V. Canto II.

St. 51.

square deal.



Le despotisme tempéré par l'assassinat, c'est notre magna charta.

Despotism tempered by assassination, that is our Magna Charta. A RUSSIAN NOBLE to COUNT MÜNSTER on

the assassination of Paul I., Emperor of Russia. (1800)

Omnium consensu capax imperii, nisi imperasset.

In the opinion of all men he would have been regarded as capable of governing, if he had never governed. TACITUS—Annales. I. 49.


In the parliament of man, the Federation of the world.

TENNYSONLocksley Hall. L. 129.



Say to the seceded States-Wayward sisters, depart in peace! WINFIELD SCOTT Letter to W. H. Seward.

March 3, 1861. 11 The Pope sends for him and (says he) "We will be merry as we were before, for thou little thinkest what a little foolery governs the whole world." JOHN SELDENTable Talk. Pope.

(See also OXENSTIERNA) Invisa numquam imperia retinentur diu.

A hated government does not last long.
SENECA-Phænissæ. VI, 60.

Et errat longe mea quidem sententia
Qui imperium credit gravius esse aut stabilius,
Vi quod fit, quam illud quod amicitia adjungitur.

It is a great error, in my opinion, to believe that a government is more firm or assured when it is supported by force, than when founded on affection. TERENCE-Adelphi. I. 1. 40.



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We preach Democracy in vain while Tory and Conservative can point to the opposite side of the Atlantic and say: "There are Nineteen millions of the human race free absolutely, every man heir to the throne, governing themselves the government of all, by all, for all; but instead of being a consistent republic it is one widespread confederacy of free men for the enslavement of a nation of another complexion." GEORGE THOMPSON, M.P. Speech, 1851.

(See also LINCOLN)








XENOPHONMemorabilia of Socrates. Bk. IV. Hæ tibi erunt artes, pacisque imponere morem Ch. VI. Parcere subjectis et debellare superbos.

GRACE This shall be thy work: to impose conditions of peace, to spare the lowly, and to overthrow There, but for the grace of God, goes John the proud.

Bradford. VERGIL-Æneid. VI. 852.

JOHN BRADFORD (seeing a criminal pass by),

in his Writings. Vol. II. Pub. by PARKER 2 Let us raise a standard to which the wise and

SOCIETY, Cambridge, 1853. Biog. notice. P.

13. Credited to him also by DEAN FARRAR honest can repair; the rest is in the hands of God.

-Eternal Hope. Fourth Sermon. S. 0. WASHINGTON—Speech to the Constitutional Convention. (1787)

VII. 269. 351. Credited also to BAXTER,

A National debt is a National blessing.
Attributed to DANIEL WEBSTER. Repudiated

An outward and visible sign of an inward and

spiritual grace. by him. See Speech. Jan. 26, 1830.

Book of Common Prayer. Catechism. The people's government made for the people, made by the people, and answerable to the

Whatever he did, was done with so much ease,

In him alone 'twas natural to please. people. DANIEL WEBSTER-Second Speech on Foot's

DRYDEN-Absalom and Achitophel. Pt. I. L.

Resolution. Jan. 26, 1830.
(See also LINCOLN)

Ye are fallen from grace.

Galatians. V. 4.
When my eyes shall be turned to behold, for
the last time, the sun in heaven, may I not see
him shining on the broken and dishonored frag- Stately and tall he moves in the hall,
ments of a once glorious Union; on States

The chief of a thousand for grace. dissevered, discordant, belligerent; on a land

KATE FRANKLINLife at Olympus. Godey's rent with civil feuds, or drenched, it may be, in Lady's Book. Vol. XXIII. P. 33. fraternal blood! DANIEL WEBSTER—Second Speech on Foot's And grace that won who saw to wish her stay. Resolution. Jan. 26, 1830.

MILTONParadise Lost. Bk. VIII. L. 43. He touched the dead corpse of Public Credit,

From vulgar bounds with brave disorder part, and it sprung upon its feet.

And snatch a grace beyond the reach of art. DANIEL WEBSTER — Speech on Hamilton.

POPE--Essay on Criticism. L. 152. March 10, 1831.

18 7 We have been taught to regard a representative

God give him grace to groan!

Love's Labour's Lost. Act. IV. Sc. 3. L. 21. of the people as a sentinel on the watch-tower of liberty DANIEL WEBSTER. To the Senate. May 7, O, then, what graces in my love do dwell, 1834.

That he hath turn'd a heaven unto a hell! 8

Midsummer Night's Dream. Act I. Sc. 1. L. (He would do his duty as he saw it) without 206. regard to scraps of paper called constitutions. KING WILLIAM to the Prussian Diet disregard Hail to thee, lady! and the grace of heaven,

ing the refusal of the Representatives to Before, behind thee and on every hand,
grant appropriations. Harper's Weekly,

Enwheel thee round!
March 26, 1887. Article on EMPEROR Othello. Act II. Sc. 1. L. 85.
WILLIAM I, of Germany.

For several virtues

Have I lik'd several women; never any No man ever saw the people of whom he forms

With so full soul, but some defect in her a part. No man ever saw a government. I live And put it to the foil.

Did quarrel with the noblest grace she ow'd, in the midst of the Government of the United States, but I never saw the Government of the

Tempest. Act III. Sc. 1. L. 42. United States. Its personnel extends through

22 all the nations, and across the seas, and into every

He does it with a better grace, but I do it more corner of the world in the persons of the repre

natural. sentatives of the United States in foreign capitals Twelfth Night. Act II. Sc. 3. L. 88. and in foreign centres of commerce.

23 WOODROW WILSON-Speech at Pittsburgh. The three black graces, Law, Physic, and Jan. 29, 1916.

Divinity. 10

HORACE and JAMES SMITH-Punch's Holiday. Wherever magistrates were appointed from 24 among those who complied with the injunctions Narcissus is the glory of his race: of the laws, he (Socrates) considered the govern- For who does nothing with a better grace? ment to be an aristocracy.

YOUNG--Love of Fame. Satire IV. L. 85.















Happy insect! what can be

In happiness compared to thee? Nay, in death's hand, the grape-stone proves

Fed with nourishment divine, As strong as thunder is in Jove's.

The dewy morning's gentle wine! COWLEY-Elegy upon Anacreon. L. 106. Nature waits upon thee still,

And thy verdant cup does fill; The fathers have eaten sour grapes, and the 'Tis fill'd wherever thou dost tread, children's teeth are set on edge.

Nature's self's thy Ganymede. Ezekiel. XVIII. 2; Jeremiah. XXXI. 29. COWLEY—Anacreontiques. No. 10. Grasshopper. 3

Is not the gleaning of the grapes of Ephraim Green little vaulter, in the sunny grass, better than the vintage of Abi-ezer? Judges. VIII. 2.

Catching your heart up at the feel of June,

Sole noise that's heard amidst the lazy noon, Uvaque conspecta livorem ducit ab uva.

When ev'n the bees lag at the summoning brass. The grape gains its purple tinge by looking

LEIGH HUNT—To the Grasshopper and the at another grape.

Cricket. JUVENAL-Satires. II. 81.

When all the birds are faint with the hot sun, GRASS

And hide in cooling trees, a voice will run

From hedge to hedge about the new-mown mead; The scented wild-weeds and enamelld moss.

That is the grasshopper'she takes the lead CAMPBELL-Theodric.

In summer luxury-he has never done (See also MILTON)

With his delights, for when tired out with fun,

He rests at ease beneath some pleasant weed. Grass grows at last above all graves.

KEATS–On the Grasshopper and Cricket.
JULIA C. R. DORR-Grass-Grown.

We say of the oak, “How grand of girth!"
Of the willow we say, "How slender!"

If hush'd the loud whirlwind that ruffled the And yet to the soft grass clothing the earth

deep, How slight is the praise we render.

The sky if no longer dark tempests deform; EDGAR FAWCETT-The Grass.

When our perils are past shall our gratitude sleep?

No! Here's to the pilot that weather'd the All flesh is grass.

storm! Isaiah. XL. 6.

GEORGE CANNING—Song (on "Billy Pitt"). 9

Sung at a public dinner, May 28, 1802. A blade of grass is always a blade of grass, 20 whether in one country or another.

Gratus animus est una virtus non solum maxiSAMUEL JOHNSON—Mrs. Piozzi's Anecdotes of ma, sed etiam mater virtutum omnium reliquaJohnson. P. 100.


A thankful heart is not only the greatest The green grass floweth like a stream

virtue, but the parent of all

the other virtues. Into the ocean's blue.

CICEROOratio Pro Cnco Plancio. XXXIII. LOWELLThe Sirens. L. 87.

Praise the bridge that carried you over. O'er the smooth enamellid green

GEO. COLMAN (the Younger)---Heir-at-Law. Where no print of step hath been.

Act I. Sc. 1. MILTON--Arcades. (See also CAMPBELL)

Gratitude is expensive. 12

GIBBONDecline and Fall of the Roman EmAnd pile them high at Gettysburg

pire. And pile them high at Ypres and Verdun. Shovel them under and let me work.

The still small voice of gratitude.

GRAY-For Music. St. 5.
I am the grass.

Let me work.

The gratitude of most men is but a secret desire

of receiving greater benefits.
While the grass grows-

The proverb is something musty.
Hamlet. Act III. Sc. 2. L. 358.

La reconnaissance est la mémoire du cour.

Gratitude is the memory of the heart. How lush and lusty the grass looks! how green! MASSIEU to the ABBÉ SICARD. Tempest. Act II. Sc. 1. L. 52.

A grateful mind Whylst grass doth grow, oft sterves the seely By owing owes not, but still pays, at steede.

Indebted and discharg'd. WHETSTONE-Promos and Cassandra. (1578) MILTON-Paradise Lost















Gratia pro rebus merito debetur inemtis.

Thanks are justly due for things got without purchase. OVID—Amorum. I. 10. 43.

For the angels of God upturned the sod

And laid the dead man there.

11 Inn of a traveller on his way to Jerusalem. Translation of the Latin on the monument of

DEAN ALFORD. St. Martin's Churchyard,

(See also Scott)



Conveniens homini est hominem servare volup

tas. Et melius nulla quæritur arte favor.

It is a pleasure appropriate to man, for him to save a fellow-man, and gratitude is acquired in no better way.

Ovm-Epistolae Ex Ponto. II. 9. 39. Th' unwilling gratitude of base mankind!

POPE-Second Book of Horace. Ep. I. L. 14.

Non est diuturna possessio in quam gladio ducimus; beneficiorum gratia sempiterna est.

That possession which we gain by the sword is not lasting; gratitude for benefits is eternal. QUINTUS CURTIUS RUFUSDe Rebus Gestis

Alexandri Magni. VIII. 8. 11. Qui gratus futurus est statim dum accipit de reddendo cogitet.

Let the man, who would be grateful, think of repaying a kindness, even while receiving it. SENECA -De Beneficiis. II. 25.

L'ingratitude attire les reproches comme la reconnaissance attire de nouveaux bienfaits.

Ingratitude calls forth reproaches as gratitude brings renewed kindnesses. MME. DE SÉVIGNÉ-Lettres.

Mine be the breezy hill that skirts the down;

Where a green grassy turf is all I crave, With here and there a violet bestrown,

Fast by a brook or fountain's murmuring wave; And many an evening sun shine sweetly

on my grave! BEATTIEThe Minstrel. Bk. II. St. 17.

13 Here's an acre sown indeed, With the richest royalest seed. FRANCIS BEAUMONT. On the Tombs in Westminster Abbey.

(See also LONGFELLOW, TAYLOR) One foot in the grave. BEAUMONT AND FLETCHER—The Little French Lawyer. Act I. Sc. 1.

(See also ERASMUS)





See yonder maker of the dead man's bed,
The sexton, hoary-headed chronicle,
Of hard, unmeaning face, down which ne'er stole
A gentle tear.

BLAIRThe Grave. L. 451.


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The grave, dread thing! Men shiver when thou'rt named: Nature ap

palled, Shakes off her wonted firmness.

BLAIR—The Grave.



Nigh to a grave that was newly made, Leaned a sexton old on his earth-worn spade.



Let but the commons hear this testament-
Which, pardon me, I do not mean to read-
And they would go and kiss dead Cæsar's wounds
And dip their napkins in his sacred blood,
Yea, beg a hair of him for memory,
And, dying, mention it within their wills,
Bequeathing it as a rich legacy
Unto their issue.

Julius Cæsar. Act III. Sc. 2. L. 135.



I've heard of hearts unkind, kind deeds

With coldness still returning;
Alas! the gratitude of men

Hath often left me mourning.

The grave is Heaven's golden gate,
And rich and poor around it wait;
O Shepherdess of England's fold,
Behold this gate of pearl and gold!
WM. BLAKE Dedication of the Designs to

Blair's Grave." To Queen Charlotte.
Build me a shrine, and I could kneel

To rural Gods, or prostrate fall; Did I not see, did I not feel.

That one GREAT SPIRIT governs all. O Heaven, permit that I may lie

Where o'er my corse green branches wave;
And those who from life's tumults fly

With kindred feelings press my grave.
BLOOMFIELD-Love of the Country. St. 4.



Gravestones tell truth scarce forty years.

SIR THOMAS BROWNEHydriotaphia. Ch. V.

And he buried him in a valley in the land of
Moab, over against Beth-peor; but no man know-
eth of his sepulcher unto this day.

Deut. XXXIV. 6.
By Nebo's lonely mountain,

On this side Jordan's wave, in a vale in the land of Moab,

There lies a lonely grave;
But no man built that sepulcher,
And no man saw it e'er,

He that unburied lies wants not his hearse,
For unto him a tomb's the Universe.
SIR THOMAS BROWNE-Religio Medici. Pt. I.

Sec. XLI.
(See also LUCANUS under MONUMENTS)

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