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14 All hell broke loose.

MILTONParadise Lost. Bk. IV. L. 918.


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The gates that now Stood open wide, belching outrageous flame Far into Chaos, since the fiend pass'd through.

MILTON--Paradise Lost. Bk. X. L. 232.
In inferno nulla est redemptio.

There is no redemption from hell.
POPE PAUL III, when Michael Angelo refused

to alter a portrait introduced among the

condemned in his "Last Judgment." To rest, the cushion and soft dean invite, Who never mentions hell to ears polite.

POPE-Moral Essays. Ep. IV. L. 149.

He knoweth not that the dead are there; and that her guests are in the depths of hell.

Proverbs. IX. 18.




Hell is paved with good intentions.
SAMUEL JOHNSON-(Quoted) Boswell's Life of
Johnson. (1775)

(See also BERNARD) 5 Et metus ille foras præceps Acheruntis agundus, Funditus humanam qui vitam turbat ab imo, Omnia suffuscans mortis nigrore, neque ullam Esse voluptatem liquidam puramque relinquit.

The dreadful fear of hell is to be driven out, which disturbs the life of man and renders it miserable, overcasting all things with the blackness of darkness, and leaving no pure, unalloyed pleasure. LUCRETIUSDe Rerum Natura. III. 37.

6 Look where he goes! but see he comes again Because I stay! Techelles, let us march And weary death with bearing souls to hell. MARLOWE—Tamburlane the Great. Act V.

Sc. III. L. 75. 7 A dungeon horrible, on all sides round, As one great furnace, flamed; yet from those

flames No light, but rather darkness visible Serv'd only to discover sights of woe, Regions of sorrow, doleful shades, where peace And rest can never dwell

, hope never comes That comes to all; but torture without end.

MOTOn-Paradise Lost. Bk. I. L. 61.

Do not be troubled by St. Bernard's saying that "Hell is full of good intentions and wills. FRANCIS DE SALESLetter to MADAME DE

CHANTAL. (1605) Letter XII. P. 70. Selections from the Spiritual Letters of S. FRANCIS DE SALES. Trans. by the author of "A Dominican Artist." Letter LXXIV in BLAISE ed. Quoted also in Letter XXII, Bk. II. of LEONARD's ed. (1726) COLLET'S La Vraie et Solide Piété. Pt. I. Ch. LXXV.

(See also BAXTER)

Black is the badge of hell, The hue of dungeons and the suit of night.

Love's Labour's Lost. Act IV. Sc. 3. L. 254.


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Hail, horrors, hail,
Infernal world! and thou profoundest hell,
Receive thy new possessor.
Milton-Paradise Lost. Bk. I. L. 251.

Long is the way And hard, that out of hell leads up to light.

MILTONParadise Lost. Bk. II. L. 432. 10

Hell Grew darker at their frown.

MILTON-Paradise Lost. Bk. II. L. 719. 11

On a sudden open fly With impetuous recoil and jarring sound Th' infernal doors, and on their hinges grate Harsh thunder.

MILTON- Paradise Lost. Bk. II. L. 879. 12

Nor from hell
One step no more than from himself can fly
By change of place.
MILTONParadise Lost. Bk. IV. L. 21.

Myself am Hell;
And, in the lowest deep, a lower deep,
Still threat'ning to devour me, opens wide;
To which the hell I suffer seems a heaven.

MILTONParadise Lost. Bk. IV. L. 75.

It has been more wittily than charitably said that hell is paved with good intentions; they have their place in heaven also. SOUTHEY-Colloquies on Society.

(See also BERNARD) St. Austin might have returned another answer to him that asked him, “What God employed himself about before the world was made?" "He was making hell." SOUTHEYCommonplace Book, Fourth Series.

P. 591. (See also AUGUSTINE) Self-love and the love of the world constitute hell. SWEDENBORG-Apocalypse Explained. Par.

1,144. Nay, then, what flames are these that leap and

swell As 'twere to show, where earth's foundations

The secrets of the sepulchres of hell

On Dante's track?
SWINBURNE-In Guernsey. Pt. IV. St. 3.











Facilis descensus Averno est; Noctes atque dies patet atri janua Ditis; Ayude Dios con lo suyo á cada uno. Sed revocare gradum, superasque evadere ad God helps everyone with what is his own. auras,

CERVANTES-Don Quixote. Pt. II. 26. Hoc opus, hic labor est.

(See also ÆSCHYLUS, EURIPIDES, SIDNEY) Easy is the descent to Lake Avernus (mouth of Hades); night and day the gate of gloomy Heaven's help is better than early rising. Dis (god of Hades) is open; but to retrace one's CERVANTES-Don Quixote, Vol. III. Pt. II. steps, and escape to the upper air, this indeed Ch. XXXIV. is a task; this indeed is a toil. VERGIL Æneid. VI. 26. (“Averni” in some If I can stop one heart from breaking, editions.)

I shall not live in vain;

If I can ease one life the aching,
In the throat

Or cool one pain,
Of Hell, before the


Or help one fainting robin
Of opening Orcus, sit Remorse and Grief,

Into his nest again, And pale Disease, and sad Old Age and Fear, I shall not live in vain. And Hunger that persuades to crime, and Want: EMILY DICKINSON-Life. Forms terrible to see. Suffering and Death Inhabit here, and Death's own brother Sleep; Homo qui erranti comiter monstrat viam, And the mind's evil lusts and deadly War, Quasi lumen de suo lumine accendit, facit: Lie at the threshold, and the iron beds

Nihilominus ipsi luceat, cum illi accenderit. Of the Eumenides; and Discord wild

He who civilly shows the way to one who has Her viper-locks with bloody fillets bound.

missed it, is as one who has lighted another's VERGILÆnid. Bk. VI. L. 336. C. P. lamp from his own lamp; it none the less gives CRANCH's trans.

light to himself when it burns for the other.

ENNIUS. Quoted by CICERO. De Officiis. 1. 16. In the deepest pits of 'Ell, Where the worst defaulters dwell

God helps him who strives hard. (Charcoal devils used as fuel as you require 'em),

There's some lovely coloured rays,

(See also CERVANTES)
Pyrotechnical displays,
But you can't expect the burning to admire 'em! Turn, gentle Hermit of the Dale,
EDGAR WALLACE–Nature Fails. L'Envoi.

And guide my lonely way
To where yon taper cheers the vale

With hospitable ray.
Die Helle ist mit Mönchskappen, Pfaffenfal-
ten, und Pickelhauben gepflastert.

GOLDSMITH-Vicar of Wakefield. The Hermit.

Hell is paved with monks' cowls, priests’
drapery, and spike-helmets.
WANDER traces the saying to 1605.

Light is the task when many share the toil.

HOMERIliad. Bk. XII. L. 493. BRYANT'S (See also CHRYSOSTOM)

trans. That's the greatest torture souls feel in hell,

Nabis sine cortice.
In hell, that they must live, and cannot die.
JOHN WEBSTERDuchess of Malfi. Act IV.

You will swim without cork (without help).

HORACE-Satires. Bk. I. 4. 120.
Sc. 1. L. 84.

Make two grins grow where there was only a

grouch before. To the man who himself strives earnestly, ELBERT HUBBARD-Pig-Pen Pete. Why I Ride God also lends a helping hand.

Horseback. ÆSCHYLUS-Persæ. 742. (See also CERVANTES)

Is not a patron, my lord, one who looks with

unconcern on a man struggling for life in the The foolish ofttimes teach the wise:

water, and when he has reached ground encumI strain too much this string of life, belike,

bers him with help? Meaning to make such music as shall save.

SAMUEL JOHNSONBoswell's Life of Johnson. Mine eyes are dim now that they see the truth, (1754) My strength is waned now that my need is most; Would that I had such help as man must have, I want to help you to grow as beautiful as God For I shall die, whose life was all men's hope. meant you to be when he thought of you first. EDWIN ARNOLD-Light of Asia. Bk. VÌ. L. GEORGE MacDoNALDThe Marquis of Lossie. 109.












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Ferryman ho! In the night so black
Hark to the clank of iron;
'Tis heroes of the Yser,
'Tis sweethearts of glory,
'Tis lads who are unafraid!

Ferryman, ho!
LUCIEN BOYER—La Maison du Passeur.


I want a hero: an uncommon want,
When every year and month sends forth a new

BYRON-Don Juan Canto I. St. 1.


Tsuga Canadensis
O Tannenbaum, O Tannenbaum,

Wie treu sind deine Blätter.
Du grünst nicht nur zur Sommerzeit,

Nein, auch im Winter wenn es schneit,
O Tannenbaum, 0 Tannenbaum,
Wie treu sind deine Blätter.
O hemlock-tree! O hemlock-tree! how faith-

ful are thy branches!
Green not alone in summer time,

But in the winter's frost and rime!
O hemlock-tree! O hemlock-tree! how faith-

ful are thy branches! AUGUST ZARNACK's version of Old German

Folk Song. Trans. by LONGFELLOW-The

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Hero-worship exists, has existed, and will forever exist, universally among Mankind. CARLYLE-Sartor Resartus. Organic Fila



HEN Alas! my child, where is the Pen That can do justice to the Hen? Like Royalty, she goes her way, Laying foundations every day, Though not for Public Buildings, yet For Custard, Cake and Omelette. Or if too old for such a use They have their fling at some abus As when to censure Plays Unfit Upon the stage they make a Hit Or at elections seal the Fate Of an Obnoxious Candidate. No wonder, Child, we prize the Hen, Whose Egg is Mightier than the Pen.


Il faut être bien héros pour l'être aux yeux de son valet-de-chambre.

A man must indeed be a hero to appear such in the eyes of his valet. MARSHAL CATINAT.

(See also CORNUEL)

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Hepatica All the woodland path is broken By warm tints along the way, And the low and sunny slope

Is alive with sudden hope When there comes the silent token Of an April day,

Blue hepatica!

Il n'y a pas de grand homme pour son valet-dechambre.

No man is a hero to his valet. MME. DE CORNUEL. See MLLE. AISSÉ—Let

ters. 161. (Paris, 1853.) (See also ANTIGONUS, BAYARD, GOETHE, LA

The hero is not fed on sweets,
Daily his own heart he eats;
Chambers of the great are jails,
And head-winds right for royal sails.

EMERSON-Essays. Heroism. Introduction.










Self-trust is the essence of heroism.

Rarement ils sont grands vis-à-vis de leur EMERSON-Essay. Heroism.


Rarely do they appear great before their Each man is a hero and an oracle to somebody, valets. and to that person whatever he says has an en LA BRUYÈRE—Caractères. hanced value.

(See also CORNUEL) EMERSONLetters and Social Aims. Quotation and Originality.

There are heroes in evil as well as in good.

LA ROCHEFOUCAULD-Maxims. No. 194. Es gibt für den Kammerdiener keinen Helden. To a valet no man is a hero.

Crowds speak in heroes. GOETHE-Wahlverwandtschaften. II. 5. Aus GERALD STANLEY LEE—Crowds. Bk. IV. Ch. Ottilien's Tagebüche.

III. (See also CORNUEL)

There is never any real danger in allowing a But to the hero, when his sword

pedestal for a hero. He never has time to sit on Has won the battle for the free,

it. One sees him always over and over again Thy voice sounds like a prophet's word,

kicking his pedestal out from under him, and And in its hollow tones are heard

using it to batter a world with. The thanks of millions yet to be.

GERALD STANLEY LEE—Crowds. Bk. V. Pt. Fitz-GREENE HALLECK-Marco Bozzaris.


16 It hath been an antient custom among them Dost thou know what a hero is? Why, a hero (Hungarians) that none should wear a fether but is as much as one should say,-a hero. he who had killed a Turk, to whom onlie yt was LONGFELLOW-Hyperion. Bk. I. Ch. I. lawful to shew the number of his slaine enemys by the number of fethers in his cappe.

'Tis as easy to be heroes as to sit the idle slaves RICHARD HANSARD-Description of Hungary,

Of a legendary virtue carved upon our father's Anno 1599. Lansdowne MS. 776. Vol. 149.

graves. British Museum.

LOWELL-The Present Crisis. St. 15.
The boy stood on the burning deck
Whence all but he had fled;

Tel a esté miraculeux au monde, auquel sa The flame that lit the battle's wreck,

femme et son valet n'ont rien veu seulement de Shone round him o'er the dead.

remarquable; peu d'hommes ont esté admirez

par leur domestiques. The flames rollid on-he would not go

Such an one has been, as it were, miraculous Without his Father's word;

in the world, in whom his wife and valet have That Father, faint in death below,

seen nothing even remarkable; few men have His voice no longer heard.

been admired by their servants. FELICIA D. HEMANS—Casabianca.


(See also CORNUEL) Heroes as great have died, and yet shall fall. HOMER-Niad. Bk. XV. L. 157. POPE's

See the conquering hero comes!

Sound the trumpets, beat the druns! trans.

Dr. Thos. MORELL-Words used by HANDEL Hail, Columbia! happy land!

in Joshua, and Judas Maccabæus. (IntroHail, ye heroes! heaven-born band!

duced in stage version of LEE's Rival Queens. Who fought and bled in Freedom's cause.

Act II. Sc. 1.) JOSEPH HOPKINSON-Hail, Columbia!

My personal attendant does not think so much Vixere fortes ante Agamemnona

of these things as I do. Multi: sed omnes illacrimabiles

PLUTARCH-De Iside. Ch. XXIV. Also in Urgentur, ignotique longa

Regnum et Imperatorum. Apothegmata. II. Nocte, carent quia vate sacro.

28. (Tauchnitz Ed.) Many heroes lived before Agamemnon, but

(See also CORNUEL) they are all unmourned, and consigned to ob

21 livion, because they had no bard to sing their Do we weep for the heroes who died for us, praises.

Who living were true and tried for us, HORACE-Carmina. IV. 9. 25.

And dying sleep side by side for us; 10

The martyr band The idol of to-day pushes the hero of yester

That hallowed our land day out of our recollection; and will, in turn, be

With the blood they shed in a tide for us? supplanted by his successor of to-morrow.

ABRAM J. RYAN-C. S. A. WASHINGTON IRVING-The Sketch Book. Westminster Abbey.

The last flash

and the hideous attack 11

Dies like a wisp of storm- discouraged flame; Still the race of hero spirits pass the lamp from And soon these battered heroes will come back, hand to hand.

The same but yet not the same. CHARLES KINGSLEY-The World's Age.

LOUIS UNTERMEYER--Return of the Soldiers.










HISTORY Happy is the nation without

a history. BECCARIA-Trattato dei Delitti e delle Pene

(Treatise of Crimes and of Punishment). 2 Introduction. History is a pageant, not a philosophy. AUGUSTINE BIRRELL-Obiter Dicta. The Muse

of History. 3

I have read somewhere or other, in Dionysius of Halicarnassus, I think, that history is philosophy teaching by examples. LORD BOLINGBROKE (Henry St. John)-On

the Study and Use of History. Letter 2. Also quoted by CARLYLEEssays. History.

(See also DIONYSIUS)


Que voulez-vous de plus? Il a inventé l'histoire.

What more would you have? He has invented history. MADAME DU DEFFAND of Voltaire, who was

accused by critics of lack of invention. See

FOURIERL'Esprit dans Histoire. P. 141. The contact with manners then is education; and this Thucydides appears to assert when he says history is philosophy learned from examples. DIONYSIUS of HALICARNASSUS—Ars Rhetorica.

XI. 2. P. 212. (Tauchnitz Ed.) See
THUCYDIDES—Works. I. 22.

(See also BOLINGBROKE) Assassination has never changed the history of the world.

BENJ. DISRAELI-Speech. May, 1865. There is properly no history, only biography. EMERSON-Essays. History.

(See also CARLYLE) The reign of Antoninus is marked by the rare advantage of furnishing very few materials for history, which is indeed little more than the register of the crimes, follies, and misfortunes of mankind. GIBBONDecline and Fall of the Roman Empire. (1776) Ch. III.

(See also VOLTAIRE) And read their history in a nation's eyes.

GRAY-Elegy in a Country Churchyard. St. 16.



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Histories are as perfect as the Historian is wise, and is gifted with an eye and a soul. CARLYLE—Cromwell's Letters and Speeches.

Introduction. Ch. I.

The long historian of my country's woes.
HOMER-Odyssey. Bk. III. L. 142. POPE's


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History casts its shadow far into the land of song. LONGFELLOW-Outre-Mer. Ancient Spanish







History is the essence of innumerable Biographies. CARLYLE—Essays. On History,

(See also EMERSON) 10 In a certain sense all men are historians.

CARLYLE--Essays. On History. 11

History, as it lies at the root of all science, is also the first distinct product of man's spiritual nature; his earliest expression of what can be called Thought.

CARLYLE-Essays. On History.

12 All history

is an inarticulate Bible. CARLYLE-Latter Day Pamphlets. 405. 13

All history is a Bible--a thing stated in words by me more than once. CARLYLEQuoted in EROUDE's Early Life of

Carlyle. 14 Happy the People whose Annals are blank in History-Books. CARLYLE-Life of Frederick the Great. Bk.

XVI. Ch. I.

They who live in history only seemed to walk the earth again.

LONGFELLOWThe Belfry of Bruges. St. 9.

I shall cheerfully bear the reproach of having descended below the dignity of history. MACAULAYHistory of England. Vol. I. Ch. I.

(See also BOLINGBROKE) Happy the people whose annals are tiresome.


[History) hath triumphed over Time, which besides it, nothing but Eternity hath triumphed SIR WALTER RALEIGHThe History of the

World. Preface. In a word, we may gather out of history a policy no less wise than eternal; by the comparison and application of other men's forepassed miseries with our own like errors and ill deservings. SIR WALTER RALEIGHHistory of the World Preface. Par. IX.

(See also Tacitus)



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