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may have twelve or thirteen: but it does not entirely depend on the will of the party how many syllables he may have, but on the number out of the “ ten virtues” that he possesses. This king, with the title of fifteen syllables, took more it is said than he deserved, and therefore his reign was but short. Some king, a long while ago,
in Ceylon, took a title of twenty-one words at the time he had reigned seven years; but after this act of presumption he lived to enjoy his honours only seven days. It is not lawful to translate the title of the king. The number of words in a title forms a gradation of rank. Persons may not assume place with those who have longer titles than themselves; if they do, the party intruded on may cut (with his knife, the sitting party of) the intruder.
(4) This is the translation of the name of a pagoda of large size in the city of Ava. The occasion of its construction was as follows: -Upon ascending the throne, the king gave to his four younger brothers employment in the government, and built palaces for them near his own, at the four cardinal points. The three younger of these brothers conspired against their eldest brother and sovereign to put him to death; their excuse for which was, that he had constituted his own son heir-apparent in contravention of the dying commands of ALOMPRA, who had directed that his sons should succeed to the throne, according to their seniority; asserting moreover, that SAN E-PY00-SHANE was not entitled to reign, having been born whilst their father was yet a man of low estate ; but that they were the lawful heirs, being the sons of the king. The remaining brother, MOWN-WINE (grandfather of the present king), having also been born before their father became a king, was not admitted to the conspiracy. The conspiracy failed, and their lives were of course forfeited; but the king spared them, and built the pagoda in question to commemorate the circumstance: two of them, however, were afterwards put to death, and the third banished to a distance, by MOWN-WINE. The accessions from ALOMPRA to the sent king have been as follows:
First. ALOMPRA, in the year of GUADAMA Second. His son, NowN-DAWGHEE Third, SANE-PYOO-SHANE brother of the last Fourth. SANE-G00-2A, Son of the last....... Fifth. Guamown, Son of the second, reigned but seven days 1143 Sixth. ALOMPRA's son, Mown-WINE Seventh. The present king, grandson of the last (5) Or rather Nats, imaginary beings, good and bad: the good inhabit certain stages of the sacred mountain " Myeen-Moe," or the “highest;" the bad live in jungles and hills on earth, and
1116 1123 1134 1140
trouble mankind. Very good men, after death, may become Nats. The day of a Nat is equal to a hundred years of the days of man, and their lives consist of a thousand years of these days; they then vanish into nothing, as from nothing they arose.
(6) Such is the number of the diseases their writings say the body is subject to.
(7) First, the place where a woman rules; second, that where only brute animals exist; third, where a minor is king, &c. &c. Hell.
(8) Rulers, thieves, fire, water, people who hate one.
(9) The speaker prays for that which as an ordinary man he would wish for in a future state of existence. As a priest, he must not even touch gold or silver, and should not possess any secular property.
(10) Thabike is the name of the black earthen pot which the priests suspend in front of them when they go their rounds to collect food. It should be five spans in circumference.
(11) Thanegan is the name of the robe, or upper garment, which the priests wear, The people look with the greatest reverence on it, and with corresponding horror on its being applied to any common purpose, as was often shewn during the late war by their remarks when any of our troops or followers were seen in possession of one.
Although youths of all ages appear clothed in it, they are not yet priests, nor can they be till the age of twenty-one. Up to this period they are merely probationers, and employ themselves in reading the sacred writings, attending on the elder priests, and studying the “ ten rules,” viz. First, not to take away life; second, not to take furtively the smallest thing ; third, to lead a life of celibacy; fourth, not to speak untruths; fifth, not to partake of any thing of inebriating quality; sixth, not to eat after noon; seventh, not to dance; eighth, not to wear any scented or other flowers, not to use any perfume or look in a glass, and not to look on at feasts and dancing, or listen to music; ninth, not to sleep on any bedstead of more than a cubit high, nor on a soft bed, but on a mat or carpet ; tenth, not to touch even gold, silver, or precious stones. If a novice offend against any of the first five of these, he cannot remain as a student, but must put off the priest's garment, and as the phrase is, “ become a man again,” until by penance he has amended. Offence against the other five may be forgiven, upon merely performing certain acts of penance enjoined by the superior, as sweeping the floor, drawing water, &c. &c.
• The Chinese priests sometimes use a similar sort of garment.
(12) To sit on.
(13) Which must be made of double cloth. That worn by the novice is single.
(14) A mike is a measure of length, the distance between the point of the thumb and the outside of the clenched hand.
(15) Which produces a brilliant yellow.
(16) These leaves are somewhat acid, and seem used to fix the colour.
(17) “ Thyne" is the name of a house built for worship in a secluded place. One description of thyne is built on ground the entire property of which has been purchased from the sovereign for that particular purpose, by some one wishing to perform a work of merit in making an offering of the same. The mere price may be great, or the sum expended may be large, from the necessity of giving large bribes to the courtiers to procure the royal permission. A thyne near Shwaydown, known to the Burman who translates this, built by one of the king's steersmen, cost perhaps ten thousand ticals.
(18) Three of the company set apart for the purpose. (19) See Levit. c. xxi. v 17. et seq.
(20) This question is put, because they have an idea that in former times certain malignant beings of superior power occasionally assumed the human form, and having obtained admission to the priesthood, did afterwards grievously offend against its canons, and thereby draw down much scandal on the order.
(21) This is asked, because people of this class are said to be oppressive to the poor, forgetful of their parents, haughty, and fomenters of trouble.
(22) Use of eyes, ears, nose, arms and legs, and trunk.
(24) Or rather receive it when offered. A priest may not ask for food, but should stand mutely before a door for a time, and take it
(25) Because each person chooses what day he likes to make his religious offering on.
(26) There are four worship days: the eighth day of the increase, the full, the eighth day of the decrease, and the disappearing of the moon.
(27) He may not construct a residence for himself.
(28) Two of these are, the terminalia chebula of Wildenow, and the phyllanthus emblica of Linnæus. The name of the other is uncertain,
(29) The “ten precepts” are as follow: first, to make religious offerings; second, to refrain from taking away life, from stealing, lying, and committing adultery, and from the use of whatever inebriates; third, to repeat portions of the law (divine); fourth, to assist one's parents or teacher if they fall into difficulties; fifth, to rejoice on account of one's good works; sixth, to invite friends to do the same; seventh, to abide by the law; eighth, to listen to the preaching of the same; ninth, to desire to continue in the straight road (to virtue); tenth, divinity, law, the ministers of religion, and things belonging to it; one's parents, teacher, old people, and people of wealth and respectability; all these are to be honoured.
(39) In the next life, the rhahán in question may rise to a higher grade of being, and return to the same for ten thousand returns of life; and should he become a man, he will have every thing that is good, and be provided for as if he had a tree which produces all the necessaries of life at the wish. The man who offers the thing to the priest will have his corresponding good fortune also.
It seems strange that there is not throughout the book any mention made of a certain fancy entertained amongst the Burmans, and looked upon by some as the thing most to be desired, viz. Nirvan, or annihilation. Observation by the Rev. Dr. MORRISON, referred to in Mr.
Knox's Letter, p. 25.
There is much that is very interesting in this MS.
Description of the Climate at Manantoddy, communicated by Captain Minchin,
Commanding the Wynaud Rangers.
Mean Temp: at
63 58 “Greatestheat. 68
74 781 79 78 72 681 681 72 72 “Temp: at 12.
1 P. M.
76 76 76 71 671 671 703 711 72 71 Extreme Indication of Ther.39.72 44.78 58.79 58.8262.81 62.78 63.7061.70 58.74 54.74 54.74 51.74 Mean Temperature, 60 651 72 73 73}
69 67 67 68 69 69 67 No. of days rain fell. 0 0 7 기
26 311 31 101 12