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hit upon one that succeeded to his wishes; for, faking the opportunity of Antipater's one day dining with Hyrcanus, he bribed the butler to put poison into his wine, of which he instantly expired, and Malicus with an armed force, (which he had prepared for the purpose) immediately seized on the government of Jerusalem.-Such was the end of Antipater, a man of consummate wisdom, and undaunted resolution, and by whose means Hyrcanus was advanced to the sovereignty of Judea. He was of the greatest uprightness and probity, a friend to the distressed, and a true lover of his country.
As soon as the death of Antipater was publicly known, the people (who had the greatest veneration for him) suspecting that it was occasioned by Malicus, were exasperated against him to the highest-pitch of extravagance, and would certainly have murdered him, had he not, in the most solemn and public manner, declared himself totally innocent of the accusation laid against him. It was very natural for Malicus to apprehend that Pbasael and Herod would seek revenge for the death of their father; and therefore, to avoid the consequences, be assembled together a considerable body of troops, and by that means put himself into a condition of making a proper defence should he be suddenly attacked.
When Herod and his brother heard of the death of their father, they were greatly incensed against Malicus, whom, in their own minds, they were convinced was the author of it. Herod was desirous of wreaking instant vengeance on the abominable traitor; but his brother Phasael, dissuading him from that measure, from an un. willingness to disturb the public peace, they permitted him to make a defence, and assumed the appearance of being perfectly satisfied of his innocence; after which they proceeded to the interment of their father, the ceremonies of which they caused to be performed with the most distinguished magnificence.
Herod now went to Samaria in order to quell some disturbances which then prevailed in that part of the country. The first solemn day after his arrival at Samaria he went the preceding evening to Jerusalem, attended by his guards, in order to assist in the usual devotions on
that occasion. As soon as Malicus heard of his coming, being under great apprehension from Herod, he immediately repaired to Hyrcanus, and prevailed with him to expostulate with Herod on the impropriety of being attended by strangers, by whom the holy religion would be profaned, and the people interrupted in their devotional exercises. Herod treated the matter complained of by Hyrcanus with contempt, and in the night gained admittance, with his attendants, into the city. Malicus did not chuse to make any farther objections to Herod's guards being in the eity, or to take any measures that might be likely to produce a disturbance among the people, whom he knew to be warmly attached to Herod. On the contrary, he treated Herod with great apparent respect, and pretended to be exquisitely afflicted at the fate of Antipater. Herod saw through his iniquitous hypocrisy, but, dissembling his rage for the present, appeared to believe him sincere; and the next day, taking his leave, returned with his guards to Samaria.
Herod could now no longer contain his resentment against Malicus, and therefore, while he was at Samaria, he wrote a letter to Cassius, requesting that justice might be done upon the murderer of his father. Cassius, who already entertained an enmity against Malicus, readily consented that Herod should seek revenge, and for that purpose dispatched private orders to the different commanders of his troops, authorizing them to grant such assistance as he should require.
Malicus, conscious of his guilt, and suspecting that Herod was concerting some plot for his destruction, formed a plan for getting his son from Tyre (where he then resided in quality of an hostage) and retreating with him into Judea, hoping by those means the Jews might revolt, and his strength be thereby greatly increased; but reflecting on the desperate situation
of his affairs, and the little probability of succeeding in the attempt, he at length gave it up, and, instead thereof, suggested an enterprize of a much more dangerous nature. He determined to take advantage of Cassius being engaged in the war against Antony, and to spirit up the whole Jewish nation to an insurrection against the Romans; imagining that, if he
could but effect his point, he might easily depose Hyrca. nus, and, without any difficulty, obtain possession of the government of Judea.
But all the designs of Malicus were frustrated by means of Herod, whose patience being now worn out in not having obtained revenge for the death of his father, concerted a scheme for taking away the life of his treacherous murderer. He invited Hyrcanus and Malicus to an entertainment which he had appointed to be held on a certain day. In the mean time he sent one of his most confidential domestics to the officers of the Roman troops, with orders, that they should send a body of men to a certain spot which he mentioned, and which the two visitors were obliged to pass, and that as soon as they saw Malicus, they should immediately fall on him and put him to death, but by no means to do the least injury to Hyrcanis. The Roman commanders, in obedience to the directions sent them by Cassius, readily complied with the request of Herod, and sending a body of men at the time and place appointed, as soon as Malicus appeareil, they strictly obeyed their orders, by immediately falling on and putting him to death. This alarming and sudden event so affected Hyrcanus, that he fainted away, and remained totally insensible for some time. At length, recovering himself, he enquired by whom Malicus had been slain, and was answered by the Roman commander that he had been put to death by order of Cassius. “ Then, said Hyrcanus, I acknowledge Cassius to be the
preserver of my life and kingdom, the destruction of cí both which has been long meditated by the traitor “ Malicus.” Hyrcanus, however, certainly spoke this not as the real sentiments of his mind, but from the impulse of fear, as appears from his conduct after the trans. action took place.
No sooner was the death of Malicus, and the manner of it, known in Jerusalem, than a party of his friends rose in arms to revenge it on the sons of Antipater; and having gained Hyrcanus, and Felix the commander of the Roman forces on their side, put the whole city into confusion. Herod was then at Damascus with Fabius the governor; and an indisposition rendered him incapa
ble of leading his troops to join his brother. Phasael, bowever, weathered the storm with great success, for, with his own forces, he drove Felix, and all his tumultuous party, out of Jerusalem; but not being able to pursue them, they soon possessed themselves of several strong places, not only in different parts of Judea, but likewise in Galilee.
Phasael reproached Hyrcanus, in the most spirited terms, for his ingratitude in espousing the cause of Felix, and giving the brother of Malicus possession of Massada, the strongest fort in the country, besides several other castles. He was, indeed, so irritated at the conduct of Hyrcanus, that he would, doubtless, have resented it with some severity, had it not been for a match at this time on foot (and which was soon after consummated) between his brother Herod and Mariamne,* the grand-daughter of Hyrcanus; on which account he suffered his resentment to subside, and all differences were made up between them.
In the mean time Herod, having recovered from his illness, left Damascus, and marching against the enemy soon retook the places they had conquered. He reduced three strong castles that had been taken by Marion, king of the Tyrians (who, by the favor of Cassius, had obtained not only the command of Tyre but all Syria) and drove that monarch out of Galilee. He shewed great lenity to the Tyrians whom he made prisoners, by not only sparing their lives, but likewise complimenting many with presents, by which means he made them friends to his cause.
But Herod had now a more powerful enemy to subdue, for Antigonus, the son of Aristobulus, having entered into a design of opposing him, for that purpose raised a
• She was the daughter of Alexander, the son of king Aristobulus, by Alexandra, the daughter of Hyrcanus II. She was a lady of ex. traordinary beauty and distinguished virtue, and, in all other laud. able qualifications, accomplished beyond most women of her time: but the real motive for Herod's desiring to make her his wife was, because the Jews, at that time, had a very zealous regard for the Asmonean family (that is, the descendants of the Maccabees) and therefore he thought that by marrying this lady, he should the more casily obtain the general affections of the people.
VOL. iii. N
powerful army, and, by a considerable bribe, engaged Fabius, the governor of Damascus, to join him. They accordingly marched to the borders of Judea, where, being met by Herod, a desperate battle ensued, in which the latter proved victorious, the army of Antigonus being totally routed, great numbers slain, and the rest, with their conjunctive leaders, obliged to save themselves by a precipitate flight.
After this conquest Herod returned in triumph to Jerusalem, where he was received with the greatest acclamations of joy. In a few days the marriage was consumimated between him and Mariamne, the grand-daughter of Hyrcanus, on which account those persons who had before been his enemies, now became his friends, and used every means in their power to promote his interest.
During these transactions a decisive battle took place near Philippi, in Macedonia, between the Roman armies under the command of Brutus and Cassius on the one part, and Mark Antony and Cæsar Octavianus on the other, in which the latter proved victorious. The two armies consisted of near 100,000 men each, and the contest lasted for some days. Brutus and Cassius both commanded in the action, but Cæsar Octavianus being sick in his tent, the command of the other army fell wholly upon Antony. The forces commanded by Cassius were soon repulsed so that he retired to a hill, in order to wait for an account of that part of the army which was commanded by Brutus; but in the confusion and dust, not being able to perceive what was doing, his mind misgave him that Brutus was overcome, and thereupon he commanded his servant Pindarus to cut off his head. Brutus, on the first day of the action, was so successful, that he made the enemy retire, and took Octavianus's camp; but, in a few days after, coming to a second general engagement, he was entirely routed, and being unwilling to fall into the hands of the enemy, he prevailed with his friend Strabo to dispatch him; which put a final close to the contest.
The two conquerors having thus subdued their enemies, separated their armies, Antony going with his forces into Asia, and Cæsar Octavianus retiring to Italy.