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certain that without this petty knowledge no man can be a poet; and that from the proper disposition of single sounds results that harmony that adds force to reason, and gives grace to sublimity; that shackles attention, and governs passions.
That verse may be melodious and pleasing, it is necessary, not only that the words be so ranged as that the accent may fall on its proper place, but that the syllables themselves be so chosen as to flow smoothly into one another. This is to be effected by a proportionate mixture of vowels and consonants, and by tempering the mute consonants with liquids and semivowels. The Hebrew grammarians have observed, that it is impossible to pronounce two consonants without the intervention of a vowel, or without some emission of the breath between one and the other; this is longer and more perceptible, as the sounds of the consonants are less harmonically conjoined, and, by consequence, the flow of the verse is longer interrupted.
It is pronounced by Dryden, that a line of monosyllables is almost always harsh. This, with regard to our language, is evidently true, not because monosyllables cannot compose harmony, but because our monofyllables being of Teutonick original, or formed by contraction, commonly begin and end with consonants, as,
- Every lower faculty
The difference of harmony arising principally from the collocation of vowels and consonants, will
be sufficiently conceived by attending to the following paffages :
The same comparison that I propose to be made between the fourth and fixth verses of this passage, may be repeated between the last lines of the follow, ing quotations :
Under foot the violet,
Here in close recess
Milton, whose ear had been accustomed, not only to the musick of the ancient tongues, which, however vitiated by our pronunciation, excel all that are now in use, but to the softness of the Italian, the most mellifluous of all modern poetry, seems fully convinced of the unfitness of our language for smooth versification, and is therefore pleased with an opportunity of calling in a fofter word to his asfistance; for this reason, and I believe for this only, he sometimes indulges himself in a long series of proper names, and introduces them where they add little but musick to his poem.
The richer seat
The T'ujian artist views
Or in Valdarno, to defcry new lands. He has indeed been more attentive to his syllables than to his accents, and does not often offend by collisions of consonants, or openings of vowels upon each other, at least not more often than other writers who have had less important or complicated subjects to take off their care from the cadence of their lines.
The great peculiarity of Milton's versification, compared with that of later poets, is the elision of one vowel before another, or the suppression of the laft fyllable of a word ending with a vowel, when a vowel begins the following word. As
Wisdom to folly, as nourishment to wind. This licence, though now disused in English poetry, was practised by our old writers, and is allowed in many other languages ancient and modern, and therefore the criticks on Paradise Lost have, without much deliberation, commended Milton for continuing it*. But one language cannot communicate
* In the original Rambler, in folio, our author's opinion appears dislerent, and is thus expressed :-" This licence, though an innovation in English poetry, is yet allowed in many other languages ancient and modern, and therefore the criticks on Paradise Loft have, without much deliberation, commended Milton for introducing it."
its rules to another. We have already tried and rejected the hexameter of the ancients, the double close of the Italians, and the alexandrine of the French; and the elision of vowels, however graceful it may seem to other nations, may be very
unsuitable to the genius of the English tongue.
There is reason to believe that we have negligently loft part of our vowels, and that the filent e, which our ancestors added to most of our monosyllables, was once vocal. By this detruncation of our fyllables, our language is overstocked with consonants, and it is more necessary to add vowels to the beginning of words, than to cut them off from the end.
Milton therefore seems to have somewhat mistaken the nature of our language, of which the chief defect is ruggedness and asperity, and has left our harsh cadences yet harsher. But his elisions are not all equally to be censured ; in some syllables they may be allowed, and perhaps in a few may be safely imitated. The abscission of a vowel is undoubtedly vicious when it is strongly sounded, and makes, with its associate confonant, a full and audible fyllable.
What he gives,
Fruits,--Hesperian fables truç,
Evening now approach'd,
Of guetts he makes them slaves,
And vital Virtue infus’d, and vital warmth
God made thee of choice his own, and of his own
I believe every reader will agree that in all those passages, though not equally in all, the musick is injured, and in some the meaning obscured. There are other lines in which the vowel is cut off, but it is so faintly pronounced in common speech, that the loss of it in poetry is scarcely perceived ; and therefore such compliance with the measure may
From the shore
Yet even these contractions encrease the roughness of a language too rough already; and though in long poems they may be sometimes suffered, it never can be faulty to forbear them.
Milton frequently uses in his poems the hyperme. trical or redundant line of eleven.syllables.
Thus it shall befal
I also err'd in over-much admiring.