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Chalcis. All these he treated with agreeable entertainments, and after an obligiog manner, and so as to exhibit the greatness of his mind, and so as to appear worthy of those respects which the kings paid to him, by coming thus to see him. How. over, while these kings staid with him, Marcus, the president of Syria, camo thither. So the king, in order to preserve the respect that was due to the Ro. mans, went out of the city to meet him, as far as seven furlongs. But this proves to be the begianing of a difference between him and Marcus; for he took with him in his chariot those other kings as his assessors.
But Marcus had a sus. picion what the meaning could be of so great a friendship of these kings one with another, and did not think so close an agreement of so many potentates to be for the interest of the Romans. He therefore sent some of his domestics to every one of them, and enjoined them to go their ways home without farther delay. This was very ill taken by Agrippa, who after that became his enemy. And now he took the high priesthood away from Matthias, and made Elioneus, the son of Can. theras, high-priest in his stead.
2. Now when Agrippa had reigned three years, over all Judea, he came to the city Cesarea, which was formerly called Strato's 'Tower; and there he exhibited shows in honour of Cæsar, upon his being informed that there was a certain festival celebrated to make rows for bis safety. At which festival a great multitude vas gotten together of the principal persons, and such as were of dignity through his province. On the second day of which shows he put on a garment made wholly of silver, and of a contexture truly wonderful, and came into the theatre early in the morning; at which time the silver of his garment being illuininated by the first reflection of the sun's rays upon it, shone out after a surprising man. ner, and was so resplendent as to spread a horror over those that looked intently upon him; and presently his flatterers cried out, one from one place and another from another (though not for his good,) that “ he was a god;" and they added, “be thou merciful to us ; for although we have hitherto reverenced thee only as a man, yet shall we henceforth own thee as a superior to mortal nature." Upon this the king did neither rebuke them nor reject their impious flattery. But as he presently afterward looked up, he saw an owl* sitting on a certain rope over his bead, and immediately understood that this bird was the messenger of ill tidings, as it had once been the messenger of good tidings to him; and fell into the deepest sorrow. A severe pain also arose in his belly, and began in a most violent
He therefore looked upon his friends, and said, “I, whom you call a god, am commanded presently to depart this life; while providence thus reproves the lying words you just now said to me; and I, who was by you called immortal, am immediately to be hurried away by death. But I am bound to accept of what Providence allots, as it pleases God; for we have by no means lived ill, but in a splendid and happy manner.” When he said this, his pain was become violent.
* We have a mighty cry made here by some critics, as if the great Eusebius had on purpose falsified this account of Josephus, so as to make it agree with the parallel account in the Acts of the Apostles; because the preseni copies of his citation of it, Hist. Eccles. B. ii. ch. x. ornit the words Babove-in oxsuvis, trucs, i. e. an owl-on a certain rope, which Josephus's present copies retain, and only have the explicatory word answer or angel; as if he meant that angel of the Lord which St. Luke mentions as siniting Herod, Acis, xii. 23, and not that owl which Josephus called an angel or messenger formerly of good, but now of bad news, to Agrippa. 'This accusation is a somewhat strange one in the case of the greal Eusebius, who is known to have so accurately and faithfully produced a vast number of other am cieat recorris, and particularly not a few out of our Josephus also, without any suspicion of prevarication Nqw, uot to allege how uncertain we are, whether Josephus's and Eusebius's copies of the fourth century were just like the present in this clause, which we have no distinct evidence of, the following words, preserved still in Eusebius, will not admit of any such exposition. “This (hird) (says Euscbius,) Agrippa presevtly perceived to be the cause of ill fortune, as it was once of good fortune to him;" which can only belong to that bird the owl, which, as it had formerly foreboded his happy deliverance from imprisonpvient, Antiq. b. xviii. ch. xi. sect. 7; so was it then foretold to prove afterward the unhappy forerunnet of bis death in five days tine. If the improper word astır, or cause, be changed for Josephus's proper word sexy sor angel or messenger, and the foregoing words, Rallara-ini Oxurice Teror, be inseried, Euse. bius's text will truly represent thai in Jose; hus. Had this inperfection been in some heathen author, that was in good esteen with our modern critics, they would have readily corrected these, as barely errors in the copies; but being in an ancient Christian writer, not so well relished by many of those critics, amating will serve but the il grounded supposal of wilful corruption and prevarication,
Accordingly he was carried into the palace ; and the rumour went abroad every where, that he would certainly die in a little time. But the multitude presently sat in sackcloth, with their wives and children, after the law of their country, and besought God for the king's recovery. All places were also full of mourning and lamentation. Now the king rested in a high chamber, and as he saw them be. low lying prostrate on the ground, he could not himself forbear weeping. And when he had been quite worn out by the pain in his belly for five days, he departed this life, being in the fifty-fourth year of his age, and in the seventh year of his reign; for he reigned four years under Caius Cæsar, three of them were over Philip's tetrarchy only, and on the fourth he had thut of Herod added to it: and he reigned, besides those, three years under the reign of Claudius Cæsar. In which time he reigned over the forementioned countries, and also had Judea added to them, as well as Samaria and Cesarea. The revenues that he received out of them were very great, no less than twelve millions of, drachmæ.* Yet did he borrow great sums from others : for he was so very liberal, that his expenses exceeded his incomes, and his generosity was boundless.t
3. But before the multitude were made acquainted with Agrippa's being expired, Herod, the king of Chalcis, and Helcias, the master of his horse, and the king's friend, sent Aristo, one of the king's most faithful servants, and slew Silas, who had been their enemy, as if it had been done by the king's own command
What Things were done after the Death of Agrippa ; and horo Claudius, on account of the Youth and Unskilfulness of Agrippa junior, sent Cuspius
Fadus to be Procurator of Judea and of that entire Kingdom. | 1. And thus did king Agrippa depart this life. But he left behind him a son, Agrippa by name, a youth in the seventeenth year of his age, and three daugh. ters; one of which, Bernice, was married to Herod her father's brother, and was sixteen years old : the other two, Mariamne and Drusilla, were still virgins ; the former was ten years old, and Drusilla six. Now these his daughters were thus espoused by their father, Mariamne to Julius Archelaus Epiphanes, the son of Antiochus, the son of Chelcias; and Drusilla to the king of Commagena. But when it was known that Agrippa was departed this life, the inhabitants of Ce. sarea and Sebaste forgot the kindness he had bestowed on them, and acted the part of the bitterest enemies; for they cast such reproaches upon the deceased as are not fit to be spoken of; and so many of them as were then soldiers, which were a great number, went to his house, and hastily carried off the statuest of the king's daughters, and all at once carried them into the brothel houses, and when they had set them on the tops of those houses, they abused them to the ut. most of their power, and did such things to them as are too indecent to be related. They also laid themselves down in public places, and celebrated general feastings, with garlands on their heads, and with ointments and libations to Charon, ana drinking to one another for joy that the king was expired. Nay, they were not » The sum of 12,000,000 drachmæ, which is equal to 3,000,000 shekels, i. e. at 2s. 10d.a shekel, equal
425,000L. sterling, was Agrippa the Great's yearly income, or about three quarters of his grandfather Herod's income; he having abated the tax upon houses at Jerusalem, ch. vi. sect. 3, and was not so tyran nical as he bad been to the Jews. See the note on Antiq. B. xvii. ch. xi. sect. 4. 'A large sum this! but not, it seems, sufficient for his extravagant expenses.
Reland takes notice here, not improperly, that Josephus omits the reconciliation of this Herod Agrippa to the Tyrians and Sidonians,
by the means of Blastus the king's chamberlain, mentioned Acis, wit, 20. Nor is there any history in the world so cornplete, as to omit nothing that other historians taka notice of, unless the one be taken out of the other and accominodated to it.
Photius, who made an extract out of this section, says, they were not the statues or images, but ibe dies themselves, which were thus basely abused by the soldiers. Cod. ccxxxviii.
only unmindful of Agrippa, who had extended his liberality to them in abundance, but of his grandfather Herod also, who had himself rebuilt their cities, and had raised them havens and temples at vast expenses.
2. Now Agrippa, the son of the deceased, was at Rome, and brought up with Claudius Cæsar. And when Cæsar was informed that Agrippa was dead, and that the inhabitants of Sebaste and Cesarea had abused him, he was sorry for the first news, and was displeased at the ingratitude of those cities. He was there. fore disposed to send Agrippa junior away presently to succeed his father in the kingdom, and was willing to confirm him in it by his oath. But those freedmen and friends of his, who had the greatest authority with him, dissuaded him from it, and said, that "it was a dangerous experiment to permit so large a kingdom to come under the government of so very young a man, and one hardly yet ar. rived at the years of discretion, who would not be able to take sufficient care of its administration; while the weight of a kingdom is heavy enough to a grown man.” So Cæsar thought what they said to be reasonable. Accordingly he sent Cuspius Fadus to be procurator of Judea, and of the entire kingdom, and paid that respect to the deceased, as not to introduce Marcus, who had been at vari. ance with him, into his kingdom. But he determined, in the first place, to send orders to Fadus, that he should chastise the inhabitants of Cesarea and Sebaste for those abuses they had offered to him that was deceased, and their madness lowards his daughters that were still alive; and that he should remove that body of soldiers that were at Cesarea and Sebaste, with the five regiments, into Pon. tus, that they might do their military duty there, and that he should choose an equal number of soldiers out of the Roman legions that were in Syria, to supply their place. Yet were not those that had such orders actually removed; for by send. ing ambassadors to Claudius, they mollified him, and got leave to abide in Judea still; and these were the very men that became the source of very great calami. ties to the Jews in after times, and sowed the seeds of that war which began ander Florus ; whence it was, that when Vespasian had subdued the country, bo somoved them out of his province, as we shall relate hereafter. *
• This bistory is now wanting.
CONTAINING THE INTERVAL OF TWENTY-TWO YEARS.
FROM FADUS THE PROCURATOR TO FLORUS.
A Sedition of the Philadelphians against the Jews, and also concerning the Vesta
ments of the High Priest. 1. Uron the death of king Agrippa, which we have related in the foregoing book, Claudius Cæsar sent Cassius Longinus, as successor to Marcus, out of re. gard to the memory of king Agrippa, who had often desired of him by letters, while he was alive, that he would not suffer Marcus to be any longer president of Syria. But Fadus, as soon as he was come procurator into Judea, found quar. relsome doings between the Jews that dwelt in Perea, and the people of Phila. delphia, about their borders, at a village called Mia, that was filled with men of a warlike temper; for the Jews of Perea, had taken up arms without the consent of their principal men, and had destroyed many of the Philadelphians. When Fadus was informed of this procedure it provoked him very much ihat they had not left he determination of the matter to him, if they thought that the Philadelphians had done them any wrong, but had rashly taken up arms against them. So he seized upon three of their principal men, who were also the causes of this sedition, and ordered them to be bound, and afterward had one of them slain, whose name was Hannibal, and he banished the other two, Amram and Eleazar. Tholomy also, the arch-robber, was after some time brought to him bound, and slain, but not till he had done a world of mischief to Idumea and the Arabians. And indeed, from that time Judea was cleared of robberies by the care and providence of Fadus. He also at this time sent for the high priests and the principal citizens of Jerusa. lem, and this at the commands of the emperor, and admonished them, that they should lay up the long garment, and the sacred vestment, which it is customary for nobody but the high priest to wear, in the tower of Antonia, that it might be under the power of the Romans, as it had been formerly. Now the Jews durst not contradict what he had said, but desired Fadus, however, and Longinus (which last was come to Jerusalem, and had brought a great army with him, out of a fear that the [rigid) injunctions of Fadus should force the Jews to rebel,) that they might, in the first place, have leave to send ambassadors to Cæsar. to petition him, that they may have the holy vestments under their own power; and that, in the next place, they would tarry till they knew what answer Claudius would give to that their request. So they replied, that they would give them leave to send their ambassadors, provided they would give them their sons as pledges [for their peaceable behaviour.) And when they had agreed so to do, and had given them the pledges they desired, the ambassadors were sent ac. cordingly. But when, upon their coming to Rome, Agrippa junior, the son of the deceased, understood the reason why they came (for he dwelt with Claudius Cæsar as we said before,) be besoughi Cæsar to grant the Jews their request about the holy vestments, and to send a message to Fadus accordingly.
2. Hereupon Claudius called for the ambassadors, and told them, that “he granted their request; and bade them to return their thanks to Agrippa for this VOL. II.
favour, which had been bestowed on them upon his entreaty. And, besides these answers of his, he sent the following letter by them : “ Claudius Cæsar Germanicus, tribune of the people the fifth time, and designed consul the fourth time, and imperator the tenth time, the father of his country, to the magistrates, senate, and people, and the whole nation of the Jews, sendeth greeting : Upon the representation of your ambassadors to me by Agrippa, my friend, whom I have brought up, and have now with me, and who is a person of very great piety, who are come to give me thanks for the care I have taken of your nation, and to entreat me, in an earnest and obliging manner, that they may have the holy vestments, with the crown belonging to them, under their power; I grant their request, as that excellent person Vitellius, who is very dear to me, had done be. fore me. And I have complied with your desire, in the first place out of regard to that piety which I profess, and because I would have every one worship God according to the laws of their own country; and this I do also because I shall hereby highly gratify king Herod and Agrippa junior, whose sacred regards to me, and earnest good will to you, I am well acquainted with, and with whom I have the greatest friendship, and whom I highly esteem, and look on as persons of the best character. Now I have written about these affairs to Cuspius Fadus, my procurator. The names of those that brought me your letter are Cornelius, the son of Cero, Trypho, the son of Theudio, Dorotheus, the son of Nathaniel, and John, the son of John. This letter is dated before the fourth of the calends of July, when Rufus and Pompeius Sylvanus are consuls."
3. Herod also, the brother of the deceased Agrippa, who was then possessed of the royal authority over Chalcis, petitioned Claudius Cæsar for the authority over the temple, and the money of the sacred treasure, and the choice of the high priests, and obtained all that he petitioned for. So that after that time this au. thority continued among all his descendants till the end of the war.* Accordingly Herod removed the last high priest, called Cantheras, and bestowed that dignity on his successor Joseph, the son of Camus.
How Helena, the Queen of Adiabene, and her Son Izates, embraced the Jewish Religion ; and how Helena supplied the Poor with Corn, when there was a
great Famine at Jerusalem. § 1. ABOUT this time it was that Helena, queen of Adiabene, and her son Izates, changed their course of life, and embraced the Jewish customs, and this on the occasion following : Monobazus, the king of Adiabene, who had also the name of Bazeus, fell in love with his sister Helena, and took her to be his wife, and begat her with child. But as he was in bed with her one night, he laid his hand upon his wife's belly, and fell asleep, and seemed to hear a voice, which bid him take his hand off his wife's belly, and not hurt the infant that was therein, which by God's providence would be safely born, and have a happy end. This voice put him into disorder; so he awaked immediately, and told the story to his wife; and when his son was born, he called him Izates. He had indeed' Monobazus, his elder brother, by Helena also, as he had other sons by other wives besides. Yet did he openly place all his affections on this his only begotten sont Izates, which was the origin of that envy which his other brethren, by the same father,
• Here is some error in the copies, or mistake in Josephus; for the power of appointing high priests, after Herod king of Chalcis was dead, and Agrippa junior was made king of Chalcis in his room, be longed to him, and he exercised the same all along till Jerusalem was destroyed, as Josephus elsewhere unforms us, ch. viii. sect. 8, 11, ch. ix. sect. 1, 4, 6, 7.
+ Josephus here uses the word ucvogen, an only begotten son, for no ( ther than one best beloved, as does both the Old and New Testameni, I mean where there were one or more sons besides, Gen. W 2. Heb. xi. 17. Sec the note on B. i. ch. xiii. 1.