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oore to him ; while on this account they hated him more and more, and were all under great affliction that their father should prefer Izates before them. Now, although their father was very sensible of these their passions, yet did he forgive them, as not indulging those passions out of an ill disposition, but out of a desire each of them had to be beloved by their father. However, he sent Izates with: many presents to Abennerig, the king of Charax Spasini, and that out of the great dread he was in about him, lest he should come to some misfortune, by the hatred his brethren bore him; and he committed his son's preservation to him. Upon which Abennerig gladly received the young man, and had a great affection for him, and married him to his own daughter, whose name was Samacha; he also bestowed a country upon him, from which he received large revenues.

2. But when Monobazus was grown old, and saw that he had but a little time to live, he had a mind to come to the sight of his son before he died. So he sent for him, and embraced him after the most affectionate manner, and bestowed on him the country called Carre ; it was a soil that bare amomum in great plen. ty; there are also in it the remains of that ark, wherein it is related that Noah escaped the deluge, and where they are still shown to such as are desirous to see them.* Accordingly Izates abode in that country until his father's death. But the very day that Monobazus died, queen Helena sent for all the grandees, and governors of the kingdom, and for those that had the armies committed to their command : and when they were come she made the following speech to them: " I believe you are not unacquainted that my husband was desirous Izates should succeed him in the government, and thought him worthy so to do. However, I wait your determination ; for happy is he who receives a kingdom, not from a single person only, but from the willing suffrages of a great many.” This she said in order to try those that were invited, and to discover their sentiments. Upon the hearing of which, they first of all paid their homage to the queen, as their custom was, and then they said, that " they confirmed the king's determi. nation, and would submit to it; and they rejoiced that Izates's father had pre. ferred him before the rest of his brethren, as being agreeable to all their wishes : but that they were desirous first of all to slay his brethren and kinsmen, that 80 the government might come securely to Izates ; because if they were once de. stroyed, all that fear would be over which might arise from their hatred and envy to him.” Helena replied to this, that “ she returned them her thanks for their kindness to herself, and to Izates ; but desired that they would however, defer the execution of this slaughter of Izates's brethren till he should be there him. kelf, and give his approbation to it.” So since these men had not prevailed with her, when they advised her to slay them, they exhorted her at least to keep them in bonds till he should come, and that for their own security ; they also gave her council to set up some one whom she could put the greatest trust in, as a gover. aor of the kingdom in the mean time. So queen Helena complied with this counsel of theirs, and set up Monobazus, the eldest son, to be king, and put the diadem upon his head, and gave him his father's ring, with its signet; as also the ornament which they call Sampser, and exhorted him to administer the affairs of the kingdom till his brother should come ; who came suddenly upon his hear. ing that his father was dead, and succeeded his brother Monobazus, who resigned

government to him. 3. Now during the time Izates abode at Charax Spasini, a certain Jewish mer. chant, whose naine was Ananias, got among the women that belonged to the king, and taught them to worship God according to the Jewish religion. He, moreover, by their means, became known to Izates, and persuaded him in like manner to embrace that religion; he also, at the earnest entreaty of Izates, accompanied bim when he was sent for by his father to come to Adiabene: it also

It is here very remarkable, that the remains of Noah's ark were believed to be still in being in the days of Josephus, See the note on B. i. ch. iii. sect. 5

up the

happened, that Helena, about the same time was instructed by a certain other dew, and went over to them. But when Izates had taken the kingdom, and was come to Adiabene, and there saw his brethren, and other kinsmen in bonds, he was displeased at it; and as he thought it an instance of impiety either to slay or to imprison them, but still thought it a hazardous thing for to let them have their liberty, with the remembrance of the injuries that had been offered them, he sent some of them and their children for hostages to Rome, to Claudius Cæsar, and sent the others to Artabanus, the king of Parthia, with the like intentions.

4. And when he perceived that his mother was highly pleased with the Jewish customs, he made haste to change, and to embrace them entirely; and as he supposed that he could not be thoroughly a Jew unless he were circumcised, he was ready to have it done. But when his mother understood what he was about, she endeavoured to hinder him from doing it, and said to him, that “this thing would bring him into danger; and that, as he was a king, he would thereby bring him. sell into great odium among his subjects, when they should understand that he was so fond of rites that were to them strange and foreigo ; and that they would never bear to be ruled over by a Jew." This it was that she said to him, and for the present persuaded him to forbear. And when he had related what she had said to Ananias, he confirmed what his mother had said, and when he had also threat. ened to leave him, unless he complied with him, he went away from him, and said, that "he was afraid lest such an action being once become public to all, he should himself be in danger of punishment, for having been the occasion of it, and having been the king's instructor in actions that were of ill reputation ; and he said, that he might worship God without being circumcised, even though he did not resolve to follow the Jewish law entirely, which worship of God was of .. superior nature to circumcision.” He added, that “God would forgive him, thougn he did not perform the operation, while it was omitted out of necessity, and for fear of his subjects. So the king at that time complied with tnese persuasions of Ananias. But afterwards, as he had not quite left off his desire of doing this thing, a certain other Jew, that came out of Galilee, whose name was Eleazar, and who was esteemed very skilful in the learning of his country, persuaded him to do the thing ; for as he entered into his palace to salute him, and found him reading the law of Moses, he said to him, “'Thou dost not consider, O King, that thou unjustly breakest the principal of those laws, and art injurious to God him. self [by omitting to be circumcised :) for thou oughtest not only to read them, but chieħy to practice what they enjoin thee. How long wilt thou continue uncir. cumcised ? But if thou hast not yet read the law about circumcision, and dost not know how great impiety thou art guilty of by neglecting it, read it now." When the king had heard what he said, he delayed the thing no longer, but retired to another room, and sent for a surgeon, and did what he was commanded to do. He then sent for his mother, and Ananias his tutor, and informed them that he had done the thing ; upon which they were presently síruck with astonishment and fear, ana that to a great degree, lest the thing should be openly discovered and censured, and the king should hazard the loss of his kingdom, while his sub. jects would not bear to be governed by a man who was so zealous in another re. ligion; and lest they should themselves run some hazard, because they would be supposed the occasion of his so doing. But it was God* himself who hindered what they feared from taking effect; for he preserved both Izates himself, and his sons, when they fell into many dangers, and procured their deliverance when t seemed to be impossible, and demonstrated thereby, that the fruit of piety does not perish as to those that have a regard to him, and fix their faith upon him only. But these events we shall relate hereafter.

5. But as to Helena, the king's mother, when he saw that the affairs of Izates's • Josephus is very full and express in these three chapters, iii. iv. and v. in observing how carefully Divine Providence preserved this Izates, king of Adiabene and his sons, while he did what he thous; was his bounden duty, notwithstanding the strongest pulitical motives to the contrary.

kingdom were in peace, and that her son was a happy inan, and admired among all men, and even among foreigners, by the means of God's providence over him, she had a mind to go to the city Jerusalem, in order to worship at that temple of God which was so very famous among all men, and to offer her thank-offerings there. So she desired her son to give her leave to go thither : upon which he gave his consent to what she desired very willingly, and made great preparation for her dismission, and gave her a great deal of money, and she went down to the city Jerusalem, her son conducting her on her journey a great way. Now ber coming was of very great advantage to the people of Jerusalem; for whereas a famine did cppress them at that time, and many people died for want of what was necessary to procure food withal, queen Helena sent some of her servants to Alexandria with money to buy a great quantity of corn, and others of them to Cyprus, to bring a cargo of dried figs. And as soon as they were come back, and had brought those provisions, which was cone very quickly, she distributed food to those that were in want of it, and left a most excellent memorial behind her of this benefaction, which she bestowed on our whole nation. And when her son Izates was informed of this famine, he sent great sums of money to the orin. cipal men in Jerusalem. However, what favours this queen and king conferred upon our city Jerusalem shall be farther related hereafter. *

CHAP. III.

How Artabanus, the King of Parthia, out of Fear of the secret Contrivances of his Subjects against him, went to Izates, and was by him reinstated in his Go.

vernment ; as also how Bardanes his Son denounced War against Izates. 8 1. But now Artabanus, king of the Parthians, perceiving that the governors of the provinces had framed a plot against him, did not think it safe for him to continue among them, but resolved to go to Izates, in hopes of finding some way for his preservation by his means, and, if possible, for his return to his own dó. minions. So he came to Izates, and brought about a thousand of his kindred and servants with him, and met him upon the road, while he well knew Izates, but Izates did not know him. When Artabanus stood near him, and, in the first place, worshiped him, according to the custom, he then said to him: “O king, do not thou overlook me thy servant, nor do thou proudly reject the suit I make thee ; for as I am reduced to a low estate, by the change of fortune, and of a king am become a private man, I stand in need of thy assistance. Have regaru, therefore, unto the uncertainty of fortune, and esteem the care thou shalt tase' of me to be taken of thyself also : for if I be neglected, and my subjects go oif unpunished, many other subjects will become the more insolent towards other kings also."

And this speech Artabanus, made with tears in his eyes, and with a dejected countenance. Now as soon as Izates heard Artabanus's name, and saw him stand as a supplicant before him, he leaped down from his horse im. mediately, and said to him, “ Take courage, O king, nor be disturbed at thy

* This farther account of the benefactions of Izates and Helena to the Jerusalem Jews, which Josephus here promises, is, I think, no where performed by him in his present works. But of this terrible fa. mine itself in Judea, take Dr. Hudson's note here ;-" This (says he) is that famine foretold by Agabus, Acts, xi. 28, which happened when Claudius was consul the fourth time; and not that other which happened when Claudius was consul the second time, and Cæsina was his colleague, as Scaliger says upon Eusebius, p. 174.” Now when Josephus bad said a little afterward, ch. v. sect. 2, that " Tiberius Alexaader succeeded Cuspius Fadus as procurator,” he immediately subjoins, “That under these procura. tors there happened a great famine in Judea." Whence it is plain that this famine continued for many Fears, on account of its duration under those two procurators. Now Fadus was not sent into Judea tih after the death of king Agrippa, i. e. towards the latter end of the fourth year of Claudius: so that this famine foretold by Agabus, happened upon the 5th, 6th, and 7th years of Claudius, as says Valesius on Euseb. i. 12. ořthis farmine also, and queen Helena's supplies, and her monument, see Moses Chore aensis, p. 1:44, 145, where it is observed in the notes, that Pausanias mentions that her monuinent alsa

present calamity, as if it were incurable; for the change of thy sad condition shall be sudden; for thou shalt find me to be more thy friend and thy assistant than thy hopes can promise thee ; for I will either reestablish thee in the king. dom of Parthia, or lose my own.'

2. When he had said this, he set Artabanus upon his horse, and followed him on foot, in honour of a king whom he owned as greater than himself; which, when Artabanus saw, he was very uneasy at it, and sware, by his present for tune and honour, that he would get down from his horse, unless Izates would get upon his horse again, and go before him. So he complied with his desire, and leaped upon his horse ; and when he had brought him to his royal palace, he showed him all sorts of respect when they sat together, and he gave him the upper place at festivals also, as regarding not his present fortune, but his former dig. nity, and that upon this consideration also, that the changes of fortune are common to all men. He also wrote to the Parthians, to persuade them to receive Arta. banus again : and gave them his right hand and his faith, that he should forget what was past and done, and that he would undertake for this as a mediator be. tween them. Now the Parthians did not themselves refuse to receive him again, but pleaded that it was not now in their power so to do; because they had committed the government to another person, who had accepted of it, and whose name was Cinnamus, and that they were afraid lest a civil war should arise or this account. When Cinnamus understood their intentions, he wrote to Arta. banus himself, for he had been brought up by him, and was of a nature good and gentle also, and desired him to put confidence in him, and to come and take his own dominions again. Accordingly Artabanus trusted him, and returned home; when Cinnamus met him, worshiped him, and saluted him as king, and took the diadem off his own head, and put it on the head of Artabanus.

3. And thus was Artabanus restored to his kingdom again by the means of Izates, when he had lost it by the means of the grandees of the kingdom. Nor was lie unmindful of the benefits he had conferred upon him, but rewarded him with such honours as were of greatest esteem among them; for he gave him leave to wear his tiara upright,* and to sleep upon a golden bed, which are privileges and inarks of honour peculiar to the kings of Parthia. He also cut off a large and fruitful country from the king of Armenia, and bestowed it upon him. The name of the country is Nisibis, wherein the Macedonians had formerly built that city which they called Antioch of Mygdonia. And these were the honours that were paid Izates by the king of the Parthians.

4. But in no long time, Artabanus died, and left his kingdom to his son Bar. danes. Now this Bardanes came to Izates, and would have persuaded him to join him with his army, and to assist him in the war he was preparing to make with the Romans; but he could not prevail with him. For Izates so well knew the strength and good fortune of the Romans, that he took Bardanes to attempi what was impossible to be done ; and having besides sent his sons, five in pum ber, and they but young also, to learn accurately the language of our nation, together with our learning, as well as he had sent his mother to worship at our temple, as I have said already, was the more backward to a compliance; and restrained Bardanes, telling him perpetually of the great armies and famous actions of the Romans, and thought thereby to terrify him, and desired thereby to hinder him from that expedition. But the Parthian king was provoked at this his behaviour, and denounced war immediately against Izates. Yet did he gain no advantage by this war, because God cut off all his hopes therein ; for the Parthians, perceiving Bardanes's intentions, and how he had determined to make war with the Romans, slew him, and gave his kingdom to his brother Gotarzes. He also, in no long time, perished by a plot made against him, and Vologases, his brother, succeeded him, who committed two of his provinces to

This privilege of wearing the tiara upright, or with the tip of the cone erect, is known to hare hoene of ad peculiar to (great) kings, from Xenophon and others, as Dr. Hudson observes here.

two of his brothers, by the same father ; that of the Medes to the elder, Pacorus and Armenia to the younger, Tiridates.

CHAP. IV.

How Izates was betrayed by his own Subjects, and fought against by the Arabians ,

and horo Izates, by the Providence of God, was delivered out of their Hands.

1. Now when the king's brother Monobazus, and his other kindred, saw how Izates, by his piety to God, was become greatly esteemed by all men, they also had a desire to leave the religion of their country, and to embrace the customs of the Jews; but that act of theirs was discovered by Izates's subjects. Where. upon the grandees were much displeased, and could not contain their anger at them; but had an intention, when they should find a proper opportunity, to inflict a punishment upon them. Accordingly they wrote to Abia, king of the Ara. bians, and promised him great sums of money, if he would make an expeditior. against their king; and they farther promised him, that, on the first onset, they would desert their king, because they were desirous to punish him, by reason of the hatred he had to their religious worship: then they obliged themselves by oaths to be faithful to each other, and desired that he would make haste in this design. The king of Arabia complied with their desires, and brought a great army into the field, and marched against Izates; and, in the beginning of the first onset, and before they came to a close fight, those grandees, as if they had a panic terror upon them, all deserted Izates, as they had agreed to do, and, turning their backs upon their enemies, ran away. Yet was not Izates dismayed at this ; but when he understood that the grandees had betrayed him, he also re. tired into his camp, and made inquiry into the matter ; and as soon as he knew who they were that had made this conspiracy with the king of Arabia, he cut off those that were found guilty ; and renewing the fight on the next day, he slew the greatest part of his enemies, and forced all the rest to betake themselves to Hight. He also pursued their king, and drove him into a fortress called Arsamus, and, following on the siege vigorously, he took that fortress. And when he had plundered it of all the prey that was in it, which was not small, he returned to Adiabene: yet did not he take Abia alive; because, when he found himself en. compassed on every side, he slew himself.

2. But although the grandees of Adiabene had failed in their first attempt, as being delivered up by God into their king's hands, yet would they not even then be quiet, but wrote again to Vologases, who was then king of Parthia, and de. sired that he would kill Izates, and set over them some other potentate, who should be of a Parthian family; for they said, that they hated their own king for abrogating the laws of their forefathers, and embracing foreign customs. When the king of Parthia heard this, he boldly made war upon Izates ; and as he had no just pretence for this war, he sent to him, and demanded back those honourable privileges which had been bestowed on him by his father, and threat. ened, on his refusal, to make war upon him. Upon hearing of this, Izates was under no small trouble of mind as thinking it would be a reproach upon him to appear to resign thuse privileges that had been bestowed upon him, out of cow. ardice; yet because he knew, that though the king of Parthia should receive back those honours, yet would he not be quiet, he resolved to commit himself to God, his protector, in the present danger he was in of his life ; and as he os. teemed him to be his principal assistant, he entrusted bis children and his wives to a very strong fortress, and laid up his corn in the citadels, and set the hay and the grass on fire. And when he had thus put things in order as well as he could, he awaited the coming of the enemy. And when the king of Parthia was come,

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