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with a great army of footmen and horsemen, which he did sooner than was ex pected, (for he marched in great haste,) and had cast up a bank at the river that parted Adiabene from Media ; Izales also pitched his camp not far off, having with him six thousand horsemen. But there came a messenger to Izates, sent by the king of Parthia, who told him “how large his dominions were, as reach. ing from the river Euphrates to Bactria, and enumerated that king's subjects : he also threatened him that he should be punished, as a person ungrateful to his lords; and said, that the God whom he worshiped could not deliver him out of the king's hands.” When the messenger had delivered this bis message, Izates replied, that “ he knew the king of Parthia's power was much greater than his own; but that he knew also that God was much more powerful than all men.” And when he had returned him this answer, he betook himself to make suppli cation* to God, and threw himself
upon the ground, and put ashes upon his head, in testimony of his confusion, and fasted, together with his wives and children. When he called upon God, and said, “ O Lord and Governor, if I have not in vain committed myself to thy goodness, but have justly determined that thou only art the Lord and principal of all beings, come now to my assistance, and defend me from my enemies, not only on my own account, but on account of their in. solent behaviour with regard to thy power, while they have not feared to lift up their proud and arrogant tongue against thee. Thus did he lament and bemoan himself with tears in his eyes ; whereupon God heard his prayer. And imme. diately that very night Vologases received letters, the contenis of which were these, that a great band of Dahæ and Sahæ, despising him now he was gone so long a journey from home, bad made an expedition, and laid Parthia waste; so that he was forced to] retire back without doing any thing. And thus it was that Izates escaped the threatenings of the Parthians, by the providence of God.
3. It was not long ere izates died, when he had completed fifty-five years of his life, and had ruled his kingdom twenty-four years. He left behind him twen. ty-four sons, and twenty-four daughters. However, he gave order that his brother Monobazus should succeed in the government, thereby requiting him, because while he was himself absent, after their father's death, he had faithfully preserved the government for him. But when Helena, his mother, heard of her son's death, she was in great uneasiness, as was but natural upon her loss of such a most dutiful con; yet was it a comfort to her, that she heard the succession came to her eldest son. Accordingly she went to him in haste; and when she was come into Adiabene, she did not long outlive her son Izates. But Monobazus sent her bones, as well as those of Izates, his brother, to Jerusalem, and gave order that they should be buried at the pyramids, which their mother had erected; they were three in number, and distant no more than three furlongs, from the city of Jerusalem. But for the actions of Monobazus the king, which he did during the rest of his life, we will relate them bereafter. I
CHAP. V. Concerning Theudas, and the Sons of Judas the Galilean, as also what Calamity
fell upon the Jews on the Day of the Passover. $ 1. Now it came to pass, while Fadus was procurator of Judea, that a certain
This mourning, and fasting, and praying, used by Izales, with prostration of his body, and ashes upon his head, are plain signs that he was become either a Jew. or an Ebionite Christian, who indeed differed not much from proper Jews. See chap: vi. sect. 1. However his supplications were heard, end he was providentially delivered from that imminent danger he was in.
+ These pyramids or pillars, erected by Helena, queen of Adiabene, near Jerusalein, three in number, are mentioned by Eusebius in his Eccles. Hist. B. in. ch. 12: for which Dr. Hudson refers us to Valesius's notes upon that place. They are also mentioned by Pausanias, as hath been already noted, chap. ir sect. 6. Reland guesses that that now called Absalom's pillar may be one of them.
This account is how wanting.
magician, whose name was Theudas,* persuaded a great part of the people to take their effects with them, and follow him to the river Jordan ; for he told them he was a prophet, and that he would, by his own command, divide the river, and afford them an easy passage over it; and many were deluded by his words. How. erer, Fadus did not permit him to make any advantage of his wild attempt, but sent a troop of horsemen out against them; who, falling upon them unexpectedly, slew many of them, and took many of them alive. They also took Theudas alive, and cut off his head, and carried it to Jerusalem. This was what befell the Jews in the time of Cuspius Fadus's government.
2. Then came Tiberius Alexander as successor to Fadus; he was the son of Alexander the alabarch of Alexandria, which Alexander was a principal person among all his contemporaries, both for his family and wealth: he was also more eminent for his piety than this his son Alexander, for he did not continue in the religion of his country. Under these procurators that great famine happened in Judea, in which queen Helena bought corn in Egypt at a great expense, and distributed it to those that were in want, as I have related already. And besides this, the sons of Judas of Galilee, were now slain ; I mean of that Judas who caused the people to revolt, when Cyrenius came to take an account of the estates of the Jews, as we have showed in a foregoing book. The names of those sons were James and Simon, whom Alexander commanded to be crucified. Herod, king of Chalcis, removed Joseph, the son of Camydus, from the high priesthood, and made Ananias, the son of Nebedus, his successor. And now it was that Cumanus came a successor to Tiberius Alexander; as also that Herod, brother of Agrippa the great king, departed this life, in the eighth year of the reign of Claudius Cæsar. He left behind him three sons, Aristobulus, whom he had by his first wife, with Bernictanus and Hircanus, both whom he had by Bernice his brother's daughter. But Claudius Cæsar bestowed his dominions on Agrippa junior.
3. Now, while Jewish affairs were under the administratio of Cumanus, there happened a great tumult at the city of Jerusalem, and many of the Jews perished therein. But I shall first explain the occasion whence it was derived. When that feast which is called the Passover was at hand, at which time our cus. tom is to use unleavened bread, and a great multitude was gathered together from all parts to that feast, Cumanus was afraid, lest some innovation should then be made by them; so he ordered that one regiment of the army should take their arms, and stand in the temple cloisters, to repress any attempts of innovation, if perchance any such should begin; and this was no more than what the former procurators of Judea did at such festivals. But on the fourth day of the feast, a certain soldier let down wis breeches, and exposed his privy members to the mul. titude, which put those that saw him into a furious rage, and made them cry out, that this impious action was not donú to reproach them, but God himself; nay, some of them reproached Cumanus, and pretended that the soldier was set on by him, which when Cumanus heard, he was also himself not a little provoked at such reproaches laid upon him; yet did he exhort them to leave off such sedi. tious attempts, and not to raise a tumult at the festival. But when he could not induce them to be quiet, for they still went on in their reproaches to him, he gave order that the whole army should take their entire armour, and come to Antonia, which was a fortress, as we have said already, which overlooked the temple ; but when the multitude saw the soldiers there, they were affrighted at them, and ran away hastily; but as the passages out were but narrow, and as they thought their enemies followed them, they were crowded together in their flight, and a great number were pressed to death in those narrow passages ; nor indeed was the Qumber fewer than twenty thousand that perished in this tumult, So instead of
This Theudas, who arose under Fadus the procurator about A. D. 45 of 46, could not be that Theudas who aroso in the days of the taxing, under Cyrenius; or abous A. D. %. Act, 1. 36, 37. Who that earlier Theudas was, see the note on B. xvii.ch. L sóct. 5. VOL. IL 15
a festival they had at last a mournfui day of it; and they all of them forgot their prayers and sacritices, and betook themselves to lamentation and weeping ; so great an affliction did the impudent obsceneness of a single soldier bring upon them,*
4. Now before this their first mourning was over, another mischief befell there also: for some of those that raised the foregoing tumult, when they were travel. ling along the public road, about a hundred furlongs from the city, robbed Ste. phanus, a servant of Cæsar, as he was journeying, and plundered him of all that he had with him. Which things when Cumanus heard of, he sent soldiers im. mediately, and ordered them to plunder the neighbouring villages, and to bring the most eminent persons among them in bonds to him. Now as this devastation was making, one of the soldiers seized the laws of Moses that lay in one of those villages, and brought them out before the eyes of all present, and tore them to pieces; and this was done with reproachful language, and much scurrility. Which things when the Jews heard of, they ran together, and that in great num. bers, and came down to Cesarea, where Cumanus then was, and besought him that he would avenge, not themselves, but God himself, whose laws had been af. fronted; for that they could not bear to live any longer, if the laws of their fore. fathers must be affronted after this manner. Accordingly Cuinanus, out of fear lest the multitude should go into a sedition, and by the advice of his friends also, took care that the soldier who had offered the affront to the laws should be beheaded, and thereby put a stop to the sedition which was ready to be kindled a second time.
How there happened a Quarrel between the Jews at the Samaritans, and how
Claudius pul an end to their D).. 1. Now there arose a quarrel between the Samaritans and the Jews on the oc casion following: it was the custom of the Galileans, when they came to the holy city at the festivals, to take their journeys through the country of the Samaritans; and at this time there lay, in the road they took, a village that was called Ginea, which was situated in the limits of Samaria and the great plain, where certain persons thereto belonging fought with the Galileans, and killed a great many of them. But when the principal of the Galileans were informed of what had been done, they came to Cumanus, and desired him to avenge the murder of those that were killed; but he was ind iced by the Samaritans, with money, to do nothing in the matter : upon which, the Galileans were much displeased, and persuaded the 'multitude of the Jews lo betake themselves to arms, and to regain their liberty, saying that “slavery was in itself a bitter thing, but that when it was joined with direct injuries, it was perfectly intolerable.” And when their principal men en. deavoured to pacify them, and promised to endeavour to persuade Cumanus to avenge those that were killed, they would not hearken to them, but took their weapons, and entreated the assistance of Eleazar, the son of Dineus, a robber, who had many years made his abode in the mountains; with which assistance they plundered many villages of the Samaritans. When Cumanus heard of this action of theirs, he took the band of Sebaste, with four regiments of footmen, and armed the Samaritans, and marched out against the Jews, and caught them, and slew many of them, and took a great number of them alive ; whereupon those that were the most eminent persons at Jerusalem, and that both in regard of the re. spect that was paid them and the families they were of, as soon as they saw to what a height things were gone, put on sackcloth and heaped ashes upon their heads; and by all possible means besought the seditious, and persuaded them that they would set before their eyes the utter subversion* of their country, the con. fiagration of their temple, and the slavery of themselves, their wives, and children which would be the consequences of what they were doing ; and would alter their minds, would cast away their weapons, and for the future be quiet, and return to their own homes. These persuasions of theirs prevailed upon them. So the people dispersed themselves, and the robbers went away again to their places of strength; and after this time all Judea was overrun with robberies.
• This, and many more turnults and seditions, which arose at the Jewish festivals, in Josephus, illus trate that cautious procedure of the Jewish governors, when they said, Matt. xxvi. 5. "Let us not take Jesus on the feast-day, lest there be an uproar among the people, as Reland well observes on this place. Josephus also takes notice of the same thing, or the War, B. i. ch. iv. sect. 3.
+ This constant passage of the Galileans through the country of Samaria, as they went to Judea and terusalem, illustrates
several passages in the gospel to the same purpose, as Dr. Hudson rightly observes Soe Luke, xvii. 11; John, iv.' Soe also Josephus in his owa life, sect. 52, where that journey is de termined to three days
2. But the principal of the Samaritans went to Ummidius Quadratus, the presi. dent of Syria, who at that time was at Tyre, and accused the Jews of setting their villages on fire, and plundering them; and said withal, that " they were not so much displeased at what they had suffered, as they were at the contempt thereby showed the Romans; while, if they had received any injury, they ought to have made them the judges of what had been done, and not presently to make such de. rastation, as if they had not the Romans for their governors; on which account they came to him, in order to obtain that vengeance they wanted.” This was the accusation which the Samaritans brought against the Jews. But the Jews affirm. ed that the Samaritans were the authors of this tumult and fighting; and that, in the first place, Cumanus had been corrupted by their gifts, and passed over the murder of those that were slain in silence. Which allegations when Quadratus heard, he put off the hearing of the cause, and promised that he would give sen. fence when he should come into Judea, and should have a more exact knowledge of the truth of that matter. So theso men went away without success. Yet was it not lòng ere Quadratus came to Samaria ; where, upon hearing the cause, he supposed that the Samaritans were the authors of that disturbance. But, when he was informed that certain of the Jews were making innovations, he ordered those to be crucified whom Cumanus had tahen captives. From whence he went to a certain village called Lydda, which was not less than a city in largeness, and there heard the Samaritan cause a second time before his tribunal ; and there learned from a certain Samaritan, that one of the chief of the Jews, whose name was Dortus, and some other innovators with hirn, four in number, persuaded the multitude to a revolt from the Romans; whom Quadratus ordered to be put to death ; but still he sent away Ananias the high priest, and Ananus, the comman. der [of the temple,] in bonds to Rome, to give an account of what they had done to Claudius Cæsar. He also ordered the principalmen, both of the Samaritans and of the Jews, as also Cumanus the procurator, and Celer the tribune, to go to Italy to the emperor, that he might hear their cause, and determine their differ. ences one with another. But he came again to the city of Jerusalem, out of his fear that the multitude of the Jews should attempt some innovations; but he found the city in a peaceable state, and celebrating one of the usual festivals of their Country to God. So he believed that they would not attempt any innovations, and left them at the celebration of the festival, and returned to Antioch.
3. Now Cumanus, and the principal of the Samaritans, who were sent to Rome, had a day appointed them by the emperor, whereon they were to have pleaded their causa about the quarrels they hadone with another. But now Cæsar's freedmen and his friends were very zealous on the behalf of Cumanu sand the Samaritans; and they had prevailed over the Jews, unless Agrippa junior, who
• Our Saviour bad foretold that the Jews' rejection of his gospel would bring upon them, among other triseries, these three, which they themselves here show they expected would be the consequences of their present tumults and seditions; the utter subversion of their country, the conflagration of their temple, and the slavery of themselves, theis wives, and childron. See Luke, xxi. 6-4.
was then at Rome, had seen the principal of the Jews hard set, and had earnest ly entreated Agrippina, the emperor's wife, to persuade her husband to hear the cause, so as was agreeable to his justice, and to condemn those to be punished who were really the authors of this revolt from the Roman government. Whereupon Claudius was so well disposed beforehand, that when he had heard the cause, and found that the Samaritans had been the ringleaders in those mischievous doings, he gave order, that those who came up to him should be slain, and that Cumanus should be banished. He also gave order, that Celer the tribune should be carried back to Jerusalem, and should be drawn through the city in the sight of all the people, and then should be slain.
Felix is made Procurator of Judea ; as also concerning Agrippa junior
and his Sisters.
§ 1. So Claudius sent Felix, the brother of Pallans, to take care of the affairs of Judea ; and when he had already completed the twelfth year of his reign, he bestowed upon Agrippa the tetrarchy of Philip and Batanea, and added thereto Trachonitis, with Abila; which last had been the tetrarchy of Lysanias; but he took from him Chalcis, when he had been governor thereof four years. And when Agrippa had received these countries as the gift of Cæsar, he gave his sister Drusilla in marriage to Azizus, king of Emesa, upon his consent to be circum cised; for Epiphanes, the son of king Antiochus, had refused to marry her, be cause, after he had promised her father formerly to come over to the Jewish re. ligion, he would not now perform that promise. He also gave Mariamne in mar. riage to Archelaus, the son of Helcias, to whom she had been betrothed formerly by Agrippa her father ; from which marriage was derived a daughter, whose name was Bernice.
2. But for the marriage of Drusilla with Azizus, it was in no long time after. ward dissolved upon the following occasion : while Felix was procurator of Judea, he saw this Drusilla, and fell in love with her; for she did indeed exceed all other women in beauty; and he sent to her a person whose name was Simon,* one of his friends, a Jew he was, and by birth a Cypriot, and one who pretended to be a magician, and endeavoured to persuade her to forsake her present hus. band, and marry him; and promised, that if she would not refuse him, he would make her a happy woman. Accordingly she acted ill, and because she was de. sirous to avoid her sister Bernice's envy, for she was very ill treated by her on
* This Simon, a friend of Felix, a Jew, born in Cyprus, though he pretended to be a magician, aed seems to have been wicked enough, could hardly be that famous Simon the magician, in the Acts of ibs A postles, viii. 9, &c. as soine are ready to suppose. This Simon mentioned in the Acts was not pro perly a Jew, but a Samaritan, of the town of Gittæ, in the country of Samaria, as the Apostolical Consitutions, vi. 7, the Recognitions of Clement, ii. 6, and Justin Martyr, himself born iu the country of Samaria, Apology, i. 34, informs us. He was also the author, not of any ancient Jewish, but of the first Gentile heresies, as the forementioned authors assure us. So I suppose him a different person from the other. I mean this only upon the hypothesis, that Josephus was not misinformed as to his being a Cy. priot Jew; for otherwise ihe time, the name, the profession, and the wickedness of them both would strongly incline one to believe them the very same. As to that Drusilla, the sister of Agrippa junior, as Josephus informs us here, and a Jewess, St. Luke informs us, Acts xxiv. 24, whom this Simon men tioned by Josephus persuaded to leave her former husband, Azizus, king of Emesa, a proselyte of justice, and to marry Felix, the heathen procurator of Judea ; Tacitus, Hist. v. 9, supposes her to be a heathern and the grand-daughter of Antonius and Cleopatra, contrary both to St. Luke and Josephus. Now Ta citus lived somewhat too remote, both as to time and plase, to be compared with either of those Jewish writers, in a matter concerniug the Jews in Judea in their own days, and concerning a sister of Agrippa junior, with which Agrippa Josephus was himself so well acquainted. It is probable that Tacitus may say true when he informs us that this Felix (who had in all three wives or queens, as Suetonius in Clau dius, sect. 28, assures us,) did once marry such a grandchild of Antonius and Cleopatra, and finding cine name of one of them to have been Drusilla, he mistook her for that other wife, whose name he did not know.