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who are very rigid in judging offenders above all the rest of the Jews, as we havo already observed; when therefore Ananus was of this disposition, he thought he had now a proper opportunity [to exercise his authority.] Festus was now dead, and Albinus was but upon the road; so he assembled the sanhedrim of judges, and brought before them the brother of Jesus, who was called Christ, whose name was James, and some others (or some of his companions.] And when he had formed an accusation against them as breakers of the law, he delivered them to be stoned : but as for those who seemed the most equitable of the citizens, and such as were the most uneasy at the breach of the laws, they disliked what was done; they also sent to the king (Agrippa,] desiring him to send to Ananus that he should act so no more, for that what he had already done was not to be justified : nay, some of them went also to meet Albinus, as he was upon his journey from Alexandria, and informed him, that it was not lawful for Ananus to assemble a sanhedrim without his consent.* Whereupon Albinus co

complied with what they said, and wrote in anger to Ananus, and threatened that he would bring him to punishment for what he had done ; on which account king Agrippa took the high priesthood from him, when he had ruled but three months, and made Jesus, the son of Damneus, high priest.

2. Now as soon as Albinus was come to the city of Jerusalem, he used all his endeavours and care that the country might be kept in peace, and this by de. stroying many of the Sicarii. But as for the high priest Ananias, the increased in glory every day, and this to a great degree, and had obtained the favour and esteem of the citizens in a signal manner, for he was a great hoarder up of money; he therefore cultivated the friendship of Albinus, and of the high priest (Jesus,] by making them presents; he had also ser pants who were very wicked. who joined themselves to the boldest sort of the people, and went to the threshing-floors, and took away the tithes that belonged to the priests by violence, and did not refrain from beating such as would not give these tithes to them. So the other high priests acted in the like manner, as did those his servants, without any one's being able to prohibit them; so that some of the priests, that of old were wont to be supported with those tithes, died for want of food.

3. But now the Sicarii went into the city by night, just before the festival, which was now at hand, and took the scribe belonging to the governor of the temple, whose name was Eleazar, who was the son of Ananus (Ananias) the bigh priest, and bound him, and carried him away with them; after which they sent io Ananias, and said, that they would send the scribe to him, if he would per. suade Albinus to release ten of those prisoners which he had caught of their party; so Ananias was plainly forced to persuade Albinus, and gained his request of him. This was the beginning of greater calamities, for the robbers perpe. tually contrived to catch some of Ananias's servants, and when they had taked them alive, they would not let them go, till they thereby recovered some of their these Sadducees were usually very severe and inexorable judges, while the Pharisees were much milder, and more merciful, as appears by Reland's instances in his note on this place, and on Josephus's Life, sect. 34; and those taken from the New Testament, from Josephus himself, and from the rabbins; noi do we meet with any Sadducees later than this high priest in all Josephus.

* or this condemnation of James the Just, and its causes, as also that he did not die till long after wards, see Prim. Christ. Revived, vol. ili. ch.43_-46. The sanhedrim condemned our Saviour, but could not put him to death without the approbation of the Roman procurator ; nor could therefore Ana. nias and his sanhedrim do more here, since they never had Albinus's approbatior for the putting this Janies to death.

+ This Ananias was not the son of Nebedeus, as 1 take it, but he who was called Annas, or Ananus the elder, the 9th in the catalogue, and who had been esteemed high priest for a long time, and, besides Caiaphas his son-in-law, had five of his own sons high priests after him, which were those of numbers 11 LA, 15, 17, 24, in the foregoing catalogue. Nor ought we to pass slightly over what Josephus here says of this Apnas or Ananias, that he was high priest a long time before his children were so; he was the sor: of Seth, and is set down first for high priest in the foregoing catalogue, under number 9. He was made by Quirinus, and continued till Ismael, the 10th in number, for about twenty-three years, which long duration of high priesthood, joined to the succession of his son-in-law, and five children of his own, made him a sort of perpetual high priest, and was perhaps the occasirn that former high priests kept weir titles ever afterwardes; for I believe it is trardly met with before bim.

own Sicarii. And as they were again become no small number, they grew bold, and were a great affliction to the whole county.

4. About this time it was that king Agrippa built Cesarea Philippi larger than it was before, and, in honour of Nero, named it Neronias. And when he had built a theatre at Berytus, with vast expenses, he bestowed on them shows, to be exhibited every year, and speut therein many ten thousand (drachmæ :) he also gave the people a largess of corn, and distributed oil among them, and adorned the entire city with statues of bis own donation, and with original images made by ancient hands ; nay, he almost transferred all that was most ornamental in his owo kingdom thither. This made him more than ordimarily hated by his subjects ; because he took those things away that belonged to them, to adorn a foreign city. And now Jesus, the son of Gamaliel, became the successor of Jesus, the son of Damnens, in the high priesthood, which the king bad taken from the other; on which account a sedition arose between the high priests, with regard to one another; for they got together bodies of the boldest sort of the people, and frequently came from reproaches to throwing of stones at each other. But Ananias was too hard for the rest by his riches, which enabled him to gair. those that were most ready to receive. Costobarus also, and Saulus, did themselves get together a multitude of wicked wretches, and this because they were of the royal family ; and so they obtained favour among them, because of their kindred to Agrippa : but still they used violence with the people, and were very ready to plunder those that were weaker than themselves. And from that time it principally came to pass, that our city was greatly disordered, and that all things grew worse and worse among us.

5. But when Albinus heard that Gessius Florus was coming to succeed him, he was desirous to appear to do somewhat that might be grateful to the people of Jerusalem; so he brought out all those prisoners who seemed to him to be the most plainly worthy of death, and ordered them to be put to death accordingly. But as to those who had been put into prison on some trifling occasions, he took money of them, and dismissed them; by which means the prisons were indeed emplied, but the country was filled with robbers.

6. Now as many of the Levites,* which is a tribe of ours, as were singers of hymns, persuaded the king to assemble a sanhedrim, and to give them leave to wear linen garments, as well as the priests ; for they said, that this would be a work worthy the times of his government, that he might have a memorial of such a novelty, as being bis doing. Nor did they fail of obtaining their desire ; for the king, with the suffrages of those that came into the sanhedrim, granted the singers of hymns this privilege, that they might lay aside their former garments, and wear such a linen one as they desired ; and as a part of this tribe ministered in the temple, he also perioitted them to learn those hymns as they had besought him for. Now all this was contrary to the laws of our country, which whenever they have been transgressed, we have never been able to avoid the punishment of such transgressions.

7. And yow it was that the templet was finished. So when the pecple saw that the workmen were unemployed, who were above eighteen thousand, and that they, receiving no wages, were in want, because they had earned their bread by their labours about the temple; and while they were unwilling to keep by them the treasures that were there deposited, out of fear of their being carried away by] the Romans; and while they had a regard to the making provision for the workmen, they had a mind to expend those treasures upon them; for if any ono of them did but labour for a single hour, he received his pay immediately; so they persuaded him to rebuild the eastern cloisters. These cloisters belonged to the outer court, and were situated in a deep valley, and had walls that reached four hundred cubits [in length,] and were built of square and very white stones, the length of each of which stones was twenty cubits, and their height six cubits. This was the work of king Solomon,* who first of all built the entire temple. But king Agrippa, who had the care of the temple committed to him by Claudius Cæsar, considering that it is easy to demolish any building, but hard to build it up again, and that it was particularly hard to do it to these cloisters, which would require a considerable time, and great sums of money, he denied the petitioners their request about that matter: but he did not obstruct them when they desired the city might be paved with white stone. He also deprived Jesus, the son of Gamaliel, of the high priesthood, and gave it to Matthias, the son of Theophilus, under whom the Jews' war with the Romans took its beginning.

* This insolent petition of some of the Levites, to wear the sarcerdotal garments when they sung hymns to God in the temple, was very probably owing to the great depression and contempt the haughty high priest had now brought their brethren the priests into; of which see ch. viii. sect. 8; and ch. ix. sect. 2.

+ Of this finishing, not of the N2206, or huiy-house, but of the mpor, or courts, about it, called in general te lemple, see the note on B. xvii. ch. x. seci. 2.


An Enumeration of the High Priests. $ 1. And now I think it proper and agreeable to this history, to give an account of our high priests; how they began, and who those are which are capable of that dignity, and how many of them there had been at the end of the war. In the first place, therefore, history informs us, that Aaron, the brother of Moses. officiated to God as a high priest, and that after his death his sons succeeded him immediately; and that this dignity hath been continued down from them to all their posterity. Whence it is the custom of our country, and that no one should take the high priesthood of God, but he who is of the blood of Aaron, while every one that is of another stock, though he were a king, can never obtain that high priesthood. Accordingly, the number of all the high priests from Aaron, of whom we have spoken already, as of the first of them, until Phanas, who was made high priest during the war by the seditious, was eighty-three ; of whom thirteen offciated as high priests in the wilderness, from the days of Moses, while the taber. nacle was standing, until the people came into Judea, when king Solomony erected the temple to God : for at the first they held the high priesthood till the end of their life, although afterward they had successors while they were alive. Now these thirteen, who were the descendants of two of the sons of Aaron, received this dignity by succession, one after another; for their form of government was an aristocracy, and after that a monarchy, and in the third place the government was regal. Now the number of years during the rule of these thirteen, from the day when our fathers departed out of Egypt, under Moses their leader, until the building of that temple which king Solomon erected at Jerusalem, were six hun. dred and twelve. After those thirteen high priests, eighteen took the higti priest. hood at Jerusalem, one in succession to another, from the days of king Solomon until Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, made an expedition against that city and burnt the temple, and removed our nation into Babylon, and then took Josedek the high priest captive; the times of these high priests was four hundred sixty-six years six months and ten days, while the Jews were still under the regal govern. ment. But after the term of the seventy years' captivity under the Babylonians, Cyrus, king of Persia, sent the Jews from Babylon to their own land again, and gave them leave to rebuild their temple; at which time Jesus, the son of Josedek, took the high priesthood over the captives when they were returned home. Now he and his posterity, who were in all fifteen, until king Antiochus Eupator, were under a democratical government for four hundred and fourteen years; and then

Of these cloisters of Solomon, see the description of the temple, ch. xiii. They seem, by Josephus's words, to have been built from the bottom of the valley.

the foreniontioned Antiochus, and Lysias the general of his army, deprived Onias, who was also named Menelaus, of the high priesthood, and slew him at Berea, and, driving away the son of Onias the third,] put Jacimus into the place of the high priest, one that was indeed of the stock of Aaron, but not of the family of Onias. On which account Onias, who was the nephew of Onias that was dead, and bore the same name with his father, came into Egypt, and got into the friend. ship of Ptolemy Philometer, and of Cleopatra his wife, and persuaded them to make him the high priest of that temple which he built to God in the prefecture of Heliopolis, and this in imitation of that at Jerusalem ; but as for that temple which was built in Egypt, we have spoken of it frequently already. Now when Jacimus had retained the high priesthood three years, he died, and there was no one that succeeded him, but the city continued seven years without a high priest; but then the posterity of the sons of Asamoneus, who had the government of the nation conferred upon them, when they had beaten the Macedonians in war, ap. pointed Jonathan to be their high priest, who ruled over them seven years. And when he had been slain by the treacherous contrivance of Trypho, as we have related somewhere, Simon his brother took the high priesthood; and when he was destroyed at a feast by the treachery of his son-in-law, his own son, whose name was Hyrcanus, succeeded him, aster he had held the high priesthood one year longer than his brother. This Hyrcanus enjoyed that dignity thirty years, and died an old man, leaving the succession to Júdas, who was also called Aristo. bulus, whose brother Alexander was his heir; which Judas died of a sore dis. temper, after he had kept the priesthood, together with the royal authority, for this Judas was the first that put on his head a diadem, for one year. And when Alexander had been both king and high priest twenty-seven years, he departed this life, and permitted his wife Alexandra to appoint him that should be high priest ; so she gave the high priesthood to Hyrcanus, but retained the kingdom herself nine years, and then departed this life. The like duration (and no longer) did her son Hyrcanus enjoy the high priesthood; for after her death his brother Aristobulus fought against him, and beat him, and deprived him of his principality; and he did himself both reign, and perform the office of high priest to God. But when he had reigned three years and as many months, Pompey came upon him, and not only took the city of Jerusalem by force, but put him and his chil. dren in bonds, and sent them to Rome. He also restored the high priesthood to Hyrcanus, and made him governor of the nation, but forbade him to wcar a diadem. This Hyrcanus ruled, besides his first nine years, twenty-four years. more, when Barzapharnes and Pacorus, the generals of the Parthians, passed over Euphrates, and fought with Hyrcanus, and took him alive, and made Antigonus, the son of Aristobulus, king; and when he had reigned three years and three months, Sosius and Herod besieged him, and took him, when Antony had him brought to Antioch, and slain there. Herod was then made king by the Romans, but did no longer appoint high priests out of the family of Asa n neus; but made certain men to be so that were of no eminent families, but barely of those that were priests, excepting that he once gave that dignity to Aristobulus; for when he had made this Aristobulus, the grandson of that Hyrcanus who was taken by the Parthians, and had taken his sister Mariamne to wife, he thereby aimed to win the good will of the people, who had a kind remembrance of Hyr. canus [his grandfather.) Yet did he afterward, out of his ferr lest they should all bend their inclinations to Aristobulus, put him to death, and that by contriving how to have him suffocated, as he was swimming at Jericho, as we have already related that matter; but after this man he never intrusted the high priesthood to the posterity of the sons of Asamoneus. Archelaus also, Herod's son, did like his father in the appointment of the high priests, as did the Romans also, who look the government over the Jews into their hands afterward. Accordingly the Bumber of the high priests, from the days of Herod until the day when Titus took the temple and the city, and burned them, were in all twenty.eight; the time also, that belonged to them was a hundred and seven years. Some of these were the political governors of the people under the reign of Herod, and under the reign of Archelaus his son, although after their death the government became an aris. tocracy, and the high priests were intrusted with a dominion over the pation. And thus much may suffice to be said concerning our high priests.


Concerning Florus the Procurator, who necessitated the Jews to take up Arms against

the Romans. The Conclusion. § 1. Now Gessius Florus, who was sent as successor to Albinus by Nero, filled Judea with abundance of miseries. He was by birth of the city Clazomenæ, and brought along with him his wife Cleopatra (by whose friendship with Poppea, Nero's wife, he obtained this government,) who was no way different from him in wickedness. This Florus was so wicked, and so violent in the use of his authority, that the Jews took Albinus to have been [comparatively] their bene. factor ; so excessive were the mischiefs that he brought upon them. For Albi. nus concealed his wickedness, and was careful that it might not be discovered to all men ; but Gessius Florus, as though he had been sent on purpose to show his crimes to every body, made a pompous ostentation of them to our nation, as never omitting any sort of violence, nor any unjust sort of punishment; for he was not to be moved by pity, and never was satisfied with any degree of gain that came in his way; nor had he any more regard to great than to small acquisitions, but became a partner with the robbers themselves. For a great many fel! then into that practice without fear, as having him for their security, and depending on him, that he would save them harmless in their particular robberies; so that there were no bounds set to the nation's miseries; but the unhappy Jews, when they were not able to bear the devastations which the robbers made among them, were all under a necessity of leaving their own habitations, and of flying away, as hoping to dwell more easily any where else in the world among foreigners (than in their own country.] And what need I say any more upon this head ? since it was this Florus who necessitated us to take up arms against the Romans, while we thought it better to be destroyed at once, than by little and little. Now this war began in the second year of the government of Florus, and the twelfth year of the reign of Nero. But then what actions we were forced to do, or what mi. series we were enabled to suffer, may be accurately known by su

as will peruse those books which I have written about the Jewish War.

?. I shall now, therefore, make an end here of my Antiquities; after the con. clusion of which events, I began to write that account of the War; and these Antiquities contain what hath been delivered áown to us from the original crea tion of man, until the twelfth year of the reign of. Nero, as to what hath befallet. us Jews, as well in Egypt as in Syria, and in Palestine, and what we have suf. fered from the Assyrians and Babylonians, and what afflictions the Persians and Macedonians, and after them the Romans, have brought upon us; for I think I may say that I have composed this history with sufficient accuracy in all things. I have attempted to enumerate those high priests that we have had during the in. terval of two thousand years; I have also carried down the succession of our kings, and related their actions, and political administration, without [considerable) errors, as also the power of our monarchs; and all according to what is written in our sacred books; for this it was that I promised to do in the begin. ning of this history. And I am so bold as to say, now I have so completely pera kected the work I proposed to myself to do, that no other person, whether he were a Jew or a foreigner, had he ever go great an inclipation to it, could so accu.

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